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J. Intell., Volume 11, Issue 3 (March 2023) – 18 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Fluid intelligence and conscientiousness (C) are among the most important predictors of children’s school grades, but previous research on potential interaction effects has shown inconsistent results. Here, we leverage longitudinal data from students between 11 and 15 years old and apply latent growth curve models to investigate the main and interaction effects of intelligence and C on stability and change in maths and German grades. Results show a small compensatory interaction effect for baseline levels of maths grades, whereas no interaction was found for German grades. Our findings suggest that high C might buffer lower intelligence and vice versa regarding maths but not German grades. Previously reported synergistic interactions could not be confirmed and might be more relevant in higher secondary school or university. View this paper
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16 pages, 947 KiB  
Article
Measurement Efficiency of a Teacher Rating Scale to Screen for Students at Risk for Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Problems
by Gino Casale, Moritz Herzog and Robert J. Volpe
J. Intell. 2023, 11(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11030057 - 19 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2293
Abstract
Teacher rating scales are broadly used for psycho-educational assessment in schools. In particular, they play an important role in screening students for social, emotional, and behavioral problems. In order to optimize the efficiency of these measures, it is important to minimize the number [...] Read more.
Teacher rating scales are broadly used for psycho-educational assessment in schools. In particular, they play an important role in screening students for social, emotional, and behavioral problems. In order to optimize the efficiency of these measures, it is important to minimize the number of items comprising them while maintaining sound psychometric characteristics. This study examines the measurement efficiency of a teacher rating scale for student social, emotional, and behavioral risk. The goal was to shorten an existing behavior screening tool. A total of 139 classroom teachers and 2566 students from Grades 1–6 (Mage = 8.96 years, SD = 1.61) participated in the study. In sum, 35 items assessing internalizing and externalizing behavior problems were analyzed applying the item response theory (generalized partial credit model). The results show that social, emotional, and behavioral risks can be captured with a total of 12 items. This reduction of almost 66% of the initial item pool would take teachers about 90 s to fill out for one student. Thus, the rating scale can be used by teachers in an efficient yet psychometrically sound manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psycho-Educational Assessments: Theory and Practice)
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14 pages, 674 KiB  
Article
Generalization of Skill for a Working Memory Recognition Procedure in Children: The Benefit of Starting with Easy Materials
by Chenye Bao and Nelson Cowan
J. Intell. 2023, 11(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11030056 - 17 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1506
Abstract
When children practice a new task, they need to learn both the task procedure and the materials tested. It is often unclear if improvements with practice reflect learning of the task procedure or familiarity with the materials. We sought to examine learning of [...] Read more.
When children practice a new task, they need to learn both the task procedure and the materials tested. It is often unclear if improvements with practice reflect learning of the task procedure or familiarity with the materials. We sought to examine learning of the task procedure by switching from one set of materials to another in a working memory recognition task. We recruited 70 children (34 female, M = 11.27 years, SD = 0.62, ranging from 10.08 to 12.39) in the United States who were to remember sequences of orientations and of shapes for recognition immediately following the list. Half of the children began with orientation, an easier task, and the other half began with difficult-to-name shapes, a harder task. When children began with the easier task, the acquisition of the recognition task skill in the easy condition transferred to the more difficult task, optimizing the mean performance across tasks. Transfer was less potent when children began with the more difficult task. The results showed that sufficient practice is crucial to avoid poor initial performance, which might be important for the student’s rate of progress and task engagement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Development of Working Memory and Attention)
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21 pages, 5191 KiB  
Article
Deterministic Input, Noisy Mixed Modeling for Identifying Coexisting Condensation Rules in Cognitive Diagnostic Assessments
by Peida Zhan
J. Intell. 2023, 11(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11030055 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1114
Abstract
In cognitive diagnosis models, the condensation rule describes the logical relationship between the required attributes and the item response, reflecting an explicit assumption about respondents’ cognitive processes to solve problems. Multiple condensation rules may apply to an item simultaneously, indicating that respondents should [...] Read more.
