# Experimental Study and Estimation of Groundwater Fluctuation and Ground Settlement due to Dewatering in a Coastal Shallow Confined Aquifer

^{1}

^{2}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

^{−5}~10

^{−3}cm/sec while those of Aq I and Aq II usually vary between (3~6) × 10

^{−4}~10

^{−3}cm/sec and (2~6) × 10

^{−3}~10

^{−2}cm/sec, respectively [14]. In addition, the maximum specific discharge capacity of MCA is about 43.2 m

^{3}/day-meter, which is also smaller than those of deep confined aquifers with the maximum being greater than 720 m

^{3}/day-meter, e.g., Aq II and Aq IV [4].

- How are MCA and Aq I hydraulically connected and how does the hydraulic connection affect the responses of groundwater fluctuations and strata deformation?
- What is the correlation between stratum deformation (ground settlement, stratum compression) and groundwater fluctuations?
- How to estimate the hydrogeological parameters of the MCA based on pumping well tests if the MCA is directly connected with the confined aquifer.
- How to predict the ground settlement induced by dewatering in the MCA when the MCA is directly connected with the confined aquifer.

## 2. Study Area

#### 2.1. Engineering Geology

#### 2.2. Hydrogeology

## 3. Pumping Well Tests

#### 3.1. Well Installation

#### 3.2. Test Scheme

^{3}/h from 9:00, July 26 to 18:37, July 27 lasting for 2017 min, in Layer ⑤3-3 using well C5-3-1 at a rate of 9.77 m

^{3}/h from 12:00, August 5 to 13:00, August 7 lasting for 2940 min and in Layer ⑦ using well C7-1 at a rate of 26.7 m

^{3}/h from 8:00 August 9 to 10:00 August 10 lasting for 980 min. The multi-well pumping test was conducted in Layers ⑤2~⑤3-2 from 12:00, August 12 to 15:00, August 20 and consumed 10930 min using well C5-2-1~C5-2-4 at the discharge rate of 7.28 m³/h, 15.64 m³/h, 11.68 m³/h, and 10.87 m³/h, respectively. It should be noted that enough time should be left for groundwater recovery between each test and in this test they were 2920 min, 2828 min,1020 min, and 8120 min, respectively.

#### 3.3. Stratum Deformation

## 4. Results and Analysis

#### 4.1. Responses of Groundwater Level

#### 4.1.1. Test Results

#### 4.1.2. Analyses

#### 4.2. Responses of Ground Settlement

#### 4.2.1. Results

#### 4.2.2. Analyses

^{3}/h with the maximum value of over 25 m

^{3}/h, making the groundwater flow to C5-2-2 at a higher speed. This high-speed flow, carrying along plenty of soil particles, flowed out of underground through pumping wells, consequently causing ground collapse and unexpected settlement. Moreover, the collapse-induced settlement was unrecoverable. Thus, the settlement could not rebound sufficiently as the drawdown did in the recovery stage (see Figure 7).

#### 4.3. Responses of Deep Soil Deformation

#### 4.3.1. Results

#### 4.3.2. Analyses

## 5. Back Analysis of Groundwater Fluctuations and Ground Settlement

#### 5.1. Hydrogeological Parameter Estimation Based on Pumping Well Test

#### 5.1.1. Limitations of the Analytical Methods

#### 5.1.2. Parameter Estimation using Numerical Method

#### 5.1.3. Results and Analyses

#### 5.2. Ground Settlement Prediction Induced by Dewatering

#### 5.2.1. Basic Assumptions

#### 5.2.2. Ground Settlement Prediction Based on Pumping Well Test

^{−1}T

^{−2}]; $H$ is the thickness [L] of the pumping aquifer; ${\gamma}_{w}$ the bulk density [ML

