A Case Study of 21st Century Cognitive, Social and Emotional Competencies Using Online-Learning
1.1. 21st Century Cognitive, Social and Emotional Competencies: An Anchor in Emotional Intelligence (EI) Theory?
1.2. Beneficial Effects of Developing These Competencies
1.3. Four-Dimensional Education from the Center for Curriculum Redesign: A 21st Century Competencies Model to Develop and Assess a Program
1.4. Content of 21st Century Competencies Development Program
1.5. Developing 21st Century Competencies Online
1.6. Construction of the Online 21st Century Competencies Development Program: Be Organized
1.7. Core Competencies Developed by the BE Organized Program
- Critical Thinking: This skill refers to the mental processes, strategies, and representations people use to solve problems, make decisions, and learn new concepts. Critically evaluating information and claims the individual is confronted with. Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems;
- Mindfulness: This character competency will allow an individual to be aware of multiple perspectives, being present in a state of conscious awareness of oneself, their body, thoughts, emotions and environment. In this state, individuals develop and adopt an openness to novelty in which they actively construct categories and distinctions;
- Resilience: This character competency makes an individual able to deal appropriately with the ambiguity, changes, and challenges that different perspectives and experiences can present and to maintain one’s identity and/or develop personally;
- Metacognition: This meta-learning competency allows an individual to be able to recognize one’s knowledge, skills, attitudes/values and way of learning. It also makes a person able to set goals and adapt learning strategies and based on outcomes.
1.8. BE Organized Presentation
1.9. Presentation of This Research
2. Materials and Methods
- The CCI-21 questionnaire was conducted prior to and after the completion of the BE Organized programme. Students were restricted from accessing session materials if they had not completed the pre-test (questionnaire);
- The Reflective Question Assessment (RQA) was conducted after each of the 12 sessions and was mandatory for the students, without which the platform would not provide access to subsequent sessions;
- The Competencies CheckBox Inventory (CBI) appeared as a part of the “Global satisfaction survey”, which took place at the end of the BE organized program (i.e., when the 12 sessions were completed).
2.3.1. CCI-21 Questionnaire
2.3.2. Competencies CheckBox Inventory (CBI)
2.3.3. Reflective Question Assessment (RQA)
2.3.4. Social Desirability Scale (SDS)
2.4. Data Analysis
2.4.1. Quantitative Data
2.4.2. Qualitative Data
3.1. Quantitative Data: CCI-21 and CBI Questionnaires
3.1.1. Comparison between Pre–Post Average Scores CCI21
3.1.2. Pre–Post Detailed Results Per CCI21 Competencies
3.1.3. Comparing Individual vs. Collective Session Developed Competencies (CBI)
3.2. Qualitative Data
3.2.1. Stage 1: Categorisation of Student Responses
- Session Description (411 References)This category entails adjectives used to describe the session, and is further divided into the following subcategories:
- Positive: Words such as “thought-provoking”, “fun” or “creative” fall under this sub-category;
- Neutral: Words such as “Straight forward” fall under this category;
- Negative: Words such as “Confusing” and “Boring” fall under this category.
- Interacting with Decisions (384 References)
- Adapting Flexibly: “Life is uncertain and we need to expect the unexpected and there are rigid and flexible reactions where flexibility is better.”;
- Consideration of different perspectives: “As we are acknowledging different perspectives of the outcome, this would affect the end result. We are also reflecting and reviewing the surroundings and analysing every detail possible as with logical thinking—a tiny mistake could rapidly cause danger.”;
- Critical Thinking and Problem Solving: “By thinking reasonably, we can logically process information and situations, this allows us to find answers and solve problems easily, it also makes us judge situations carefully.”;
- Game theory: “Being able to identify games that are finite and infinite”;
- Logical Reasoning: This is further divided into subcategories: Awareness of Biases, Awareness of Consequences, Cognitive Dissonance, Recognising and Regulating emotions and Value orientation;
- Awareness of Biases: “Discrediting, Emotional manipulation, trolling, polarization, impersonation, conspiracy/So you don’t fall into one of these cognitive biases, and so you don’t start spreading misinformation about people.”;
- Awareness of Consequences: “Both positive and negative outcomes of the decision are identified using reasoning. If one is very upset with another person, reasoning may suggest hitting the other person in the face, but it also warns about the potential consequences.”;
- Cognitive Dissonance: Being aware of cognitive dissonance helps you absorb the facts that differ from what you believe;
- Recognising and Regulating Emotions: Your emotions and moods, especially if you are in a leading role affects the emotions, moods and attitudes of the people you lead or around you. To ensure that you are ok and have good emotions and thoughts because they can reflect on the people around you;
- Value Orientation: “Whenever I have to make a decision, firstly I have to base it on my values because in the long term it can affect not only me but others.”