In cognitive diagnosis models, the condensation rule describes the logical relationship between the required attributes and the item response, reflecting an explicit assumption about respondents’ cognitive processes to solve problems. Multiple condensation rules may apply to an item simultaneously, indicating that respondents should use multiple cognitive processes with different weights to identify the correct response. Coexisting condensation rules reflect the complexity of cognitive processes utilized in problem solving and the fact that respondents’ cognitive processes in determining item responses may be inconsistent with the expert-designed condensation rule. This study evaluated the proposed deterministic input with a noisy mixed (DINMix) model to identify coexisting condensation rules and provide feedback for item revision to increase the validity of the measurement of cognitive processes. Two simulation studies were conducted to evaluate the psychometric properties of the proposed model. The simulation results indicate that the DINMix model can adaptively and accurately identify coexisting condensation rules, existing either simultaneously in an item or separately in multiple items. An empirical example was also analyzed to illustrate the applicability and advantages of the proposed model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Psychometric Methods: Theory and Practice)
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32 pages, 1093 KiB  
Review
Creativity, Critical Thinking, Communication, and Collaboration: Assessment, Certification, and Promotion of 21st Century Skills for the Future of Work and Education
by Branden Thornhill-Miller, Anaëlle Camarda, Maxence Mercier, Jean-Marie Burkhardt, Tiffany Morisseau, Samira Bourgeois-Bougrine, Florent Vinchon, Stephanie El Hayek, Myriam Augereau-Landais, Florence Mourey, Cyrille Feybesse, Daniel Sundquist and Todd Lubart
J. Intell. 2023, 11(3), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11030054 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 19879
Abstract
This article addresses educational challenges posed by the future of work, examining “21st century skills”, their conception, assessment, and valorization. It focuses in particular on key soft skill competencies known as the “4Cs”: creativity, critical thinking, collaboration, and communication. In a section on [...] Read more.
This article addresses educational challenges posed by the future of work, examining “21st century skills”, their conception, assessment, and valorization. It focuses in particular on key soft skill competencies known as the “4Cs”: creativity, critical thinking, collaboration, and communication. In a section on each C, we provide an overview of assessment at the level of individual performance, before focusing on the less common assessment of systemic support for the development of the 4Cs that can be measured at the institutional level (i.e., in schools, universities, professional training programs, etc.). We then present the process of official assessment and certification known as “labelization”, suggesting it as a solution both for establishing a publicly trusted assessment of the 4Cs and for promoting their cultural valorization. Next, two variations of the “International Institute for Competency Development’s 21st Century Skills Framework” are presented. The first of these comprehensive systems allows for the assessment and labelization of the extent to which development of the 4Cs is supported by a formal educational program or institution. The second assesses informal educational or training experiences, such as playing a game. We discuss the overlap between the 4Cs and the challenges of teaching and institutionalizing them, both of which may be assisted by adopting a dynamic interactionist model of the 4Cs—playfully entitled “Crea-Critical-Collab-ication”—for pedagogical and policy-promotion purposes. We conclude by briefly discussing opportunities presented by future research and new technologies such as artificial intelligence and virtual reality. Full article
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17 pages, 359 KiB  
Article
Young Creators: Perceptions of Creativity by Primary School Students in Malta
by Margaret Mangion and Jasmin Antonia Riebel
J. Intell. 2023, 11(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11030053 - 13 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1901
Abstract
Policymakers and employers insist that educational institutions prepare workforce-ready candidates fluent in the application of 21st Century Skills such as creativity. So far, only a few studies have explored the self-perceived creativity of students. This paper addresses this gap in literature by providing [...] Read more.
