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J. Intell., Volume 12, Issue 2 (February 2024) – 12 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This chapter will review research on critical thinking. Given the importance of critical thinking in everyday life, its fair and unbiased assessment is useful for guiding educators in their classrooms, self-improvement, and employment decisions. This chapter will also review the psychometric properties of several critical thinking assessments, emphasizing the everyday behaviors predicted by these assessments. The practical challenges test adopters face and future directions in assessing critical thinking will be discussed. View this paper
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24 pages, 4874 KiB  
Article
Conditional Dependence across Slow and Fast Item Responses: With a Latent Space Item Response Modeling Approach
by Nana Kim, Minjeong Jeon and Ivailo Partchev
J. Intell. 2024, 12(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence12020023 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 951
Abstract
There recently have been many studies examining conditional dependence between response accuracy and response times in cognitive tests. While most previous research has focused on revealing a general pattern of conditional dependence for all respondents and items, it is plausible that the pattern [...] Read more.
There recently have been many studies examining conditional dependence between response accuracy and response times in cognitive tests. While most previous research has focused on revealing a general pattern of conditional dependence for all respondents and items, it is plausible that the pattern may vary across respondents and items. In this paper, we attend to its potential heterogeneity and examine the item and person specificities involved in the conditional dependence between item responses and response times. To this end, we use a latent space item response theory (LSIRT) approach with an interaction map that visualizes conditional dependence in response data in the form of item–respondent interactions. We incorporate response time information into the interaction map by applying LSIRT models to slow and fast item responses. Through empirical illustrations with three cognitive test datasets, we confirm the presence and patterns of conditional dependence between item responses and response times, a result consistent with previous studies. Our results further illustrate the heterogeneity in the conditional dependence across respondents, which provides insights into understanding individuals’ underlying item-solving processes in cognitive tests. Some practical implications of the results and the use of interaction maps in cognitive tests are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Psychometric Methods: Theory and Practice)
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16 pages, 630 KiB  
Article
The Role of Fundamental Movement Skills and Spatial Abilities in the Relationship between Physical Activity and Mathematics Achievement in Primary School Children
by Jessica Scott, Tim Jay and Christopher M. Spray
J. Intell. 2024, 12(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence12020022 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1386
Abstract
Research has demonstrated positive relationships between fundamental movement skills (FMS) and mathematics achievement in children, and this relationship may be mediated by spatial ability. Engaging in physical activity (PA) may also have positive outcomes on mathematics achievement; however, no study has investigated this [...] Read more.
Research has demonstrated positive relationships between fundamental movement skills (FMS) and mathematics achievement in children, and this relationship may be mediated by spatial ability. Engaging in physical activity (PA) may also have positive outcomes on mathematics achievement; however, no study has investigated this network of relationships together. This study aimed to examine the relationship between PA and mathematics achievement, and the mediating effects of FMS and spatial abilities, in primary school children. Using a cross-sectional design, data were collected from 182 children (aged 7 to 8 years old) across four schools in England. Objective moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) levels and subjective parental reports of their children’s PA participation were collected. Children’s FMS were assessed, along with their performance on four spatial ability tasks and a mathematics test. Mediation analyses revealed no significant mediation effects of FMS and spatial abilities on the positive significant relationship between MVPA and mathematics achievement; however, spatial ability partially mediated the relationship between FMS and mathematics achievement. These results suggest that FMS and spatial ability may not be related to MVPA in this network of relationships, but children with more mature FMS perform better in mathematics due to them performing better on specific spatial ability tasks. Full article
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18 pages, 584 KiB  
Review
The Subjective Experience of Autobiographical Remembering: Conceptual and Methodological Advances and Challenges
by Carlo Chiorri and Manila Vannucci
J. Intell. 2024, 12(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence12020021 - 12 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1093
Abstract
The investigation of the phenomenology of autobiographical memories (i.e., how a memory is subjectively experienced and its meaning) has provided an important contribution to our understanding of autobiographical remembering. Over the last two decades, the study of phenomenology has received widespread scientific attention, [...] Read more.