^{−2}T

^{−2}] of water; $Q$ is the discharge rate [L

^{3}T

^{−1}]; $T$ is the transmissivity [L

^{2}T

^{−1}], and $S$ is the storage coefficient [dimensionless]. Besides, ${J}_{i}$, ${K}_{i}$ and ${L}_{i}$ are undetermined coefficients and can be expressed as ${J}_{i}=\frac{2.3{\gamma}_{w}H{Q}_{i}}{4\pi T{E}_{s}}$, ${K}_{i}=\frac{2\xb72.3{\gamma}_{w}H{Q}_{i}}{4\pi T{E}_{s}}$ and ${L}_{i}=\frac{2.3{\gamma}_{w}H{Q}_{i}}{4\pi T{E}_{s}}\xb7\mathrm{lg}\left(2.25T/S\right)$. The undetermined coefficients follow the relationships: ${J}_{1}:{J}_{2}:\cdots :{J}_{n}={K}_{1}:{K}_{2}:\cdots :{K}_{n}={L}_{1}:{L}_{2}:\cdots :{L}_{n}={Q}_{1}:{Q}_{2}:\cdots :{Q}_{n}$, ${K}_{i}=2{J}_{i}$, and can be determined using the nonlinear curve fitting function of the Origin software based on the ground settlement observation data.

#### 5.2.3. Validation and Analyses

## 6. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

## Appendix A

^{3}T

^{−1}], $T$ is the transmissivity [L

^{2}T

^{−1}] and $S$ is the storage coefficient [dimensionless], $W\left(u\right)$ is the well function, u can be expressed as $u=\frac{{r}^{2}S}{4Tt}$ and is a dummy variable of integration [dimensionless]. Specially, when $u\le 0.01$, Theis solution can be simplified to Jacob solution and can be expressed as follows:

^{3}T

^{−1}] of the ith well and ${r}_{i}$ is the distance [L] between the monitoring point and the ith well.

^{−1}T

^{−2}] and ${\gamma}_{w}$ is the water bulk density [ML

^{−2}T

^{−2}].

^{−1}T

^{−2}], $H$ is the thickness [L] of pumping aquifer.

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**Figure 1.**Typical distribution and hydro-geological profile of multi-aquifer-aquitard system (MAAS) in Shanghai central city: (

**a**) location of Shanghai; (

**b**) plan view for the location of Shanghai Administration Region; (

**c**) type distribution of MAAS in Shanghai central city; (

**d1**) schematic diagram for MAAS of Type I and Type II; (

**d2**) schematic diagram for MAAS of Type III; (

**d3**) schematic diagram for MAAS of Type IV; (

**d4**) schematic diagram for MAAS of Type V.

**Figure 4.**Layout of test wells and ground settlement monitoring points: (

**a**) Layout of test wells; (

**b**) Layout of ground settlement monitoring points; (

**c**) profile of ground settlement monitoring points.

**Figure 5.**The time-history curves for discharge rate and groundwater level: (

**a**) curves for discharge rate of pumping well; (

**b**) curves for groundwater level in Layer ⑤2~⑤3-2; (

**c**) curves for groundwater level in Layer ⑤3-3; (

**d**) curves for groundwater level in Layer ⑦.

**Figure 6.**The distributions of ground settlement: (

**a**) curves for ground settlement of D1–D9 and D24–D30; (

**b**) curves for ground settlement of D1, D10–D16, and D17–D23.

**Figure 10.**Comparison between observed and calculated drawdowns: (

**a**) drawdowns in observation well G5-2-2; (

**b**) drawdowns in observation well G5-3-1; (

**c**) drawdowns in observation well G7-1;

Well Type | Well Number | Buried Depth of Well Bottom (m) | Internal Diameter (mm) | External Diameter (mm) | Buried Depth of Well Screen (m) | Pumping/ Monitoring Stratum | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Upper | Bottom | ||||||