Policymakers and employers insist that educational institutions prepare workforce-ready candidates fluent in the application of 21st Century Skills such as creativity. So far, only a few studies have explored the self-perceived creativity of students. This paper addresses this gap in literature by providing an understanding of how young students in upper primary feel about themselves as creative beings. Data for the present study was collected through an anonymous online survey that 561 students, aged 9–11 years and residing in Malta (EU), completed. In-depth responses were collected from a subset of the original sample made up of 101 students through an anonymous online form containing a set of questions. Data was analysed using regression analysis for the quantitative component and through thematic analysis for the qualitative part. Results indicate that, overall, students in Year 6 felt less creative than students in Year 5. Furthermore, findings show that the type of school attended impacted the students’ perception of creativity. From a qualitative perspective, findings led to insights into (i) the interpretation of the term creativity and (ii) the impact of the school environment and how timetabling impacted students’ creativity. The findings suggest that the student’s perceived creative personal identity and the concrete manifestations that they engage in are influenced by environmental factors. Full article
3 pages, 224 KiB  
Editorial
Emerging Trends in Research on Self-Regulated Learning and Implications for Education: An Introduction to the Special Issue
by Sarah K. Tauber and Robert Ariel
J. Intell. 2023, 11(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11030052 - 09 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1906
Abstract
Students in higher education face a multitude of challenges when gaining and refining their knowledge [...] Full article
24 pages, 1352 KiB  
Article
Smart Schools and the Family-School Relationship: Teacher Profiles for the Promotion of Family Involvement
by Begoña Galián, Mª Ángeles Hernández-Prados and José Santiago Álvarez-Muñoz
J. Intell. 2023, 11(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11030051 - 08 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1954
Abstract
Smart schools prioritise work in the educational community, identifying the participation of families as an opportunity, rather than a form of intrusiveness. There are currently a multitude of ways of sharing education with families, ranging from communication to training, with teachers being the [...] Read more.
Smart schools prioritise work in the educational community, identifying the participation of families as an opportunity, rather than a form of intrusiveness. There are currently a multitude of ways of sharing education with families, ranging from communication to training, with teachers being the driving force in promoting the different roles that families can assume. In this respect, the aim of this cross-sectional, evaluative, non-experimental and quantitative study is to establish the family participation facilitation profiles of 542 teachers working in schools in a multicultural municipality in the autonomous community of the Region of Murcia, in south-eastern Spain. They completed a validated questionnaire with 91 items regarding the different dimensions of family participation, carrying out a cluster analysis to determine the teacher facilitation profiles. The results obtained from the application of the questionnaire show two statistically differentiated teaching profiles. The first of these, with a smaller number of teachers, with fewer years of experience and linked to the pre-primary and secondary stages in public schools, shows less participation in all the modalities considered. In contrast, the profile with the greatest commitment to promoting participation is characterised by having a greater number of teachers, predominantly from state-subsidised centres, that are experienced and linked to the primary stage. In relation to the previous literature, it was possible to confirm the presence of a differentiated profile, finding, on the one hand, teachers interested in the involvement of families and, on the other hand, teachers who do not identify the family–school relationship as a priority. This highlights the need to improve the prior and ongoing training of teachers to raise awareness and sensitise them to the inclusion of families in the educational community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Professional Development)
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19 pages, 1108 KiB  
Article
It Runs in the Family: Testing for Longitudinal Family Flynn Effects
by Linda Wänström, Patrick O’Keefe, Sean A. P. Clouston, Frank D. Mann, Graciela Muniz-Terrera, Stacey Voll, Yun Zhang, Scott M. Hofer and Joseph L. Rodgers
J. Intell. 2023, 11(3), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11030050 - 06 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2133
Abstract
The Flynn effect refers to increases over time in measured (particularly fluid) intelligence of approximately 3 IQ points per decade. We define the Flynn effect at the family level, using longitudinal data and two new family-level cohort definitions. Multilevel growth curve analyses of [...] Read more.
