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J. Mar. Sci. Eng., Volume 11, Issue 7 (July 2023) – 223 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The cellular automata model DuBeVeg can be used to study the bio-geomorphological evolution of beach-dune systems. In this study, we present an alternative representation of the aeolian transport component in DuBeVeg, better capturing the saltation transport mode that prevails on beaches. This new representation is compared with the original aeolian transport representation in DuBeVeg, inspired by ripple migration. The saltation transport representation resulted in a more realistic simulation of the seaward expansion of the foredune compared with the original representation, particularly in scenarios with wide and prograding beaches. The new representation also captured more accurately the amplitude of aeolian bedforms emerging across the beach. View this paper
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28 pages, 23885 KiB  
Article
Plastic Response and Failure of the Cruciform Structure under In-Plane Load
by Xiufei Wang, Kun Liu, Mingcai Xu and Hewei Liu
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(7), 1478; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11071478 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 916
Abstract
In this study, a common cruciform structure in ship hulls was designed and experimented with in order to analyze its deformation characteristics under planar collision and quasi-static loading. The mechanical parameters of the materials were determined by performing tensile tests on the plates [...] Read more.
In this study, a common cruciform structure in ship hulls was designed and experimented with in order to analyze its deformation characteristics under planar collision and quasi-static loading. The mechanical parameters of the materials were determined by performing tensile tests on the plates used in the specimens. The applicability of the EPS, BWH, and RTCL failure criteria in the simulation of compressive structures was investigated by finite element simulation of quasi-static tests and falling weight impact tests. The effects of mesh size on the deformation and impact force of the cruciform structure under plane loading were comparatively analyzed. The results show that under plane loading, the cruciform structure undergoes axial compression deformation first, followed by buckling and wrinkling deformation. Compared with the quasi-static test, the drop hammer impact test showed higher deformation concentration and smaller wrinkle height. Under the same axial deformation condition, the structural resistance of the drop hammer impact test was about 13% higher than that of the quasi-static test. It is worth noting that the RTCL failure criterion is effective in modeling the failure of compressive structures in simulations with structures with different compressive deformations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Marine Mechanical and Structural Engineering)
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16 pages, 3893 KiB  
Article
Characterizing the Sound-Scattering Layer and Its Environmental Drivers in the North Equatorial Current of the Central and Western Pacific Ocean
by Tianji Gao, Jianfeng Tong, Minghua Xue, Zhenhong Zhu, Yue Qiu, Richard Kindong, Qiuyun Ma and Jun Li
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(7), 1477; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11071477 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1081
Abstract
Acoustic technology is an essential tool for detecting marine biological resources and has been widely used in sound-scattering layer (SSL) research. The North Equatorial Current (NEC) warm pool region of the Central and Western Pacific Ocean has a vast distribution of micronekton and [...] Read more.
Acoustic technology is an essential tool for detecting marine biological resources and has been widely used in sound-scattering layer (SSL) research. The North Equatorial Current (NEC) warm pool region of the Central and Western Pacific Ocean has a vast distribution of micronekton and zooplankton; analyzing the SSL characteristics in this region is vital for monitoring the marine environment and studying the marine ecosystem. In this study, we statistically analyzed the spatiotemporal factors of 10–200 m SSL in the NEC of the Central and Western Pacific Ocean using acoustic survey data collected by the “Songhang” research vessel (RV) in 2022, and the influence of environmental factors on the scattering layer distribution was analyzed using the Generalized Additive Model (GAM). The results showed that the SSL in the warm pool area of the NEC is distributed in shallow waters above 100 m. The primary scatterers are micronekton and zooplankton, and this SSL had diel vertical migration behavior. By comparing Akaike’s Information Criterion of different GAMs, the model consisting of six factors, namely, temperature, current velocity, turbidity, solar altitude angle, longitude, and latitude, was remarkable. Each model’s factor effects primarily influence the contribution of the volume-backscatter strength (Sv). The cumulative deviation explanation rate of the Sv was 67.2%, among which the highest explanation rate of solar altitude angle variance was 35.4%, the most critical environmental factor. The results of this study can provide a reference for long-term studies on ecological changes and their effects on micronekton and zooplankton distribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydroacoustic Study of the Ocean)
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19 pages, 5632 KiB  
Article
AUIE–GAN: Adaptive Underwater Image Enhancement Based on Generative Adversarial Networks
by Fengxu Guan, Siqi Lu, Haitao Lai and Xue Du
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(7), 1476; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11071476 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1091
Abstract
Underwater optical imaging devices are often affected by the complex underwater environment and the characteristics of the water column, which leads to serious degradation and distortion of the images they capture. Deep learning-based underwater image enhancement (UIE) methods reduce the reliance on physical [...] Read more.