Pumping well | C5-2-1 | 35 | 273 | 650 | 20 | 34 | ⑤2~⑤3-2 |

C5-2-2 | 38 | 273 | 650 | 20 | 37 | ⑤2~⑤3-2 | |

C5-2-3 | 35 | 273 | 650 | 20 | 34 | ⑤2~⑤3-2 | |

C5-2-4 | 38 | 273 | 650 | 20 | 37 | ⑤2~⑤3-2 | |

C5-3-1 | 56 | 273 | 650 | 46 | 55 | ⑤3-3 | |

C7-1 | 73 | 273 | 650 | 66 | 72 | ⑦ | |

Monitoring well | G5-2-1 | 35 | 168 | 650 | 22 | 34 | ⑤2~⑤3-2 |

G5-2-2 | 35 | 168 | 650 | 22 | 34 | ⑤2~⑤3-2 | |

G5-2-3 | 35 | 168 | 650 | 22 | 34 | ⑤2~⑤3-2 | |

G5-3-1 | 56 | 168 | 650 | 46 | 55 | ⑤3-3 | |

G7-1 | 73 | 168 | 650 | 66 | 72 | ⑦ | |

G7-2 | 73 | 168 | 650 | 66 | 72 | ⑦ |

Test Type | Pumping Aquifer | Well Number | s_{w}(m) | t_{0} | t_{e} | t_{p}(min) | t_{r}(min) | Q (m ^{3}/h) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Single- well | ⑤2~⑤3-2 | C5-2-1 | 8.94 | 09:00 26 Jul. | 18:37 27 Jul. | 2017 | 2920 | −9.96 |

⑤3-3 | C5-3-1 | 31.21 | 12:00 5 Aug. | 13:00 7 Aug. | 2940 | 2828 | −9.77 | |

⑦ | C7-1 | 10.21 | 08:00 9 Aug. | 10:00 10 Aug. | 980 | 1020 | −26.7 | |

Multi- well | ⑤2~⑤3-2 | C5-2-1 | 10.87 | 12:00 12 Aug. | 15:00 20 Aug. | 10930 | 8120 | −7.28 |

C5-2-2 | 7.82 | −15.64 | ||||||

C5-2-3 | 7.63 | −11.68 | ||||||

C5-2-4 | 9.69 | −10.87 |

Estimation Method | Theis Method | Numerical Solution | |
---|---|---|---|

Layers ⑤2~⑤3-2 | k_{h} (cm/s) | 3.73 × 10^{−3} | 1.02 × 10^{−2} |

k_{v} (cm/s) | 3.73 × 10^{−3} | 3.58 × 10^{−3} | |

S | 4.07 × 10^{−4} | 8.90×10^{−4} | |

Layer ⑤3-3 | k_{h} (cm/s) | 1.68 × 10^{−3} | 4.51 × 10^{−4} |

k_{v} (cm/s) | 1.68 × 10^{−3} | 1.50 × 10^{−4} | |

S | 2.44 × 10^{−4} | 9.12 × 10^{−4} | |

Layer ⑦ | k_{h} (cm/s) | 4.86 × 10^{−2} | 9.21 × 10^{−3} |

k_{v} (cm/s) | 4.86 × 10^{−2} | 3.84 × 10^{−3} | |

S (10^{−4}) | 9.80 × 10^{−6} | 1.44 × 10^{−3} |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Li, J.; Li, M.-G.; Zhang, L.-L.; Chen, H.; Xia, X.-H.; Chen, J.-J.
Experimental Study and Estimation of Groundwater Fluctuation and Ground Settlement due to Dewatering in a Coastal Shallow Confined Aquifer. *J. Mar. Sci. Eng.* **2019**, *7*, 58.
https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7030058

**AMA Style**

Li J, Li M-G, Zhang L-L, Chen H, Xia X-H, Chen J-J.
Experimental Study and Estimation of Groundwater Fluctuation and Ground Settlement due to Dewatering in a Coastal Shallow Confined Aquifer. *Journal of Marine Science and Engineering*. 2019; 7(3):58.
https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7030058

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Li, Jiong, Ming-Guang Li, Lu-Lu Zhang, Hui Chen, Xiao-He Xia, and Jin-Jian Chen.
2019. "Experimental Study and Estimation of Groundwater Fluctuation and Ground Settlement due to Dewatering in a Coastal Shallow Confined Aquifer" *Journal of Marine Science and Engineering* 7, no. 3: 58.
https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7030058