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J. Intell., Volume 11, Issue 11 (November 2023) – 13 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Over three decades, Emotional Intelligence (EI) has captivated a large number of researchers and practitioners, yet questions linger about its true nature and assessment. This article introduces novel approaches linking EI with emotion science theories, offering innovative perspectives on understanding and recognizing emotions. The piece further examines the role of emotion regulation models in developing nuanced EI tests able to assess both intrapersonal and interpersonal emotion regulation competencies. Highlighting the importance of context, cultural diversity, and individual motivations, this article aims to foster interdisciplinary collaboration among experts in EI, emotion science, and social cognition. It is an original perspective relevant for anyone interested in the intricate workings of EI and its impact on human interactions. View this paper
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23 pages, 5897 KiB  
Article
Using IRTree Models to Promote Selection Validity in the Presence of Extreme Response Styles
J. Intell. 2023, 11(11), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11110216 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1201
Abstract
The measurement of psychological constructs is frequently based on self-report tests, which often have Likert-type items rated from “Strongly Disagree” to “Strongly Agree”. Recently, a family of item response theory (IRT) models called IRTree models have emerged that can parse out content traits [...] Read more.
The measurement of psychological constructs is frequently based on self-report tests, which often have Likert-type items rated from “Strongly Disagree” to “Strongly Agree”. Recently, a family of item response theory (IRT) models called IRTree models have emerged that can parse out content traits (e.g., personality traits) from noise traits (e.g., response styles). In this study, we compare the selection validity and adverse impact consequences of noise traits on selection when scores are estimated using a generalized partial credit model (GPCM) or an IRTree model. First, we present a simulation which demonstrates that when noise traits do exist, the selection decisions made based on the IRTree model estimated scores have higher accuracy rates and have less instances of adverse impact based on extreme response style group membership when compared to the GPCM. Both models performed similarly when there was no influence of noise traits on the responses. Second, we present an application using data collected from the Open-Source Psychometrics Project Fisher Temperament Inventory dataset. We found that the IRTree model had a better fit, but a high agreement rate between the model decisions resulted in virtually identical impact ratios between the models. We offer considerations for applications of the IRTree model and future directions for research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Psychometric Methods: Theory and Practice)
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10 pages, 487 KiB  
Essay
Illusion as a Cognitive Clash Rooted in Perception
J. Intell. 2023, 11(11), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11110215 - 13 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1435
Abstract
Illusions are important ‘tools’ in the study of perceptual processes. Their conception is typically linked to the notion of veridicality in a dual-world framework, in which we either see the macro physical world as it is (ecological approaches) or we derive a faithful [...] Read more.
Illusions are important ‘tools’ in the study of perceptual processes. Their conception is typically linked to the notion of veridicality in a dual-world framework, in which we either see the macro physical world as it is (ecological approaches) or we derive a faithful representation (cognitive approaches) of it. Within such theoretical views, illusions are errors caused by inadequate sensory information (because of poor quality, insufficient quantity, contradictory, etc.). From a phenomenological stance, however, experiencing an illusion does not relate to the physical quality of the distal or proximal stimulus; rather, it depends on a comparison between the actual perception and what one believes should be perceived given the knowledge s/he has gained about the physical stimulus. Within such a framework, illusions are still considered of extreme importance in the study of the processes underpinning perception, but they are not conceived as errors. They represent instead a cognitive clash between actual perception and hypothesized perception based on some sort of comparison, thus also showing their potential as a tool for studying the underpinnings of cognitive processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grounding Cognition in Perceptual Experience)
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14 pages, 2018 KiB  
Essay
Perceptual Phenomena Cannot Be Approached from a Single Perspective
J. Intell. 2023, 11(11), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11110214 - 10 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1223
Abstract
This article explores the relationship between neurophysiology and phenomenology in the context of ambiguous figures. Divided into three parts, the study investigates new forms of stimulus and experience errors that arise from ambiguous figures. Part 1 discusses the limitations of a single-disciplinary approach [...] Read more.