The Flynn effect refers to increases over time in measured (particularly fluid) intelligence of approximately 3 IQ points per decade. We define the Flynn effect at the family level, using longitudinal data and two new family-level cohort definitions. Multilevel growth curve analyses of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 data showed that children in families with later-born mothers had higher average PIAT math scores, and lower average reading comprehension scores and growth, in young and middle childhood. Children in families where the first child was born later had higher average PIAT math, reading recognition, and reading comprehension scores, as well as larger developmental growth. The latter family-level Flynn effects were of higher magnitudes than the usual individual-level Flynn effect found in previous studies. Our results, showing family level-intercept and slope Flynn effects for both maternal birthyear and first child birthyear, have implications for research aiming to explain the Flynn effect. Full article
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12 pages, 599 KiB  
Review
Metacognitive Feelings as a Source of Information for the Creative Process: A Conceptual Exploration
by Rogelio Puente-Díaz
J. Intell. 2023, 11(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11030049 - 28 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1686
Abstract
Philosophers and psychologists have debated the wisdom of using feelings as a source of information when making decisions. While not trying to solve this debate, a complementary approach is to examine how metacognitive feelings are used when generating, evaluating, and selecting ideas to [...] Read more.
Philosophers and psychologists have debated the wisdom of using feelings as a source of information when making decisions. While not trying to solve this debate, a complementary approach is to examine how metacognitive feelings are used when generating, evaluating, and selecting ideas to solve creative problems and whether their use leads to accurate idea evaluation and selection. Hence, this conceptual article aims to explore how metacognitive feelings are used to evaluate and select creative ideas. Interestingly, while metacognitive feelings come from the perceived ease or difficulty of generating solutions to creative problems, these feelings also inform the decision to continue generating ideas or stop. Metacognitive feelings are then an integral part of the creative process of generating, evaluating, and selecting ideas. The present article briefly reviews the history of metacognitive feelings as examined in metamemory, meta-reasoning, and judgment formation in social psychology, before discussing their implications and potential for understanding the creative process. The article ends by positing directions for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emotional Intelligence and Creativity)
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22 pages, 807 KiB  
Review
Analysis of Occupational Therapy Students’ Pedagogical Practices for the Forging of Professional Identity and Development of Professional Intelligence: A Scoping Review
by Ana-Isabel Souto-Gómez, Miguel-Ángel Talavera-Valverde, Luis-Javier Márquez-Álvarez and María-del-Pilar García-de-la-Torre
J. Intell. 2023, 11(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11030048 - 28 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2071
Abstract
Pedagogical practices contribute to enhancing professional intelligence which is an indicator of maturity and development of professional identity. The research guiding question was: What are the pedagogical practices involved in occupational therapy students’ professional identity formation? A scoping review using a six-stage methodological [...] Read more.
Pedagogical practices contribute to enhancing professional intelligence which is an indicator of maturity and development of professional identity. The research guiding question was: What are the pedagogical practices involved in occupational therapy students’ professional identity formation? A scoping review using a six-stage methodological framework was used to capture a variety of evidence describing how professional identity has been conceptualised and integrated into the occupational therapy curriculum while noticing a link to professional intelligence. Databases included were: Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ProQuest ERIC, Scopus, Web of Science, CSIC, Dialnet, PubMed, Pubmed Central, OTDBASE and Scielo. Qualitative content analysis was used to categorise learning outcomes into five components of professional identity that were associated with the pedagogical practices identified in the studies. n = 58 peer-reviewed journal articles were recorded. The articles were classified as intervention studies (n = 31; 53.4%), reviews (n = 12; 20.7%) and theoretical articles (n = 15; 25.9%). To ensure the feasibility of collecting and reporting results, we narrowed the focus to n = 31 intervention studies that provided information on pedagogical practices and learning outcomes on professional identity forging in students. This scoping review illustrates the variety of contexts in which students learn, the multiple dimensions of identity establishment, and the variety of pedagogical practices. These findings can be used to adapt and design focused formative curricula that support the development of professional identity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Professional Development)
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16 pages, 621 KiB  
Article
Measuring Domain-Specific Knowledge: From Bach to Fibonacci
by Marianna Massimilla Rusche and Matthias Ziegler
J. Intell. 2023, 11(3), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11030047 - 28 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1839
Abstract
Along with crystallized intelligence (Gc), domain-specific knowledge (Gkn) is an important ability within the nomological net of acquired knowledge. Although Gkn has been shown to predict important life outcomes, only a few standardized tests measuring Gkn exist, especially for the adult population. Complicating [...] Read more.