- Interacting with Information (350 References)
- Assessing Information Reliability: This sub-category is further broken down into the Need for Information assessment and Strategies for Information assessment;
- Need for Information assessment: This category is further broken down into Disinformation and Misinformation and Fake news;
- Disinformation and Misinformation: “Misinformation-False information, not necessarily to harm someone. Disinformation-False information posted purposely to harm someone. I think it is important to assess the quality of information I receive because then I know that everything I am referring to is true;
- Fake News: “Be careful with information online, some of it might be fake.”
- Strategies for Information assessment: This category is further broken down into the 5Ws, Conscious Consumption Strategies and CRAAP;
- 5Ws: “Using the 5 whys strategy can help you reflect on your thinking process.”;
- Conscious Consumption Strategies: “Check the source of the information, compare information with facts, in case of breaking news wait until more information is available…”;
- CRAAP: “Assessing information in terms of reliability can be done using the CRAAP strategy”.
- Curiosity and Research Skills: “Curiosity is crucial for flexibility, to keep an open mind and to not stop seeking opportunities.”;
- Information Assimilation and Literacy: “If information is processed and assimilated through literacy skills, it enables us to determine and classify the usable, pertinent and precise knowledge and therefore organizes the basis of knowledge”;
- Information Overload and Anxiety: “I would sum up this session as a presentation where I was able to learn and see examples of information anxiety and information overload.”;
- Information Management, Organization and Processing: This sub-category is further divided into the Information Processing and Organization, and Need for Information Management, Organization and Processing:
- Need for Information Management, Organization and Processing: “Importance of data processing includes increased productivity and better decisions”;
- Information Processing and Organization: It is further divided into Keywords, LATCH technique, Mind Map, Simplify and Summarize;
- Self-Assessment and Tests for Understanding: “I learnt how I can make concept maps to gather information and self-assess my own work!”
- Personal Wellbeing and Development (84 References)Personal Wellbeing and Development is an overarching category that includes strategies and mindsets required to be mentally healthy and driven.
- Character Strengthening: “Because it strengthens your character”;
- Gratitude: “Don’t forget to say a simple thank you.“;
- Growth Mindset: “It is important as it helps our minds to grow and open up to new things.”;
- Mindfulness and Internal regulation: “It is important to regularly monitor your internal state because it can help you control your thoughts and if you do not do this then it could have a negative impact on you and other people without even knowing it.”;
- Seeking Help: “I should get to know when to stop struggling and not be ashamed to ask for help.”;
- Strength and Weakness: “It (the session) helped me to realize my strength and weakness in order to enhance and improve the quality of my piece of work.”;
- Stress Reduction and Managing Screen Time: “SNS (Social Networking Sites) and other digital platforms can cause stress. To deal with stress, take a deep breath or take a break!”
- Exploring daily application or future benefits (64 References)
- Interacting with Goals (62 References)This category further breaks down the process of goal setting and its attainment. The subcategories include the following:
- Goal Achievement: “It’s a good technique to achieve our goals… it can remind me of my goal and motivate me!”;
- Monitoring Progress: “It’s easy to set a goal but hard to keep on it when no feedback is available. Monitoring might help me see flaws in my strategy”;
- SMART Goals: “S: Specific, M: Measurable, A: Attainable, R: Relevant, T: Time-bound”. Breaking down goals using the SMART framework leads your goals to be more clear and reachable”.