This article explores the relationship between neurophysiology and phenomenology in the context of ambiguous figures. Divided into three parts, the study investigates new forms of stimulus and experience errors that arise from ambiguous figures. Part 1 discusses the limitations of a single-disciplinary approach and cautions against relying only on neurophysiological explanations for perceptions. A sole reliance on neurophysiological explanations can lead to stimulus and experience errors, as well as to the development of an unfounded mind/body dualism. Part 2 focusses on the stimulus error associated with ambiguous figures. It also shows how the Mona Lisa’s ambiguous expression can cause the experience error. Unlike other forms of ambiguous figures, different expressions of Mona Lisa are perceived when seen in different definitions. It is shown how assigning a higher ontological status to one of the expressions because it aligns with our knowledge of the nervous system, as conjectured by some authors, gives rise to the experience error. Part 3 emphasises the importance of complementing neurophysiological interpretations with phenomenological ones for a better understanding of perceptual phenomena. Phenomenology provides constraints and corrections to neurophysiology, whereas neurophysiology informs phenomenology through empirical findings. The theory of levels of reality is introduced as a framework to underlie the connections and dependencies between different perspectives. Using both neurophysiological and phenomenological approaches, a comprehensive understanding of perceptual phenomena emerges, surpassing the limitations of each discipline. This method encourages a holistic view of perception, where neurophysiology and phenomenology coexist, complementing and enriching each other’s insights. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grounding Cognition in Perceptual Experience)
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22 pages, 784 KiB  
Article
Does the Degree of Prematurity Relate to the Bayley-4 Scores Earned by Matched Samples of Infants and Toddlers across the Cognitive, Language, and Motor Domains?
J. Intell. 2023, 11(11), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11110213 - 08 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1341
Abstract
The literature on children born prematurely has consistently shown that full-term babies outperform preterm babies by about 12 IQ points, even when tested as adolescents, and this advantage for full-term infants extends to the language and motor domains as well. The results of [...] Read more.
The literature on children born prematurely has consistently shown that full-term babies outperform preterm babies by about 12 IQ points, even when tested as adolescents, and this advantage for full-term infants extends to the language and motor domains as well. The results of comprehensive meta-analyses suggest that the degree of prematurity greatly influences later test performance, but these inferences are based on data from an array of separate studies with no control of potential confounding variables such as age. This study analyzed Bayley-4 data for 66 extremely premature infants and toddlers (<32 weeks), 70 moderately premature children (32–36 weeks), and 133 full-term children. All groups were carefully matched on key background variables by the test publisher during the standardization of the Bayley-4. This investigation analyzed data on the five subtests: cognitive, expressive communication, receptive communication, fine motor, and gross motor. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) assessed for group mean differences across the three subsamples, while controlling for the children’s age. Extremely premature children scored significantly lower than moderately premature children on all subtests, and both preterm groups were significantly outscored by the full-term sample across all domains. In each set of comparisons, the cognitive and motor subtests yielded the largest differences, whereas language development, both expressive and receptive, appeared the least impacted by prematurity. A follow-up MANOVA was conducted to examine full-term versus preterm discrepancies on the five subtests for infants (2–17 months) vs. toddlers (18–42 months). For that analysis, the two preterm groups were combined into a single preterm sample, and a significant interaction between the age level and group (full-term vs. preterm) was found. Premature infants scored lower than premature toddlers on receptive communication, fine motor, and cognitive. Neither expressive communication nor gross motor produced significant discrepancies between age groups The findings of this study enrich the preterm literature on the degree of prematurity; the age-based interactions have implications for which abilities are most likely to improve as infants grow into toddlerhood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Human Intelligence—State of the Art in the 2020s)
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17 pages, 326 KiB  
Article
Cultural Intelligence Deployed in One’s Own vs. in a Different Culture: The Same or Different?
J. Intell. 2023, 11(11), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11110212 - 07 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1421
Abstract
Cultural intelligence is one’s ability to adapt when confronted with problems arising in interactions with people or artifacts of cultures other than one’s own. In this study, we explored two maximum-performance tests of cultural intelligence. One, used in previous research, measured cultural intelligence [...] Read more.