The investigation of the phenomenology of autobiographical memories (i.e., how a memory is subjectively experienced and its meaning) has provided an important contribution to our understanding of autobiographical remembering. Over the last two decades, the study of phenomenology has received widespread scientific attention, and the field has undergone quite relevant conceptual and methodological changes. In the present work, we (1) review some basic and well-established research findings and methodological achievements; (2) discuss new theoretical and methodological challenges, with a special focus on the issue of the phenomenological experience of the retrieval process and its relationship with the phenomenology of the products of retrieval; and (3) propose an alternative way of conceptualizing and understanding it in the framework of experimental phenomenology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grounding Cognition in Perceptual Experience)
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12 pages, 291 KiB  
Article
Inclusive Education, Intellectual Disabilities and the Demise of Full Inclusion
by Garry Hornby and James M. Kauffman
J. Intell. 2024, 12(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence12020020 - 11 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1449
Abstract
Inclusive education has developed worldwide popularity in education for learners with various disabilities but is particularly controversial for students with intellectual disabilities because of their unique needs. The foremost of these are the development of the social, vocational and life skills needed to [...] Read more.
Inclusive education has developed worldwide popularity in education for learners with various disabilities but is particularly controversial for students with intellectual disabilities because of their unique needs. The foremost of these are the development of the social, vocational and life skills needed to facilitate their transition to adulthood. This article presents a discussion that focuses on theory, practice and research relevant to inclusive education for students with intellectual disabilities. It points out that the movement for full inclusion started by focusing on students with intellectual disabilities and has encountered roadblocks to further progress because of its difficulties in addressing their special needs. This is explored by considering the theory underpinning the international drivers of the full inclusion movement, the reality of the implementation of inclusion policies worldwide, and research on the effects of inclusion of students with intellectual disabilities in mainstream schools. Full article
21 pages, 2663 KiB  
Review
Changes in the Networks of Attention across the Lifespan: A Graphical Meta-Analysis
by Raymond M. Klein, Samantha R. Good and John J. Christie
J. Intell. 2024, 12(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence12020019 - 10 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1176
Abstract
Three Posnerian networks of attention (alerting, orienting, and executive control) have been distinguished on the bases of behavioural, neuropsychological, and neuroscientific evidence. Here, we examined the trajectories of these networks throughout the human lifespan using the various Attention Network Tests (ANTs), which were [...] Read more.
Three Posnerian networks of attention (alerting, orienting, and executive control) have been distinguished on the bases of behavioural, neuropsychological, and neuroscientific evidence. Here, we examined the trajectories of these networks throughout the human lifespan using the various Attention Network Tests (ANTs), which were specifically developed to measure the efficacy of these networks. The ANT Database was used to identify relevant research, resulting in the inclusion of 36 publications. We conducted a graphical meta-analysis using network scores from each study, based on reaction time plotted as a function of age group. Evaluation of attentional networks from childhood to early adulthood suggests that the alerting network develops relatively quickly, and reaches near-adult level by the age of 12. The developmental pattern of the orienting network seems to depend on the information value of the spatial cues. Executive control network scores show a consistent decrease (improvement) with age in childhood. During adulthood (ages 19–75), changes in alerting depend on the modality of the warning signal, while a moderate increase in orienting scores was seen with increasing age. Whereas executive control scores, as measured in reaction time, increase (deterioration) from young adulthood into later adulthood an opposite trend is seen when scores are based on error rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue On the Origins and Development of Attention Networks)
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25 pages, 1032 KiB  
Article
Why Do Bi-Factor Models Outperform Higher-Order g Factor Models? A Network Perspective
by Kees-Jan Kan, Anastasios Psychogyiopoulos, Lennert J. Groot, Hannelies de Jonge and Debby ten Hove
J. Intell. 2024, 12(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence12020018 - 04 Feb 2024
Viewed by 2217
Abstract
Bi-factor models of intelligence tend to outperform higher-order g factor models statistically. The literature provides the following rivalling explanations: (i) the bi-factor model represents or closely approximates the true underlying data-generating mechanism; (ii) fit indices are biased against the higher-order g factor model [...] Read more.
