# Novel Statistical Analysis in the Context of a Comprehensive Needs Assessment for Secondary STEM Recruitment

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

- Generally speaking, I like doing science activities.
- I understand science concepts in the natural world.
- I plan to use science in my future career.
- If I do well in science classes, it will help me in my future career.
- My parents/guardians would like it if I choose a science related career.
- Someone in my family uses science extensively in their career.

## 2. Background Data and Preliminary Findings

## 3. Methodology and Hypotheses of Interests

#### 3.1. Descriptive Statistics

#### 3.2. Hypotheses of Interests

**Hypothesis**

**1**

**(H1).**

**Hypothesis**

**2**

**(H2).**

#### 3.3. Variables

- Q6: Generally speaking, I like doing science activities.
- Q8: I plan to use science in my future career.
- Q12: Generally speaking, I like doing math.
- Q14: I plan to use math in my future career.
- Q15: If I do well in math classes, it will help me in my future career.
- Q19: Generally speaking, I like activities involving technology.
- Q26: Generally speaking, I like activities involving engineering.

#### 3.4. Methodology

- Objective:

- Assumptions:

- The responses Y1, Y2, ..., Yn may be correlated or clustered, i.e., cases are not necessarily independent.
- Covariates can be the power terms or some other nonlinear transformations (idea of scaling) of the original independent variables, and can have interaction terms.
- The homogeneity of variance does not need to be satisfied.
- Errors may be correlated.
- It uses quasi-likelihood estimation rather than maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) or ordinary least squares (OLS) to estimate the parameters, but at times these coincide.
- Covariance specification. These are typically four or more correlation structures that are assumed a priori. Four correlation structures are commonly considered:
- Independence (correlation between response points is independent)
- Exchangeable (or compound symmetry)
- Autoregressive of Order 1 (AR1)
- Unstructured

## 4. Data Analysis and Results

#### 4.1. Exploratory-Factor Analysis

#### 4.2. Generalized Linear Analysis

#### 4.3. Quantile Analysis

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 4.**95% confidence levels for Score 3 with respect to Intercept, Q6_new, Q8_new, Q14_new, and Q15_new for all genders (Display 1), females (Display 2), and males (Display 3).

Q2 Gender | Frequency | Percent | Cumulative Frequency | Cumulative Percent |
---|---|---|---|---|

Female | 208 | 66.88 | 208 | 66.88 |

Male | 103 | 33.12 | 311 | 100.00 |

Frequency Missing = 2 |

Q3 Race | Frequency | Percent | Cumulative Frequency | Cumulative Percent |
---|---|---|---|---|

American Indian or Alaskan | 2 | 0.64 | 2 | 0.64 |

Asian | 15 | 4.79 | 17 | 5.43 |

Black or African American | 100 | 31.95 | 117 | 37.38 |

Native Hawaiian or Pacific | 1 | 0.32 | 118 | 37.70 |

Other | 41 | 13.10 | 159 | 50.80 |

White | 154 | 49.20 | 313 | 100.00 |

Q3 Race | Frequency | Percent | Cumulative Frequency | Cumulative Percent |
---|---|---|---|---|

Black | 100 | 31.95 | 100 | 31.95 |

Other | 59 | 18.85 | 159 | 50.80 |

White | 154 | 49.20 | 313 | 100.00 |

Q4 Schooling Methods | Frequency | Percent | Cumulative Frequency | Cumulative Percent |
---|---|---|---|---|

Community college | 65 | 20.97 | 65 | 20.97 |

High school | 47 | 15.16 | 112 | 36.13 |

Public university | 198 | 63.87 | 310 | 100.00 |

Frequency Missing = 3 |

Variable | Strongly Disagree | Disagree | Somewhat Disagree | Somewhat Agree | Agree | Strongly Agree |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Q6 Liking science | 0 | 2.56 | 4.79 | 18.21 | 33.87 | 40.58 |

Q8 Use of science | 1.92 | 4.79 | 3.19 | 17.89 | 25.56 | 46.65 |

Q12 Liking math | 11.84 | 7.57 | 9.21 | 25.00 | 28.29 | 18.09 |

Q14 Use of math in the future | 4.28 | 5.26 | 8.22 | 22.37 | 29.28 | 30.59 |

Q15 Perception of math in science | 0.34 | 3.03 | 5.39 | 21.55 | 31.65 | 38.05 |

Q19 Liking technology | 0.68 | 2.74 | 5.48 | 24.66 | 33.22 | 33.22 |

Q26 Liking engineering | 6.64 | 18.18 | 15.38 | 25.87 | 18.18 | 15.73 |

4 Variables: | Score 1 Score 2 Score 3 Score 4 | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Simple Statistics | ||||||

Variable | N | Mean | Std Dev | Sum | Minimum | Maximum |

score 1 | 288 | 17.67361 | 3.55412 | 5090 | 4.00000 | 24.00000 |

score 2 | 288 | 18.52083 | 3.11111 | 5334 | 4.00000 | 24.00000 |

score 3 | 286 | 17.98951 | 3.60845 | 5145 | 4.00000 | 24.00000 |

score 4 | 286 | 13.43007 | 2.76450 | 3841 | 3.00000 | 18.00000 |

Pearson Correlation Coefficients | ||||||

Score 1 | Score 2 | Score 3 | Score 4 | |||

Score 1 | 1 | 0.82325 | 0.80592 | 0.75282 | ||

<0.0001 | <0.0001 | <0.0001 | ||||

288 | 287 | 285 | 285 | |||

Score 2 | 0.82325 | 1 | 0.7713 | 0.71268 | ||

<0.0001 | <0.0001 | <0.0001 | ||||

287 | 288 | 285 | 285 | |||

Score 3 | 0.80592 | 0.7713 | 1 | 0.93853 | ||

<0.0001 | <0.0001 | <0.0001 | ||||

285 | 285 | 286 | 286 | |||

Score 4 | 0.75282 | 0.71268 | 0.93853 | 1 | ||

<0.0001 | <0.0001 | <0.0001 | ||||

285 | 285 | 286 | 286 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Diawara, N.; Ferguson, S.; Grant, M.; Das, K.
Novel Statistical Analysis in the Context of a Comprehensive Needs Assessment for Secondary STEM Recruitment. *Computation* **2021**, *9*, 105.
https://doi.org/10.3390/computation9100105

**AMA Style**

Diawara N, Ferguson S, Grant M, Das K.
Novel Statistical Analysis in the Context of a Comprehensive Needs Assessment for Secondary STEM Recruitment. *Computation*. 2021; 9(10):105.
https://doi.org/10.3390/computation9100105

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Diawara, Norou, Sarah Ferguson, Melva Grant, and Kumer Das.
2021. "Novel Statistical Analysis in the Context of a Comprehensive Needs Assessment for Secondary STEM Recruitment" *Computation* 9, no. 10: 105.
https://doi.org/10.3390/computation9100105