Underwater optical imaging devices are often affected by the complex underwater environment and the characteristics of the water column, which leads to serious degradation and distortion of the images they capture. Deep learning-based underwater image enhancement (UIE) methods reduce the reliance on physical parameters in traditional methods and have powerful fitting capabilities, becoming a new baseline method for UIE tasks. However, the results of these methods often suffer from color distortion and lack of realism because they tend to have poor generalization and self-adaptation capabilities. Generating adversarial networks (GANs) provides a better fit and shows powerful capabilities on UIE tasks. Therefore, we designed a new network structure for the UIE task based on GANs. In this work, we changed the learning of the self-attention mechanism by introducing a trainable weight to balance the effect of the mechanism, improving the self-adaptive capability of the model. In addition, we designed a feature extractor based on residuals with multi-level residuals for better feature recovery. To further improve the performance of the generator, we proposed a dual path discriminator and a loss function with multiple weighted fusions to help model fitting in the frequency domain, improving image quality. We evaluated our method on the UIE task using challenging real underwater image datasets and a synthetic image dataset and compared it to state-of-the-art models. The method ensures increased enhancement quality, and the enhancement effect of the model for different styles of images is also relatively stable. Full article
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23 pages, 44970 KiB  
Article
A Precise Semantic Segmentation Model for Seabed Sediment Detection Using YOLO-C
by Xin Chen, Peng Shi and Yi Hu
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(7), 1475; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11071475 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1496
Abstract
Semantic segmentation methods have been successfully applied in seabed sediment detection. However, fast models like YOLO only produce rough segmentation boundaries (rectangles), while precise models like U-Net require too much time. In order to achieve fast and precise semantic segmentation results, this paper [...] Read more.
Semantic segmentation methods have been successfully applied in seabed sediment detection. However, fast models like YOLO only produce rough segmentation boundaries (rectangles), while precise models like U-Net require too much time. In order to achieve fast and precise semantic segmentation results, this paper introduces a novel model called YOLO-C. It utilizes the full-resolution classification features of the semantic segmentation algorithm to generate more accurate regions of interest, enabling rapid separation of potential targets and achieving region-based partitioning and precise object boundaries. YOLO-C surpasses existing methods in terms of accuracy and detection scope. Compared to U-Net, it achieves an impressive 15.17% improvement in mean pixel accuracy (mPA). With a processing speed of 98 frames per second, YOLO-C meets the requirements of real-time detection and provides accurate size estimation through segmentation. Furthermore, it achieves a mean average precision (mAP) of 58.94% and a mean intersection over union (mIoU) of 70.36%, outperforming industry-standard algorithms such as YOLOX. Because of the good performance in both rapid processing and high precision, YOLO-C can be effectively utilized in real-time seabed exploration tasks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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16 pages, 5051 KiB  
Article
CR-NBEER: Cooperative-Relay Neighboring-Based Energy Efficient Routing Protocol for Marine Underwater Sensor Networks
by Altaf Hussain, Tariq Hussain, Inam Ullah, Bahodir Muminov, Muhammad Zubair Khan, Osama Alfarraj and Amr Gafar
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(7), 1474; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11071474 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1238
Abstract
This paper proposes a Cooperative-Relay Neighboring-Based Energy-Efficient Routing (CR-NBEER) protocol with advanced relay optimization for MUSN. The utilization of the relay nodes, among all other sensor nodes, makes it possible to achieve node-to-node deployment. The proposed method focuses only on cooperation and relay [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a Cooperative-Relay Neighboring-Based Energy-Efficient Routing (CR-NBEER) protocol with advanced relay optimization for MUSN. The utilization of the relay nodes, among all other sensor nodes, makes it possible to achieve node-to-node deployment. The proposed method focuses only on cooperation and relay optimization schemes. Both schemes have previously been implemented, and thus the proposed method represents the extended version of the Neighboring-Based Energy-Efficient Routing (NBEER) protocol. Path loss, end-to-end delay, packet delivery ratio, and energy consumption parameters were considered as part of the performance evaluation. The average performance was revealed based on simulations, where the overall average EED of Co-UWSN was measured to be 35.5 ms, CEER was measured to be 26.7 ms, NBEER was measured to be 27.6 ms, and CR-NBEER was measured to be 19.3 ms. Similarly, the overall EC of Co-UWSN was measured to be 10.759 j, CEER was measured to be 8.694 j, NBEER was measured to be 8.309 j, and CR-NBEER was measured to be 7.644 j. The overall average PDR of Co-UWSN was calculated to be 79.227%, CEER was calculated to be 66.73.464%, NBEER was calculated to be 85.82%, and CR-NBEER was calculated to be 94.831%. The overall average PL of Co-UWSN was calculated at 137.5 dB, CEER was calculated at 230 dB, NBEER was calculated at 173.8 dB, and CR-NBEER was calculated at 79.9 dB. Based on the simulations and evaluations, it was observed that the cooperation and relay optimization scheme outperformed previous schemes. Full article
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26 pages, 11532 KiB  
Article
Deep Learning-Based Time Series Forecasting Models Evaluation for the Forecast of Chlorophyll a and Dissolved Oxygen in the Mar Menor
by Francisco Javier López-Andreu, Juan Antonio López-Morales, Zaida Hernández-Guillen, Juan Antonio Carrero-Rodrigo, Marta Sánchez-Alcaraz, Joaquín Francisco Atenza-Juárez and Manuel Erena
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(7), 1473; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11071473 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1250
Abstract
The Mar Menor is a coastal lagoon of great socio-ecological and environmental value; in recent years, different localized episodes of hypoxia and eutrophication have modified the quality of its waters. The episodes are due to a drop in dissolved oxygen levels below 4 [...] Read more.