Along with crystallized intelligence (Gc), domain-specific knowledge (Gkn) is an important ability within the nomological net of acquired knowledge. Although Gkn has been shown to predict important life outcomes, only a few standardized tests measuring Gkn exist, especially for the adult population. Complicating things, Gkn tests from different cultural circles cannot simply be translated as they need to be culture specific. Hence, this study aimed to develop a Gkn test culturally sensitive to a German population and to provide initial evidence for the resulting scores’ psychometric quality. Existing Gkn tests often mirror a school curriculum. We aimed to operationalize Gkn not solely based upon a typical curriculum to investigate a research question regarding the curriculum dependence of the resulting Gkn structure. A set of newly developed items from a broad range of knowledge categories was presented online to 1450 participants divided into a high (fluid intelligence, Gf) Gf (n = 415) and an unselected Gf subsample (n = 1035). Results support the notion of a hierarchical model comparable to the one curriculum-based tests scores have, with one factor at the top and three narrower factors below (Humanities, Science, Civics) for which each can be divided into smaller knowledge facets. Besides this initial evidence regarding structural validity, the scale scores’ reliability estimates are reported, and criterion validity-related evidence based on a known-groups design is provided. Results indicate the psychometric quality of the scores and are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Human Intelligence—State of the Art in the 2020s)
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13 pages, 814 KiB  
Article
Does ICT Usage Have a Positive or Negative Effect on Taiwanese Older Adults’ Emotional Experiences? The Moderating Role of Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction
by Chih-Chi Liu and Ya-Ling Wang
J. Intell. 2023, 11(3), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11030046 - 27 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1797
Abstract
While some studies have found that older adults’ use of information and communications technology (ICT) contributes to their positive emotions, others have not. According to previous research, basic psychological needs satisfaction may help us explore the relationships between older adults’ ICT usage and [...] Read more.
While some studies have found that older adults’ use of information and communications technology (ICT) contributes to their positive emotions, others have not. According to previous research, basic psychological needs satisfaction may help us explore the relationships between older adults’ ICT usage and their emotional experience. This study aimed to investigate the moderation effect of older adults’ basic psychological needs satisfaction on the relationship between ICT usage and emotional experience using the experience sampling method via the communication application, Line. At the first phase of the study, we surveyed each participant’s age, gender and satisfaction with basic psychological needs, and afterward, each participant needed to complete their current situation each day throughout the 10-day period. A total of 788 daily experiences of 32 participants (Mage = 63.13; SDage = 5.97, ranging from 52 to 75; 81% women) were collected, and hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was conducted. Results revealed that ICT usage generally enhanced older adults’ positive emotional experience. Those with satisfied competence needs had stable and positive emotional experiences with or without using ICT, while those without could further promote their positive emotional experience by using ICT. Those with satisfied relatedness needs had more positive emotional experiences when using ICT, while those without had similar emotional experiences with or without ICT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emotion and Aging)
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18 pages, 602 KiB  
Article
Is There Evidence for Intelligence-by-Conscientiousness Interaction in the Prediction of Change in School Grades from Age 11 to 15 Years?
by Anke Hufer-Thamm, Alexandra Starr and Ricarda Steinmayr
J. Intell. 2023, 11(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11030045 - 25 Feb 2023
Viewed by 2252
Abstract
Fluid intelligence and conscientiousness are the most important predictors of school grades. In addition to this main effect, researchers have suggested that the two traits might also interact with each other in the prediction of school success. A synergistic and a compensatory form [...] Read more.