Bi-factor models of intelligence tend to outperform higher-order g factor models statistically. The literature provides the following rivalling explanations: (i) the bi-factor model represents or closely approximates the true underlying data-generating mechanism; (ii) fit indices are biased against the higher-order g factor model in favor of the bi-factor model; (iii) a network structure underlies the data. We used a Monte Carlo simulation to investigate the validity and plausibility of each of these explanations, while controlling for their rivals. To this end, we generated 1000 sample data sets according to three competing models—a bi-factor model, a (nested) higher-order factor model, and a (non-nested) network model—with 3000 data sets in total. Parameter values were based on the confirmatory analyses of the Wechsler Scale of Intelligence IV. On each simulated data set, we (1) refitted the three models, (2) obtained the fit statistics, and (3) performed a model selection procedure. We found no evidence that the fit measures themselves are biased, but conclude that biased inferences can arise when approximate or incremental fit indices are used as if they were relative fit measures. The validity of the network explanation was established while the outcomes of our network simulations were consistent with previously reported empirical findings, indicating that the network explanation is also a plausible one. The empirical findings are inconsistent with the (also validated) hypothesis that a bi-factor model is the true model. In future model selection procedures, we recommend that researchers consider network models of intelligence, especially when a higher-order g factor model is rejected in favor of a bi-factor model. Full article
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9 pages, 268 KiB  
Essay
Mindware: Critical Thinking in Everyday Life
by John Eigenauer
J. Intell. 2024, 12(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence12020017 - 02 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1451
Abstract
Humans make many decisions in everyday life, some of which require careful use of evidence. Because emotional and heuristic mental processes dominate human cognition, it is common to suggest that there is little hope that critical thinking tools will be widely used. However, [...] Read more.
Humans make many decisions in everyday life, some of which require careful use of evidence. Because emotional and heuristic mental processes dominate human cognition, it is common to suggest that there is little hope that critical thinking tools will be widely used. However, the concept of “mindware” gives hope to the idea that critical thinking skills may be more widely deployed than they currently are. This article reflects on some impediments to critical thinking, assesses some future challenges to critical thinking being more widely used, and suggests that “mindware” modules can be used widely both in and out of educational settings to significantly enhance critical thinking in everyday life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Critical Thinking in Everyday Life)
12 pages, 264 KiB  
Review
Predicting Everyday Critical Thinking: A Review of Critical Thinking Assessments
by Heather A. Butler
J. Intell. 2024, 12(2), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence12020016 - 01 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1829
Abstract
Our ability to think critically and our disposition to do so can have major implications for our everyday lives. Research across the globe has shown the impact of critical thinking on decisions about our health, politics, relationships, finances, consumer purchases, education, work, and [...] Read more.
Our ability to think critically and our disposition to do so can have major implications for our everyday lives. Research across the globe has shown the impact of critical thinking on decisions about our health, politics, relationships, finances, consumer purchases, education, work, and more. This chapter will review some of that research. Given the importance of critical thinking to our everyday lives, the fair and unbiased assessment of critical thinking is useful for guiding educators in their classrooms, for the sake of self-improvement, and in employment decisions. This chapter will also review the psychometric properties of several critical thinking assessments, with a special emphasis on the everyday behaviors predicted by these assessments. The practical challenges faced by test adopters and future directions in the assessment of critical thinking will be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Critical Thinking in Everyday Life)
9 pages, 277 KiB  
Opinion
Enhancing Perceptual—Motor Skills in Sports: The Role of Ecological Sounds
by Tiziano Agostini, Fabrizio Sors, Mauro Murgia and Alessandra Galmonte
J. Intell. 2024, 12(2), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence12020015 - 30 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1345
Abstract
Starting approximately from the beginning of the new millennium, a series of studies highlighted that auditory information deriving from biological motion can significantly influence the behavioral, cognitive and neurophysiological processes involved in the perception and execution of complex movements. In particular, it was [...] Read more.
Starting approximately from the beginning of the new millennium, a series of studies highlighted that auditory information deriving from biological motion can significantly influence the behavioral, cognitive and neurophysiological processes involved in the perception and execution of complex movements. In particular, it was observed that an appropriate use of sounds deriving from one’s own movement promotes improvements in the movement execution itself. Two main approaches can be used, namely the sonification one or the ecological sound one; the former is based on the conversion of physiological and/or physical movement data into sound, while the latter is based on the use of auditory recordings of movement sounds as models. In the present article, some of the main applications of both approaches—especially the latter—to the domains of sport and motor rehabilitation are reviewed, with the aim of addressing two questions: Is it possible to consider rhythm as a Gestalt of human movement? If so, is it possible to build up cognitive strategies to improve/standardize movement performance from this Gestalt? As with most topics in science, a definitive answer is not possible, yet the evidence leads us to lean toward a positive answer to both questions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grounding Cognition in Perceptual Experience)
20 pages, 1589 KiB  
Article
Anxiety about Mathematics and Reading in Preadolescents Is Domain-Specific
by Delphine Sasanguie, Charlotte Larmuseau, Fien Depaepe and Brenda R. J. Jansen
J. Intell. 2024, 12(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence12020014 - 29 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1286
Abstract
It was investigated whether test anxiety (TA), mathematics anxiety (MA), and reading anxiety (RA) can be traced back to some type of general academic anxiety or whether these are separable. A total of 776 fifth graders (Mage = 10.9 years) completed [...] Read more.