The Mar Menor is a coastal lagoon of great socio-ecological and environmental value; in recent years, different localized episodes of hypoxia and eutrophication have modified the quality of its waters. The episodes are due to a drop in dissolved oxygen levels below 4 mg/L in some parts of the lagoon and a rise in chlorophyll a to over 1.8 mg/L. Considering that monitoring the Mar Menor and its watershed is essential to understand the environmental dynamics that cause these dramatic episodes, in recent years, efforts have focused on carrying out periodic measurements of different biophysical parameters of the water. Taking advantage of the data collected and the versatility offered by neural networks, this paper evaluates the performance of a dozen advanced neural networks oriented to time series forecasted for the estimation of dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll a parameters. The data used are obtained in the water body by means of sensors carried by a multiparameter oceanographic probe and two agro-climatic stations located near the Mar Menor. For the dissolved oxygen forecast, the models based on the Time2Vec architecture, accompanied by BiLSTM and Transformer, offer an R2 greater than 0.95. In the case of chlorophyll a, three models offer an R2 above 0.92. These metrics are corroborated by forecasting these two parameters for the first time step out of the data set used. Given the satisfactory results obtained, this work is integrated as a new biophysical parameter forecast component in the monitoring platform of the Mar Menor Observatory developed by IMIDA. The results demonstrate that it is feasible to forecast the concentration of chlorophyll a and dissolved oxygen using neural networks specialized in time series forecasts. Full article
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1 pages, 163 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Skarsoulis et al. Prediction of Shipping Noise in Range-Dependent Environments. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11, 290
by Emmanuel K. Skarsoulis, George Piperakis, Aristides Prospathopoulos and Dimitris Makropoulos
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(7), 1472; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11071472 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 482
Abstract
There was an error in the original publication [...] Full article
0 pages, 4137 KiB  
Article
An Integrated Resilient Sediment Transport RIsk Management (IRSTRIM) Approach for Estuaries
by Mina Zakipour, Farhad Yazdandoost, Karim Alizad, Ardalan Izadi and Aref Farhangmehr
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(7), 1471; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11071471 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 979
Abstract
Estuaries around the world are facing numerous threats, including urbanization, industrialization, resource scarcity, and the impacts of climate change. To increase estuarine resilience, it is crucial to manage these ecosystems to maintain their functionality. Sediment transport resilience is a critical factor that affects [...] Read more.
Estuaries around the world are facing numerous threats, including urbanization, industrialization, resource scarcity, and the impacts of climate change. To increase estuarine resilience, it is crucial to manage these ecosystems to maintain their functionality. Sediment transport resilience is a critical factor that affects the performance objectives of navigation, storm damage reduction, and ecosystem restoration. This paper focuses on an integrated resilient sediment transport risk management (IRSTRIM) approach for estuaries. The framework quantifies resilience indexes such as reaction amplitude, graduality, and recovery rates of “sediment transport” to “river and sea interaction” in the Arvand Estuary, the Persian Gulf. Additionally, three indexes, the tidal asymmetry index (TAI), saltwater intrusion vulnerability index, and infill rate, are developed to aid in resilient sediment management. The quantified indexes successfully incorporated tidal asymmetry, sediment characteristics, bed properties, and flow hydrodynamics. Different resilience and resistance management scenarios are evaluated using a decision support system. Based on the results, tidal barrier application, as a resilience scenario, is the best scenario, and the dredging scenario, as a resistance one, is the worst scenario. The reaction amplitude with a weight of 0.39, and the TAI with a weight of 0.27 are determined as the most effective indexes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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25 pages, 1836 KiB  
Article
Machine-Learning-Enabled Foil Design Assistant
by Konstantinos V. Kostas and Maria Manousaridou
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(7), 1470; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11071470 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1245
Abstract
In this work, supervised Machine Learning (ML) techniques were employed to solve the forward and inverse problems of airfoil and hydrofoil design. The forward problem pertains to the prediction of a foil’s aerodynamic or hydrodynamic performance given its geometric description, whereas the inverse [...] Read more.