Cultural intelligence is one’s ability to adapt when confronted with problems arising in interactions with people or artifacts of cultures other than one’s own. In this study, we explored two maximum-performance tests of cultural intelligence. One, used in previous research, measured cultural intelligence in the context of an individual conducting a business trip in another culture. The second, new to this research, measured cultural intelligence in the context of meeting someone from another culture while one is in the context of one’s own culture. So, the difference between the two tests was whether one was in one’s own culture or another and whether the individual who most had to adapt was oneself or someone else. We found that cultural intelligence in the two contexts was essentially the same construct. Cultural intelligence as measured by a typical-performance test is a different construct from cultural intelligence as measured by a maximum-performance test. In this research, general intelligence showed some limited correlation with cultural intelligence as measured by a maximum-performance, but not a typical-performance test. Cultural intelligence as an ability and as a disposition are not the same but rather complement each other. Full article
22 pages, 813 KiB  
Article
Basic Symbolic Number Skills, but Not Formal Mathematics Performance, Longitudinally Predict Mathematics Anxiety in the First Years of Primary School
J. Intell. 2023, 11(11), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11110211 - 01 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1890
Abstract
Mathematical anxiety (MA) and mathematics performance typically correlate negatively in studies of adolescents and adults, but not always amongst young children, with some theorists questioning the relevance of MA to mathematics performance in this age group. Evidence is also limited in relation to [...] Read more.
Mathematical anxiety (MA) and mathematics performance typically correlate negatively in studies of adolescents and adults, but not always amongst young children, with some theorists questioning the relevance of MA to mathematics performance in this age group. Evidence is also limited in relation to the developmental origins of MA and whether MA in young children can be linked to their earlier mathematics performance. To address these questions, the current study investigated whether basic and formal mathematics skills around 4 and 5 years of age were predictive of MA around the age of 7–8. Additionally, we also examined the cross-sectional relationships between MA and mathematics performance in 7–8-year-old children. Specifically, children in our study were assessed in their first (T1; aged 4–5), second (T2; aged 5–6), and fourth years of school (T3; aged 7–8). At T1 and T2, children completed measures of basic numerical skills, IQ, and working memory, as well as curriculum-based mathematics tests. At T3, children completed two self-reported MA questionnaires, together with a curriculum-based mathematics test. The results showed that MA could be reliably measured in a sample of 7–8-year-olds and demonstrated the typical negative correlation between MA and mathematical performance (although the strength of this relationship was dependent on the specific content domain). Importantly, although early formal mathematical skills were unrelated to later MA, there was evidence of a longitudinal relationship between basic early symbolic number skills and later MA, supporting the idea that poorer basic numerical skills relate to the development of MA. Full article
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22 pages, 451 KiB  
Review
Embracing the Emotion in Emotional Intelligence Measurement: Insights from Emotion Theory and Research
J. Intell. 2023, 11(11), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11110210 - 01 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1813
Abstract
Emotional intelligence (EI) has gained significant popularity as a scientific construct over the past three decades, yet its conceptualization and measurement still face limitations. Applied EI research often overlooks its components, treating it as a global characteristic, and there are few widely used [...] Read more.
Emotional intelligence (EI) has gained significant popularity as a scientific construct over the past three decades, yet its conceptualization and measurement still face limitations. Applied EI research often overlooks its components, treating it as a global characteristic, and there are few widely used performance-based tests for assessing ability EI. The present paper proposes avenues for advancing ability EI measurement by connecting the main EI components to models and theories from the emotion science literature and related fields. For emotion understanding and emotion recognition, we discuss the implications of basic emotion theory, dimensional models, and appraisal models of emotion for creating stimuli, scenarios, and response options. For the regulation and management of one’s own and others’ emotions, we discuss how the process model of emotion regulation and its extensions to interpersonal processes can inform the creation of situational judgment items. In addition, we emphasize the importance of incorporating context, cross-cultural variability, and attentional and motivational factors into future models and measures of ability EI. We hope this article will foster exchange among scholars in the fields of ability EI, basic emotion science, social cognition, and emotion regulation, leading to an enhanced understanding of the individual differences in successful emotional functioning and communication. Full article
21 pages, 988 KiB  
Article
Clustering and Switching in Semantic Verbal Fluency: Their Development and Relationship with Word Productivity in Typically Developing Greek-Speaking Children and Adolescents
J. Intell. 2023, 11(11), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11110209 - 01 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1399
Abstract
Performance in semantic verbal fluency (SVF) tasks, mainly measured by the number of words of a particular semantic category produced within a limited time, is a widely accepted measure of cognitive functioning used in the neuropsychological assessment of children and adults. Two strategic [...] Read more.