It was investigated whether test anxiety (TA), mathematics anxiety (MA), and reading anxiety (RA) can be traced back to some type of general academic anxiety or whether these are separable. A total of 776 fifth graders (Mage = 10.9 years) completed questionnaires on TA, MA, and RA, as well as a mathematics test. Also, mathematics and reading performance results from the National Tracking System were requested. The sample was randomly split into two halves. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that a three-factor model (factors: TA, MA, RA) had superior model fit compared with a one-factor model (factor: “Academic anxiety”), in both halves. The resulting anxiety factors were related to math performance measures using structural equation models. A scarcity of data on reading performance prevented the analysis of links between anxiety and reading performance. Anxiety–math performance relations were stronger for MA than for TA and MA. We concluded that TA, MA, and RA are separable constructs. Full article
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18 pages, 366 KiB  
Article
Exploring Actual and Presumed Links between Accurately Inferring Contents of Other People’s Minds and Prosocial Outcomes
by Sara D. Hodges, Murat Kezer, Judith A. Hall and Jacquie D. Vorauer
J. Intell. 2024, 12(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence12020013 - 26 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1206
Abstract
The term “empathic accuracy” has been applied to people’s ability to infer the contents of other people’s minds—that is, other people’s varying feelings and/or thoughts over the course of a social interaction. However, despite the ease of intuitively linking this skill to competence [...] Read more.
The term “empathic accuracy” has been applied to people’s ability to infer the contents of other people’s minds—that is, other people’s varying feelings and/or thoughts over the course of a social interaction. However, despite the ease of intuitively linking this skill to competence in helping professions such as counseling, the “empathic” prefix in its name may have contributed to overestimating its association with prosocial traits and behaviors. Accuracy in reading others’ thoughts and feelings, like many other skills, can be used toward prosocial—but also malevolent or morally neutral—ends. Prosocial intentions can direct attention towards other people’s thoughts and feelings, which may, in turn, increase accuracy in inferring those thoughts and feelings, but attention to others’ thoughts and feelings does not necessarily heighten prosocial intentions, let alone outcomes. Full article
14 pages, 804 KiB  
Article
An Examination of the Motives for Attributing and Interpreting Deception in People with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment
by Maria Tilkeridou, Despina Moraitou, Vasileios Papaliagkas, Nikoleta Frantzi, Evdokia Emmanouilidou and Magdalini Tsolaki
J. Intell. 2024, 12(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence12020012 - 24 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1259
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to examine how a person with amnestic mild cognitive impairment perceives the phenomenon of deception. Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) usually represents the prodromal phase of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), with patients showing memory impairment but with [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to examine how a person with amnestic mild cognitive impairment perceives the phenomenon of deception. Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) usually represents the prodromal phase of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), with patients showing memory impairment but with normal activities of daily living. It was expected that aMCI patients would face difficulties in the attribution and interpretation of deceptive behavior due to deficits regarding their diagnosis. The main sample of the study consisted of 76 older adults who were patients of a daycare center diagnosed with aMCI. A sample of 55 highly educated young adults was also examined in the same experiment to qualitatively compare their performance with that of aMCI patients. Participants were assigned a scenario where a hypothetical partner (either a friend or a stranger) was engaged in a task in which the partner could lie to boost their earnings at the expense of the participant. The results showed that aMCI patients, even if they understood that something was going wrong, did not invest in interpretations of potential deception and tended to avoid searching for confirmative information related to the hypothetical lie of their partner compared to highly educated young adults. It seems that aMCI patients become somehow “innocent”, and this is discussed in terms of cognitive impairment and/or socioemotional selectivity. Full article
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