In this work, supervised Machine Learning (ML) techniques were employed to solve the forward and inverse problems of airfoil and hydrofoil design. The forward problem pertains to the prediction of a foil’s aerodynamic or hydrodynamic performance given its geometric description, whereas the inverse problem calls for the identification of the geometric profile exhibiting a given set of performance indices. This study begins with the consideration of multivariate linear regression as the base approach in addressing the requirements of the two problems, and it then proceeds with the training of a series of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) in predicting performance (lift and drag coefficients over a range of angles of attack) and geometric design (foil profiles), which were subsequently compared to the base approach. Two novel components were employed in this study: a high-level parametric model for foil design and geometric moments, which, as we will demonstrate in this work, had a significant beneficial impact on the training and effectiveness of the resulting ANNs. Foil parametric models have been widely used in the pertinent literature for reconstructing, modifying, and representing a wide range of airfoil and hydrofoil profile geometries. The parametric model employed in this work uses a relatively small number of parameters, 17, to describe uniquely and accurately a large dataset of profile shapes. The corresponding design vectors, coupled with the foils’ geometric moments, constitute the training input from the forward ML models. Similarly, performance curves (lift and drag over a range of angles of attack) and their corresponding moments make up the input for the models used in the inverse problem. The effect of various training datasets and training methods in the predictive power of the resulting ANNs was examined in detail. The use of the best-performing ML models is then demonstrated in two relevant design scenarios. The first scenario involved a software application, the Design Foil Assistant, which allows real-time evaluation of foil designs and the identification of designs exhibiting a set of given aerodynamic or hydrodynamic parameters. The second case benchmarked the use of ML-enabled, performance-based design optimization against traditional foil design optimization carried out with classical computational analysis tools. It is demonstrated that a user-friendly real-time design assistant can be easily implemented and deployed with the identified models, whereas significant time savings with adequate accuracy can be achieved when ML tools are employed in design optimization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Machine Learning and Modeling for Ship Design)
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36 pages, 6147 KiB  
Review
A Review of Marine In Situ Sensors and Biosensors
by Yiqun Liu, Hailong Lu and Yue Cui
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(7), 1469; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11071469 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2845
Abstract
The exploration of the ocean is essential for the exploitation of marine resources and the sustainable development of human society. In order to assess both the health and the resources of the marine environment, a variety of chemical and biological sampling is needed. [...] Read more.
The exploration of the ocean is essential for the exploitation of marine resources and the sustainable development of human society. In order to assess both the health and the resources of the marine environment, a variety of chemical and biological sampling is needed. Traditionally, marine samples are collected on site and transported to a laboratory for analysis. Analytical methods are often tedious, and it is difficult to know the in situ real-time status. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the development of in situ chemical and biological sensors for the typical compounds in the ocean, including methane, radon, ferrous ion, carbon dioxide, microorganisms, pollutants, nutrients and seafood. Different types of sensors for each compound are highlighted, such as novel electrochemical and optical sensors. Commercial status of different sensors is introduced, and performance of representative sensors is compared and discussed deeply. The advantages and disadvantages of each sensing technique are analyzed and evaluated in detail. Finally, future prospects and work directions are presented, such as the deployment of these in situ sensors on fixed and/or moving platforms, development of microfluidic sensors and exploration of new antifouling materials and methods. This paper could serve as a resource for developing more advanced in situ chemical sensors and biosensors for marine scientific research, as well as related practical applications for monitoring marine resource exploration and exploitation and for environmental protection. Full article
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27 pages, 13513 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation of Improved Gas Production from Oceanic Gas Hydrate Accumulation by Permeability Enhancement Associated with Geomechanical Response
by Rui Wang, Jiecheng Zhang, Tianju Wang and Hailong Lu
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(7), 1468; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11071468 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1001
Abstract
In the Shenhu Area of the South China Sea, although some numerical studies are conducted on the gas production at well SHSC-4, the geomechanical responses have not been taken into account, and the associated impact of permeability enhancement on gas production has not [...] Read more.
In the Shenhu Area of the South China Sea, although some numerical studies are conducted on the gas production at well SHSC-4, the geomechanical responses have not been taken into account, and the associated impact of permeability enhancement on gas production has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, pTOUGH+HYDRATE V1.5 coupled with the RGMS is applied to account for geomechanical responses. Based on actual geological conditions, the reservoir model has five layers: the hydrate-bearing layer (HBL), the three-phase layer (TPL), the free gas layer (FGL), the overburden, and the underburden. The numerical results match the trial production data, validating the numerical model. The analysis shows that gas production from the FGL contributed the most (72.17%) to the cumulative gas production (Vg), followed by the TPL (23.54%) and the HBL (4.29%). The cumulative water-to-gas ratio (RwgT) gradually decreased during gas production, with the HBL exhibiting the highest value. Permeability enhancement can improve gas production, with the FGL being the most responsive to such enhancement. It increased Vg by 87% and reduced RwgT to 85%. To achieve more realistic production schemes and better enhance energy recovery, it is advisable to conduct numerical investigations that incorporate geomechanical considerations due to the intricate nature of hydrate-bearing sediments. Full article
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30 pages, 46040 KiB  
Article
Analysis of FPSO Motion Response under Different Wave Spectra
by Lei Sun, Xing-Quan Yang, Shu-Xia Bu, Wen-Tao Zheng, Yu-Xiang Ma and Zi-Lu Jiao
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(7), 1467; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11071467 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1075
Abstract
A variety of floating structures at sea play a vital role in the exploitation and utilization of marine resources. The study about interactions between waves and structures is necessary for the impact of the harsh marine environment on the motion and service life [...] Read more.