- Reflective Practices (60 References)
- Motivation and Resilience (11 References)
3.2.2. Stage 2: Two-Fold Competency Mapping
3.2.3. Stage 3: Interaction of Target and Observed Competencies
3.3.1. Critical Thinking
4.2. Limits and Further Research
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
Appendix A. Competency Checkbox Inventory (CBI)
- Critical Thinking
- Growth Mindset
- Critical Thinking
- Growth Mindset
Appendix B. Session Specific Questions Asked in the Reflective Question Assessments (RQA)
|Session No.||Sub-Competency||Sub-Competency Specific Questions|
|1||CRI1: Identifying, clarifying and organizing information||Why is it important to process the information you receive?|
|n = 93|
|2||CRI3: Applying sound reasoning to decision-making||How might logical reasoning impact our decision making?|
|n = 74|
|3||CRI4: Assessing validity and quality of information||Why do you think it is important to assess the quality of information you receive?|
|n = 67|
|4||CRI5: Reflecting critically on one’s own reasoning and assumptions||Why would it be important (or not) to be critical towards your own reasoning and opinions?|
|n = 54|
|5||MIN2: Understanding by describing one’s emotions and reactions||Why might it be essential to reflect on one’s identity, experiences and achievements?|
|n = 51|
|6||MIN3: Building effective habits for regulation of inner experience||How monitoring your progress might help you achieve your goals?|
|n = 49|
|7||MET1: Reflecting on processes, achievements, learning and/or identity||How monitoring your level of understanding might help you?|
|n = 36|
|8||MET3: Monitoring comprehension and managing information accordingly||How useful is it to evaluate the consequences of your actions? Why?|
|n = 35|
|9||MET4: Evaluating one’s actions and their consequences||Why is it important to regularly monitor your internal state?|
|n = 35|
|10||RES1: Adapting flexibly||According to you: Which aspects of your life might improve if you start adapting flexibly?|
|n = 33|
|11||RES3: Managing stress and expressing emotions appropriately||How not managing your emotions or stress might impact you? How it might impact others?|
|n = 30|
|12||RES5: Persevering through challenges but seeking help when needed||When you are facing a challenge, how would you manage to determine when it is time to seek help?|
|n = 29|
Appendix C. RQA Supplementary Analysis
- Interaction of Target and Observed competencies: Critical Thinking
- Interaction of Target and Observed competencies: Mindfulness
- Interaction of Target and Observed competencies: Metacognition
- Interaction of Target and Observed competencies: Resilience
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|Session (S)||Target Competency|
|Observed Mindfulness||Observed |
|Session Description||Positive description||X|
|Consideration of different perspectives||X|
|Interacting with Decisions||Critical thinking and Problem Solving|
|Assessing Information reliability||X|
|Curiosity and Research Skills|
|Information Assimilation and Literacy||X|
|Interacting with Information||Information Overload and Anxiety||X|
|Information Management, Organization and Processing||X|
|Self-Assessment and Tests for Understanding||X|
|Personal Wellbeing and Development||Mindfulness and Internal regulation||X|
|Strength and Weakness||X|
|Stress Reduction and Managing Screen Time||X|
|Exploring daily application or future benefits||X|
|Interacting with Goals||Goal Achievement|
|Motivation and Resilience||X|
|Target competency||1. Critical Thinking||72.70%||42.01%||72.22%||23.54%|
|Critical Thinking||X||X||X||Creativity||X||X||Not measured|
|Growth Mindset||X||X||Not measured|
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Maoulida, H.; Madhukar, M.; Celume, M.-P. A Case Study of 21st Century Cognitive, Social and Emotional Competencies Using Online-Learning. J. Intell. 2023, 11, 116. https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11060116
Maoulida H, Madhukar M, Celume M-P. A Case Study of 21st Century Cognitive, Social and Emotional Competencies Using Online-Learning. Journal of Intelligence. 2023; 11(6):116. https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11060116Chicago/Turabian Style
Maoulida, Haïfat, Manisha Madhukar, and Macarena-Paz Celume. 2023. "A Case Study of 21st Century Cognitive, Social and Emotional Competencies Using Online-Learning" Journal of Intelligence 11, no. 6: 116. https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11060116