Fluid intelligence and conscientiousness are the most important predictors of school grades. In addition to this main effect, researchers have suggested that the two traits might also interact with each other in the prediction of school success. A synergistic and a compensatory form of interaction have been suggested, but past evidence has been mixed so far. Most previous studies on this subject have been cross-sectional and many of them focused on older adolescents or adults in upper secondary school or university. We thus investigated the main and interaction effects of fluid intelligence and conscientiousness on school grades in math and German in a longitudinal sample of 1043 German students from age 11 to 15 years. Results from latent growth curve models with latent interaction terms showed a small compensatory interaction effect for baseline levels of math grades but not for their development. No interaction effect was found for German grades. These findings are discussed against the background that (synergistic) interaction effects between intelligence and conscientiousness might be more relevant in older students from higher secondary school or university context. Full article
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21 pages, 752 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Relationship between Cognitive Ability Tilt and Job Performance
by Anne E. Kato and Charles A. Scherbaum
J. Intell. 2023, 11(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11030044 - 23 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2785
Abstract
Most of the work examining the relationship between intelligence and job performance has conceptualized intelligence as g. Recent findings, however, have supported the claim that more specific factors of intelligence contribute to the prediction of job performance. The present study builds upon [...] Read more.
Most of the work examining the relationship between intelligence and job performance has conceptualized intelligence as g. Recent findings, however, have supported the claim that more specific factors of intelligence contribute to the prediction of job performance. The present study builds upon prior work on specific cognitive abilities by investigating the relationship between ability tilt, a measure representing differential strength between two specific abilities, and job performance. It was hypothesized that ability tilt would differentially relate to job performance based on whether or not the tilt matched the ability requirements of the job, and that ability tilt would provide incremental validity over g and specific abilities for predicting performance when the tilt matched job requirements. Hypotheses were tested using a large sample from the General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB) database. Ability tilt related with job performance in the expected direction for 27 of the 36 tilt-job combinations examined, with a mean effect size of .04 when the tilt matched job requirements. The mean incremental validities for ability tilt were .007 over g and .003 over g and specific abilities, and, on average, tilt explained 7.1% of the total variance in job performance. The results provide limited evidence that ability tilt may be a useful predictor in addition to ability level, and contribute to our understanding of the role of specific abilities in the workplace. Full article
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18 pages, 414 KiB  
Article
What Makes a Foreign Language Intelligible? An Examination of the Impact of Musical Ability and Individual Differences on Language Perception and How Intelligible Foreign Languages Appear
by Markus Christiner, Valdis Bernhofs, Sabine Sommer-Lolei and Christine Groß
J. Intell. 2023, 11(3), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11030043 - 23 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1327
Abstract
Previous research suggests that musical ability is associated with language processing and foreign language pronunciation. Whether musical ability is associated with the ability to generate intelligible unfamiliar utterances has not been investigated. Furthermore, how unfamiliar languages are perceived has rarely been related to [...] Read more.
Previous research suggests that musical ability is associated with language processing and foreign language pronunciation. Whether musical ability is associated with the ability to generate intelligible unfamiliar utterances has not been investigated. Furthermore, how unfamiliar languages are perceived has rarely been related to musical ability. We tested 80 healthy adults, with a mean age of 34.05 and a combination of 41 women and 39 men. We used batteries of perceptual and generational music and language measures to assess foreign language intelligibility and musical capacity. Regression analysis revealed that five measures explained the variance in the intelligibility of unfamiliar foreign utterances. These were short-term memory capacity, melodic singing ability, speech perception ability, and how melodic and memorable the utterances sounded to the participants. Correlational analyses revealed that musical aptitude measures are related to melodic perception and how memorable unfamiliar utterances sound, whereas singing aptitude is related to the perceived difficulty level of the language material. These findings provide novel evidence of the link between musical and speech abilities. In particular, intelligibility measures are associated with singing aptitude and how melodic languages appear to be. As impressions on how foreign languages are perceived are also related to musical capacities, perceptual language parameters address a new perspective that facilitates the understanding of the link between music and language in general. Full article
16 pages, 575 KiB  
Concept Paper
Academic Buoyancy: Overcoming Test Anxiety and Setbacks
by David William Putwain, Joost Jansen in de Wal and Thijmen van Alphen
J. Intell. 2023, 11(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11030042 - 21 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4164
Abstract
High levels of test anxiety can be damaging for academic achievement, wellbeing, and mental health. It is important, therefore, to consider those psychological attributes that may offer protection against the development of test anxiety and its negative consequences, thereby contributing to a potential [...] Read more.