A variety of floating structures at sea play a vital role in the exploitation and utilization of marine resources. The study about interactions between waves and structures is necessary for the impact of the harsh marine environment on the motion and service life of structures. Currently, most studies about the seakeeping of structures are based on simplified regular waves. Because the regular waves do not truly restore the actual wave conditions at sea, the simulation of irregular waves has great practical importance to the study of interactions between waves and structures. Based on the potential flow theory and high-order boundary element method (HOBEM), a Fortran code is developed in this paper and named as SWBI (Solver for Wave–Body Interactions). This program consists of the following two parts: a time–domain numerical model about interactions between waves and 3D structures is based on weakly nonlinear method, and a numerical model about simulation of the nonlinear regular waves, the long-crested irregular waves, and the short-crested irregular waves. This Fortran code is used to simulate the motion of Floating Production Storage and Offloading (FPSO) under three different ocean wave spectra (including ITTC two-parameters spectrum, JONSWAP spectrum and the most likely spectral form of Ochi-Hubble) and found that: To a certain extent, the difference in the motion of FPSO under different wave spectra have a connection with different type of wave, sea conditions and incident angle. The difference in roll of FPSO is quite significant in short-crested irregular waves. The range of FPOS’s roll under the JONSWAP spectrum is the largest when the incident angle is 30°, and range of FPOS’s roll under the most likely spectral form of Ochi-Hubble is the largest when the incident angle is 90°. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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24 pages, 3359 KiB  
Article
A Method for Multi-Beam Bathymetric Surveys in Unfamiliar Waters Based on the AUV Constant-Depth Mode
by Junsen Wang, Yulin Tang, Shaohua Jin, Gang Bian, Xinyang Zhao and Chengyang Peng
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(7), 1466; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11071466 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1537
Abstract
Given the lack of systematic research on bathymetric surveys with multi-beam sonar carried by autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) in unfamiliar waters, this paper proposes a method for multi-beam bathymetric surveys based on the constant-depth mode of AUVs, considering equipment safety, operational efficiency, and [...] Read more.
Given the lack of systematic research on bathymetric surveys with multi-beam sonar carried by autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) in unfamiliar waters, this paper proposes a method for multi-beam bathymetric surveys based on the constant-depth mode of AUVs, considering equipment safety, operational efficiency, and data quality. Firstly, basic principles for multi-beam bathymetric surveys under the constant-depth mode are proposed based on multi-beam operational standards and AUV constant-depth mode characteristics. Secondly, a vertical effective height model for the vehicle is established, providing vertical constraints and a basis for determining fixed depth in constant-depth missions. Subsequently, according to these basic principles and the vertical effective height model, the operational process for multi-beam bathymetric surveys in unfamiliar waters under the AUV constant-depth mode is outlined. Finally, we validate the proposed method through sea trials in the Xisha Sea of the South China Sea. The test results show that the method proposed in this paper not only ensures the vehicle safety operation and multi-beam data quality, but also improves the operation efficiency by about 68%, demonstrating the reliability of the proposed method and its significant engineering value and guidance implications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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15 pages, 3024 KiB  
Article
Microplastic Pollution and Its Potential Correlation with Environmental Factors in Daya Bay, South China Sea
by Peiqin Liu, Hongping Liao, Yongyan Deng, Wenqi Zhang, Zhixi Zhou, Di Sun, Zhixin Ke, Aiguo Zhou and Huijuan Tang
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(7), 1465; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11071465 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1546
Abstract
Microplastics (MPs) have been given considerable attention due to their risk to aquatic organisms in marine environments. In this study, MPs’ abundance and their potential correlation with environmental factors were investigated from 26 sites in Daya Bay, South China Sea. The results showed [...] Read more.