Performance in semantic verbal fluency (SVF) tasks, mainly measured by the number of words of a particular semantic category produced within a limited time, is a widely accepted measure of cognitive functioning used in the neuropsychological assessment of children and adults. Two strategic processes, Clustering and Switching (C&S) have been proposed to underlie fluency processes and affect performance in the task. However, few studies have reported on the development of those cognitive strategies and their relationship with word productivity in typically developing children. Even fewer studies have covered a broad developmental period from preschool to adolescence or measured the effect of contextual factors in this relationship. Based on a sample of 472 typically developing Greek-speaking children aged 4;0 to 16;11 years, we investigated the development of SVF performance and reported on the degree to which it is affected by C&S strategies, children’s sex, and level of parental education. Results revealed a large effect of age on word productivity and on the use of C&S strategies. Two switching factors (number of clusters and number of switches) and two clustering factors (mean cluster size and a novel measure, maximum cluster size), appeared to be significantly associated with word productivity, with the largest effect being attributed to the two switching factors. C&S factors, together with children’s age and parental education, predicted 91.7% of the variance in the SVF score. Children’s sex was not found to have a significant effect on either word productivity or C&S strategies. Results are discussed for their theoretical implications on the strategic processes underlying word production in typically developing children. Full article
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15 pages, 374 KiB  
Essay
Grounding the Restorative Effect of the Environment in Tertiary Qualities: An Integration of Embodied and Phenomenological Perspectives
J. Intell. 2023, 11(11), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11110208 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1132
Abstract
This paper proposes an integration of embodied and phenomenological perspectives to understand the restorative capacity of natural environments. It emphasizes the role of embodied simulation mechanisms in evoking positive affects and cognitive functioning. Perceptual symbols play a crucial role in generating the restorative [...] Read more.
This paper proposes an integration of embodied and phenomenological perspectives to understand the restorative capacity of natural environments. It emphasizes the role of embodied simulation mechanisms in evoking positive affects and cognitive functioning. Perceptual symbols play a crucial role in generating the restorative potential in environments, highlighting the significance of the encounter between the embodied individual and the environment. This study reviews Stress Reduction Theory (SRT) and Attention Restoration Theory (ART), finding commonalities in perceptual fluency and connectedness to nature. It also explores a potential model based on physiognomic perception, where the environment’s pervasive qualities elicit an affective response. Restorativeness arises from a direct encounter between the environment’s phenomenal structure and the embodied perceptual processes of individuals. Overall, this integrative approach sheds light on the intrinsic affective value of environmental elements and their influence on human well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grounding Cognition in Perceptual Experience)
15 pages, 333 KiB  
Review
Critical Thinking, Intelligence, and Unsubstantiated Beliefs: An Integrative Review
J. Intell. 2023, 11(11), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11110207 - 30 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2180
Abstract
A review of the research shows that critical thinking is a more inclusive construct than intelligence, going beyond what general cognitive ability can account for. For instance, critical thinking can more completely account for many everyday outcomes, such as how thinkers reject false [...] Read more.