High levels of test anxiety can be damaging for academic achievement, wellbeing, and mental health. It is important, therefore, to consider those psychological attributes that may offer protection against the development of test anxiety and its negative consequences, thereby contributing to a potential positive future life trajectory. Academic buoyancy, the ability to respond effectively to academic pressures and setbacks, is one such attribute that offers protection from high test anxiety. We begin by defining test anxiety and a brief review of the literature to consider the harmful nature of test anxiety. This is followed by a definition of academic buoyancy and brief review of the literature to consider the beneficial character of academic buoyancy. Next, we describe the Self-Regulatory Executive Function model of test anxiety and consider the mechanisms and processes by which academic buoyancy exerts beneficial effects on test anxiety. The paper concludes with a consideration of critical issues for the conceptualisation and measurement of academic buoyancy, arising from the synergies, connections, and relations, theorised with test anxiety, and how these may inform future studies. Full article
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8 pages, 2835 KiB  
Opinion
William Stern: The Relevance of His Program of ‘Differential Psychology’ for Contemporary Intelligence Measurement and Research
by Kristof Kovacs and Csaba Pléh
J. Intell. 2023, 11(3), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11030041 - 21 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1809
Abstract
William Stern is mostly renowned for inventing the IQ formula. However, he is also the originator of the term ‘differential psychology’ itself. His program of differential psychology synthesized population-based correlational studies as well as idiosyncratic approaches focusing on unique profiles of individuals. We [...] Read more.
William Stern is mostly renowned for inventing the IQ formula. However, he is also the originator of the term ‘differential psychology’ itself. His program of differential psychology synthesized population-based correlational studies as well as idiosyncratic approaches focusing on unique profiles of individuals. We argue that his approach still offers valuable ideas to this day; in particular, the individualistic sub-programme of Stern’s differential psychology corresponds to a large extent to ipsative testing that emphasizes a profile-based analysis of individual strengths and weaknesses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Differential Psychology and Individual Differences in Intelligence)
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12 pages, 597 KiB  
Article
Metacognitive Illusions: A Positivity Effect in Judgments of Learning for Older but Not Younger Adults
by Xiaojun Sun and Yingjie Jiang
J. Intell. 2023, 11(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11030040 - 21 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1619
Abstract
The positivity effect for metacognitive judgments (judgments of learning, JOLs) of emotional words in recognition memory was shown in older adults, in contrast to younger adults, who typically displayed the emotional salience effect. This is compatible with the socioemotional selection theory, which suggests [...] Read more.
The positivity effect for metacognitive judgments (judgments of learning, JOLs) of emotional words in recognition memory was shown in older adults, in contrast to younger adults, who typically displayed the emotional salience effect. This is compatible with the socioemotional selection theory, which suggests the presence of a positive stimulus bias in older adults’ cognitive processes. This study examined whether the positivity effect and age-related differences could be extended to a picture study to determine whether the positivity effect in older adults is robust in the metacognitive domain. Younger and older adults studied negative, positive, and neutral pictures, followed by JOLs and then a recognition test that asked participants to judge whether the picture was shown in the studying stage or not. Age-related differences were found not only in recognition memory performance for emotional pictures but also in JOLs and their accuracy. Younger adults showed an emotional salience effect for both memory performance and JOLs. Older adults’ JOLs showed a positivity effect, but their actual memory performance was influenced by emotion, and this inconsistency between metacognitive judgments and memory performance is a metacognitive illusion. These findings support the cross-material replicability of a positivity bias in older adults in the metacognitive domain and suggest that we should be cautioned about the detrimental effects of this metacognitive illusion in older adults. It illustrates an age difference in the effect of emotion on individual metacognitive monitoring ability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Metacognition, Learning, and Reactivity)
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