Microplastics (MPs) have been given considerable attention due to their risk to aquatic organisms in marine environments. In this study, MPs’ abundance and their potential correlation with environmental factors were investigated from 26 sites in Daya Bay, South China Sea. The results showed that the abundance of MPs was 1.8–13.87 items/L in surface water and 190–823 items/kg (dry weight) in sediment. The most abundant shape of MPs in both water and sediment was fiber, the most abundant particle size was 0.5–1 mm and the most abundant color was transparent. In addition, the most common polymer type of MPs was polyethylene terephthalate (PET), followed by rayon (RY), polypropylene (PP), cellulose (CL) and polyethylene (PE). The abundance of MPs in sediment was significantly correlated with sediment organic N and C (p < 0.05), while that in surface water had no significant correlation with the environmental factors except dissolved oxygen (p > 0.05). A factor analysis showed that MPs in sediment might share similar sources with organic N and C, which were mainly from the autochthonous sedimentation of marine organisms, and MPs might sediment jointly with organic matter. In summary, this study reflects on MP pollution and the potential correlation with environmental factors, providing essential data for governmental agencies to formulate microplastic pollution control policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Marine Pollution)
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27 pages, 15894 KiB  
Article
Influence of Excavation Pits on the Wave Hydrodynamics of Fringing Reefs under Regular Waves
by Xu Wang, Ke Qu, Jia Men, Liangbin Zhang, Junjie Li and Rongze Gao
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(7), 1464; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11071464 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 868
Abstract
Dredging materials from reef flats have become an important source of sand and aggregates for meeting the infrastructure needs of coral-lined shores in subtropical and tropical regions, especially for low-lying atoll islands. Dredging at the reef flats can generate artificial excavation pits, which [...] Read more.
Dredging materials from reef flats have become an important source of sand and aggregates for meeting the infrastructure needs of coral-lined shores in subtropical and tropical regions, especially for low-lying atoll islands. Dredging at the reef flats can generate artificial excavation pits, which not only have profound influences on coral ecological stability but also deeply affect the hydrodynamic characteristics of coral reefs. To deepen the understanding of the influence of excavation on the wave hydrodynamics of fringing reefs, the wave propagation, wave transformation, wave setup, and wave runup processes of regular waves on fringing reefs with artificial pits have been systematically analyzed using a non-hydrostatic numerical wave solver (NHWAVE). The effects of some significant factors have been carefully investigated. According to the study findings, the existence of artificial pits can result in a slight decrease in the wave height around the artificial pit. The time-mean maximum of wave runup height at the backreef slope can be reduced to some extent when the artificial pit is present. When placed close to the reef edge, the artificial pit can have noticeable effects on the hydrodynamic characteristics of fringing reefs, particularly the wave setup along the reef flat. It is hoped that the study findings can provide further reference for evaluation of the influences of artificial pits on the wave hydrodynamics of fringing reefs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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21 pages, 13219 KiB  
Article
The Clay Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Sediments in the Beibu Gulf, South China Sea: A Record of the Holocene Sedimentary Environmental Change
by Yao Guan, Yuxi Chen, Xiaoming Sun, Li Xu, Dong Xu, Zuhao Zhu and Wentao He
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(7), 1463; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11071463 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1077
Abstract
In this study, we analyzed the clay mineralogy and geochemistry of surface and drill core samples from the northeastern Beibu Gulf in order to unravel the sediment provenance of, and factors controlling, the sedimentary environment. The main clay mineral assemblage in the surface [...] Read more.
In this study, we analyzed the clay mineralogy and geochemistry of surface and drill core samples from the northeastern Beibu Gulf in order to unravel the sediment provenance of, and factors controlling, the sedimentary environment. The main clay mineral assemblage in the surface sediment samples included kaolinite (27–72%), smectite (4–51%), illite (7–20%), and chlorite (8–17%). The study area comprises three major clay distribution zones (from the northeastern coastal area to central Beibu Gulf basin), i.e., the kaolinite-dominated, kaolinite–smectite, and smectite-dominated zones. The zoning of the clay mineralogy and major and trace elements indicated the mixing of coarse terrigenous sediments with distal fine sediments. Early Holocene sea level rise was documented in core B15-1, which had three sedimentary units (divided into Units 1–3 from top to bottom), as revealed by the changes in the dominant clay minerals and geochemical/oxide ratios (SiO2/Al2O3, Rb/Sr, Sr/Ba, and Ti/Ca) in Unit 2. Unit 1 and Unit 3 were likely deposited in the continental and marine environments, respectively. The low sedimentation rate and hydrodynamic disturbance may have influenced the deposition process more than climatic fluctuations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biogeochemistry of Trace Elements in the Marine Environment)
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13 pages, 1633 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Parametric Roll Mode Applying the IMO Second Generation Intact Stability Criteria for 13K Chemical Tanker
by Dongmin Shin, Yonmo Sung, Hyomin Jeong, Daehyeon Kim and Byungyoung Moon
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(7), 1462; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11071462 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 873
Abstract
In this paper, the evaluation procedure for Level 1, Level 2A, and Level 2B for the parametric roll among the five modes of the IMO second generation stability criteria was explained in detail. Parametric roll mode evaluation was performed using the design data [...] Read more.