A review of the research shows that critical thinking is a more inclusive construct than intelligence, going beyond what general cognitive ability can account for. For instance, critical thinking can more completely account for many everyday outcomes, such as how thinkers reject false conspiracy theories, paranormal and pseudoscientific claims, psychological misconceptions, and other unsubstantiated claims. Deficiencies in the components of critical thinking (in specific reasoning skills, dispositions, and relevant knowledge) contribute to unsubstantiated belief endorsement in ways that go beyond what standardized intelligence tests test. Specifically, people who endorse unsubstantiated claims less tend to show better critical thinking skills, possess more relevant knowledge, and are more disposed to think critically. They tend to be more scientifically skeptical and possess a more rational–analytic cognitive style, while those who accept unsubstantiated claims more tend to be more cynical and adopt a more intuitive–experiential cognitive style. These findings suggest that for a fuller understanding of unsubstantiated beliefs, researchers and instructors should also assess specific reasoning skills, relevant knowledge, and dispositions which go beyond what intelligence tests test. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Critical Thinking in Everyday Life)
16 pages, 1227 KiB  
Article
Discovering the Learning Gradient of Students’ Preferences for Learning Environment
J. Intell. 2023, 11(11), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11110206 - 28 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1364
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of online learning self-regulation on learning outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown among university college students. Quantitative k-means cluster analysis was used to examine the relationship among students in three different clusters based [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of online learning self-regulation on learning outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown among university college students. Quantitative k-means cluster analysis was used to examine the relationship among students in three different clusters based on their preferences toward online learning. The results indicated that online learning self-regulation had a significant positive effect on learning outcomes due to the shift to online learning. Thus, we identified a “learning gradient” among students, showing that cluster 1 students (preferences for 100% online) have the most positive preferences toward online teaching and the highest degree of self-regulation and learning outcome, cluster 2 students (moderate preferences for both physical and online teaching) are mixed (both positive and negative experiences) and moderate self-regulation and learning outcomes while cluster 3 students (preferences for physical classroom teaching) have the most negative preferences and the lowest self-regulation and learning outcome. The results from this study show that students’ self-regulated learning strategies during online teaching environments are important for their learning outcomes and that cluster 1 and 2 students especially profited from the more flexible online learning environment with organized and deep learning approaches. Cluster 3 students need more support from their educators to foster their self-regulation skills to enhance their learning outcomes in online teaching environments. Full article
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23 pages, 3642 KiB  
Article
Visualizing Cross-Sections of 3D Objects: Developing Efficient Measures Using Item Response Theory
J. Intell. 2023, 11(11), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11110205 - 28 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1315
Abstract
Spatial ability is important for success in STEM fields but is typically measured using a small number of tests that were not developed in the STEM context, have not been normed with recent samples, or have not been subjected to modern psychometric analyses. [...] Read more.
Spatial ability is important for success in STEM fields but is typically measured using a small number of tests that were not developed in the STEM context, have not been normed with recent samples, or have not been subjected to modern psychometric analyses. Here, an approach to developing valid, reliable, and efficient computer-based tests of spatial skills is proposed and illustrated via the development of an efficient test of the ability to visualize cross-sections of three-dimensional (3D) objects. After pilot testing, three measures of this ability were administered online to 498 participants (256 females, aged 18–20). Two of the measures, the Santa Barbara Solids and Planes of Reference tests had good psychometric properties and measured a domain-general ability to visualize cross-sections, with sub-factors related to item difficulty. Item-level statistics informed the development of the refined versions of these tests and a combined measure composed of the most informative test items. Sex and ethnicity had no significant effects on the combined measure after controlling for mathematics education, verbal ability, and age. The measures ofcross-sectioning ability developed in the context of geology education were found to be too difficult, likely because they measured domain knowledge in addition to cross-sectioning ability. Recommendations are made for the use of cross-section tests in selection and training and for the more general development of spatial ability measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spatial Intelligence and Learning)
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24 pages, 4008 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Personalized Nudges on Cognitively Disengaged Student Behavior in Low-Stakes Assessments
J. Intell. 2023, 11(11), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11110204 - 28 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1133
Abstract
In educational settings, students rely on metacognitive processes to determine whether or not to exert effort. We investigated ways to minimize cognitively disengaged responses (i.e., not-fully-effortful responses) during a low-stakes mathematics assessment. Initially, we established theory-driven time thresholds for each item to detect [...] Read more.
In educational settings, students rely on metacognitive processes to determine whether or not to exert effort. We investigated ways to minimize cognitively disengaged responses (i.e., not-fully-effortful responses) during a low-stakes mathematics assessment. Initially, we established theory-driven time thresholds for each item to detect such responses. We then administered the test to 800 eighth-graders across three conditions: (a) control (n = 271); (b) instruction (n = 267); and (c) nudge (n = 262). In the instruction condition, students were told to exert their best effort before starting the assessment. In the nudge condition, students were prompted to give their best effort following each first-attempt response that was both incorrect and not-fully-effortful. Therefore, students had multiple opportunities to adjust their level of effort. Nudges, but not effort instruction, significantly reduced students’ not-fully-effortful responses. Neither the nudges nor the effort instruction significantly impacted performance. In a post-test survey, most students reported that they received nudges whenever they did not know the answer (55%). Overall, these findings suggest that while nudges reduce cognitively disengaged responses, most students appear to strategically modulate their level of effort based on self-monitoring their knowledge and response effort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Intersection of Metacognition and Intelligence)
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