# Spatial–Numerical Magnitude Estimation Mediates Early Sex Differences in the Use of Advanced Arithmetic Strategies

^{*}

^{†}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

#### 1.1. Arithmetic Strategies

#### 1.2. Sex Differences in Arithmetic Strategies

#### 1.3. Potential Influence of Numerical Magnitude Estimation on Arithmetic Strategies

#### 1.4. Purpose of the Present Study

## 2. Study 1: Method

#### 2.1. Participants

#### 2.2. Materials and Procedure

#### 2.2.1. Arithmetic Task

#### 2.2.2. Number Line Estimation

## 3. Study 1: Results and Discussion

## 4. Study 2: Method

#### 4.1. Participants

#### 4.2. Materials and Procedure

#### 4.2.1. Number Line Estimation

#### 4.2.2. Arithmetic Task

#### 4.2.3. Raven’s Matrices

## 5. Study 2: Results

_{b}= 82) and girls (N

_{g}= 86) and whose overall level of decomposition use (13%) was comparable to that in the US sample (14%). The analysis of this subsample showed that boys still outperformed girls in terms of decomposition strategy use (M

_{b}= 17%, M

_{g}= 10%, t(166) = 2.70, p = .008), but the sex difference in accuracy was not significant (M

_{b}= 69%, M

_{g}= 65%, t(166) = 1.82, p = .07). Thus, in the Russian sample, students at the lower levels of decomposition use showed sex differences in strategy frequency but not in accuracy, which is parallel to Study 1 results.

## 6. General Discussion

#### 6.1. Sex Differences in Spatial–Numerical Magnitude Knowledge and Arithmetic Strategy Use

#### 6.2. Spatial–Numerical Magnitude Knowledge and as a Mediator of Sex Differences in Advanced Strategy Use

#### 6.3. Conclusions and Potential Implications

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**Study 1 mediation analysis: (

**A**) decomposition; (

**B**) retrieval; (

**C**) counting. Note. Standardized coefficients are reported in all models;

^{†}p < .1, * p < .05, ** p < .01, *** p < .001.

**Figure 2.**Study 2 mediation analysis: (

**A**) decomposition; (

**B**) retrieval; (

**C**) counting. Note. Standardized coefficients are reported;

^{†}p < .1, * p < .05, ** p < .01, *** p < .001.

Mean_{girls} (SD) N = 52 | Mean_{boys} (SD) N = 44 | Mean_{overall} (SD)N = 96 | p-Value (t-Test) | |
---|---|---|---|---|

Child’s Age (Years), Spring of 1st Grade | 6.94 (.06) | 7.04 (.05) | 6.98 (.39) | .210 |

Number Line PAE | .15 (.07) | .11 (.06) | .13 (.07) | .019 |

Decomposition Strategy | 5.28 (10.04) | 23.48 (35.23) | 13.75 (26.70) | .002 |

Retrieval Strategy | 1.44 (3.18) | 3.60 (4.28) | 2.43 (5.53) | .057 |

Counting Strategy | 77.08 (31.24) | 58.34 (37.52) | 68.49 (35.34) | .009 |

Other Strategies | 16.19 (29.33) | 14.58 (25.11) | 15.45 (27.35) | .775 |

Arithmetic Accuracy % correct out of all items | 59.17 (34.67) | 61.31 (35.81) | 60.15 (35.03) | .768 |

Number Line PAE | Decomposition | Retrieval | Counting | Other | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Number Line PAE | 1 | −.401 ** | −.249 * | .194 ^{†} | .187 |

Decomposition % out of all | 1 | .021 | −.625 ** | −.164 | |

Retrieval % out of all | 1 | −.178 | .007 | ||

Counting % out of all | 1 | −.653 ** | |||

Other % out of all | 1 |

^{†}p < .1.

Mean_{girls} (SD) N = 103 | Mean_{boys} (SD) N = 107 | Mean_{overall} (SD)N = 210 | p-Value (t-Test) | |
---|---|---|---|---|

Child’s Age (Years), Fall of 1st Grade | 7.02 (.36) | 7.00 (.33) | 7.01 (.34) | .609 |

Number Line PAE | .16 (.08) | .10 (.04) | .13 (.08) | <.001 |

Decomposition Strategy | 18.38 (22.26) | 32.12 (32.93) | 25.38 (28.97) | <.001 |

Retrieval Strategy | 8.73 (13.53) | 13.46 (14.32) | 11.14 (14.11) | .015 |

Counting Strategy | 55.89 (30.44) | 31.96 (27.54) | 43.70 (31.31) | <.001 |

Other Strategies | 17.02 (25.45) | 22.46 (25.12) | 19.79 (25.37) | .121 |

Arithmetic Accuracy % correct out of all items | 66.69 (22.20) | 75.53 (21.45) | 71.23 (22.26) | .003 |

Raven’s Matrices, % correct out of all items | 23.39 (7.18) | 23.29 (6.72) | 23.34 (6.93) | .926 |

Number Line PAE | Decomposition | Retrieval | Counting | Other | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Number Line PAE | 1 | −.422 ** | −.263 ** | .174 * | .414 ** |

Decomposition | 1 | −.074 | −.576 ** | −.390 ** | |

Retrieval | 1 | −.303 ** | −.097 | ||

Counting | 1 | −406 ** | |||

Other | 1 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Vasilyeva, M.; Laski, E.V.; Casey, B.M.; Lu, L.; Wang, M.; Cho, H.Y.
Spatial–Numerical Magnitude Estimation Mediates Early Sex Differences in the Use of Advanced Arithmetic Strategies. *J. Intell.* **2023**, *11*, 97.
https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11050097

**AMA Style**

Vasilyeva M, Laski EV, Casey BM, Lu L, Wang M, Cho HY.
Spatial–Numerical Magnitude Estimation Mediates Early Sex Differences in the Use of Advanced Arithmetic Strategies. *Journal of Intelligence*. 2023; 11(5):97.
https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11050097

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Vasilyeva, Marina, Elida V. Laski, Beth M. Casey, Linxi Lu, Muanjing Wang, and Hyun Young Cho.
2023. "Spatial–Numerical Magnitude Estimation Mediates Early Sex Differences in the Use of Advanced Arithmetic Strategies" *Journal of Intelligence* 11, no. 5: 97.
https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11050097