In this paper, the evaluation procedure for Level 1, Level 2A, and Level 2B for the parametric roll among the five modes of the IMO second generation stability criteria was explained in detail. Parametric roll mode evaluation was performed using the design data of a medium-sized 13K chemical tanker instead of a well-known container ship. As a result of the Level 1 evaluation, δGM1/GM was smaller than the standard value, thus satisfying the first criterion, but the second criterion value was smaller than 1, so it was found that the Level 1 criterion was not satisfied. Subsequently, in the Level 2A evaluation, the weighted sum value was larger than the standard value under the ship speed and given wave conditions, so it was also not satisfied. In particular, the process of numerical analysis in the time domain was described through the equation of motion when estimating the maximum roll angle of a ship in the Level 2B evaluation, which was not detailed in previous studies. The calculation result was larger than the standard value, so it was not satisfied, and consequently, the 13K chemical tanker did not satisfy Level 1, Level 2A, and 2B. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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13 pages, 2116 KiB  
Article
Identification of Large Yellow Croaker under Variable Conditions Based on the Cycle Generative Adversarial Network and Transfer Learning
by Shijing Liu, Cheng Qian, Xueying Tu, Haojun Zheng, Lin Zhu, Huang Liu and Jun Chen
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(7), 1461; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11071461 - 22 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 918
Abstract
Variable-condition fish recognition is a type of cross-scene and cross-camera fish re-identification (re-ID) technology. Due to the difference in the domain distribution of fish images collected under different culture conditions, the available training data cannot be effectively used for the new identification method. [...] Read more.
Variable-condition fish recognition is a type of cross-scene and cross-camera fish re-identification (re-ID) technology. Due to the difference in the domain distribution of fish images collected under different culture conditions, the available training data cannot be effectively used for the new identification method. To solve these problems, we proposed a new method for identifying large yellow croaker based on the CycleGAN (cycle generative adversarial network) and transfer learning. This method constructs source sample sets and target sample sets by acquiring large yellow croaker images in controllable scenes and actual farming conditions, respectively. The CycleGAN was used as the basic framework for image transformation from the source domain to the target domain to realize data amplification in the target domain. In particular, IDF (identity foreground loss) was used to optimize identity loss judgment criteria, and MMD (maximum mean discrepancy) was used to narrow the distribution between the source domain and target domain. Finally, transfer learning was carried out with the expanded samples to realize the identification of large yellow croaker under varying conditions. The experimental results showed that the proposed method achieved good identification results in both the controlled scene and the actual culture scene, with an average recognition accuracy of 96.9% and 94%, respectively. These provide effective technical support for the next steps in fish behavior tracking and phenotype measurement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques and Equipment in Large Offshore Aquaculture Platform)
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19 pages, 1062 KiB  
Article
New Prospects of Waste Involvement in Marine Fuel Oil: Evolution of Composition and Requirements for Fuel with Sulfur Content up to 0.5%
by Dmitriy V. Nelyubov, Marat I. Fakhrutdinov, Alena A. Sarkisyan, Evgeniy A. Sharin, Mikhail A. Ershov, Ulyana A. Makhova, Alisa E. Makhmudova, Nikita A. Klimov, Marina Y. Rogova, Vsevolod D. Savelenko, Vladimir M. Kapustin, Marina M. Lobashova and Ekaterina O. Tikhomirova
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(7), 1460; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11071460 - 22 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1658
Abstract
Research was carried out on the possibility of involving oil refining wastes and petrochemical by-products in marine fuel oil. It was shown that the properties of the studied products (VAT distillation residue of butyl alcohols, heavy pyrolysis tar, desalted phenol production tar, waste [...] Read more.
Research was carried out on the possibility of involving oil refining wastes and petrochemical by-products in marine fuel oil. It was shown that the properties of the studied products (VAT distillation residue of butyl alcohols, heavy pyrolysis tar, desalted phenol production tar, waste motor oil mixture) mainly differ from primary and secondary oil refining products used in this fuel with increased toxicity (hazard classes 2 and 3). A clear disadvantage of waste motor oils is an increased content of metals, particularly zinc, calcium and phosphorus, which leads to high ash content. Recommended concentrations for introducing components into marine fuels are given. The influences of the composition and sulfur content on operational properties and quality indexes of VLSFO were also studied. It is shown that the use of products of deep hydrotreatment of vacuum-distillate fractions of oil processing can worsen its protective (anticorrosive) properties and colloidal stability; therefore, a reduction of sulfur content below 0.1% in this fuel is inexpedient without the use of additives. The requirements for VLSFO quality indicators have been developed. Application of VLSFO corresponding to the developed requirements will provide an increase in performance of ship power plants and the stability of VLSFO quality, which will contribute to cost reduction of ship owners when using it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Renewable Energy and the Transition to a Low Carbon Future)
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20 pages, 10743 KiB  
Article
Three-Dimensional Ultrasonic Reverse-Time Migration Imaging of Submarine Pipeline Nondestructive Testing in Cylindrical Coordinates
by Daicheng Peng, Fei Cheng, Xiaoyu She, Yunpeng Zheng, Yongjie Tang and Zhuo Fan
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(7), 1459; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11071459 - 22 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 946
Abstract
Submarine pipelines are a safe and energy-efficient mode of gas transport. However, due to the complex manufacturing process and harsh operating environment, submarine pipelines are subject to fatigue cracks under long-term cyclic loading. A comprehensive and high-precision characterization strategy for submarine pipelines can [...] Read more.
Submarine pipelines are a safe and energy-efficient mode of gas transport. However, due to the complex manufacturing process and harsh operating environment, submarine pipelines are subject to fatigue cracks under long-term cyclic loading. A comprehensive and high-precision characterization strategy for submarine pipelines can effectively prevent potential safety hazards and have significant economic and social repercussions. As a matter of fact, pipeline defects cannot be reliably detected with current traditional 2D methods. On the other hand, in ultrasonic testing, cylindrical geometry increases the complexity of the 3D wave field in the submarine pipeline space and significantly influences the accuracy of the detection results. In this paper, we put forward a novel method for 3D ultrasonic image testing that is suitable for cylindrical coordinates. In order to accurately simulate the ultrasonic signal received from pipelines, we generalize the 3D staggered-grid finite-difference method from Cartesian coordinates to cylindrical ones and simulate the full wave field in the 3D pipeline space. Then, signal processing is performed on the ultrasound simulation records, and 3D reverse-time migration imaging of submarine pipeline defects can be effectively achieved using the reverse-time migration method and cross-correlation imaging conditions. The results obtained from simulations and real field data show that the proposed method provides high-quality 3D imaging of defects in pipelines, taking into account multiple scattering and mode conversion information at the bottom of the defects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineering Properties of Marine Soils and Offshore Foundations)
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20 pages, 29302 KiB  
Article
A Numerical Investigation of the Dynamic Interaction between the Deep-Sea Mining Vehicle and Sediment Plumes Based on a Small-Scale Analysis
by Shihang Liu, Jianmin Yang, Haining Lu, Pengfei Sun and Bei Zhang
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(7), 1458; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11071458 - 21 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1104
Abstract
The discharge of sediment plumes, which occurs mainly in the two depth zones, has a critical impact on assessing the deep-sea environment. Therefore, it is necessary to establish the corresponding physical oceanography for the evolution of these sediment plumes. For a more accurate [...] Read more.
The discharge of sediment plumes, which occurs mainly in the two depth zones, has a critical impact on assessing the deep-sea environment. Therefore, it is necessary to establish the corresponding physical oceanography for the evolution of these sediment plumes. For a more accurate evolution estimation of the plumes, the model in this research is concerned with the dynamic interaction between the deep-sea mining vehicle (DSMV) and the sediment plumes on small scales (t ≤ 2 s), contributing to a focus on the vital physical mechanics of controlling the extent of these plumes. The sediment concentration and particle trajectories of the plume emissions were determined using the Lagrangian discrete phase model (DPM). The results show that (1) the wake structure of the DSMV wraps the plume vortex discharged from the rear of the vehicle and inhibits the lateral diffusion of the plume, (2) the length of the entire wake (Lw) increases exponentially as the relative discharge velocity of the plume (U*) increases, where U* is defined as the dimensionless difference between the traveling velocity of the DSMV and the discharge velocity of the plume, and (3) at the same traveling speed of the DSMV and U* less than 0.75, the dispersion of the sediment particles in the early discharge stage of the plume does not vary with the plume discharge rate. This will be beneficial for the more accurate monitoring of ecological changes in deep-sea mining activities and provide theoretical guidance for the green design of DSMVs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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15 pages, 5412 KiB  
Article
Beach Conditions for Guiding the Sandy Beach Management in Phuket, Thailand
by Sompratana Ritphring, Pattrakorn Nidhinarangkoon and Keiko Udo
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(7), 1457; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11071457 - 21 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1180
Abstract
Thailand’s current beach management strategies lack integration across sectors, resulting in conflicts of interest and insufficient consideration of diverse beach uses. The complexity of environmental, socio-economic, and coastal disasters challenge policymakers to describe the conditions of sandy beaches, and the most effective coastal [...] Read more.
Thailand’s current beach management strategies lack integration across sectors, resulting in conflicts of interest and insufficient consideration of diverse beach uses. The complexity of environmental, socio-economic, and coastal disasters challenge policymakers to describe the conditions of sandy beaches, and the most effective coastal management adaptation measures. This study suggests an integrated approach to evaluate beach conditions by incorporating the Urbanization Index, Conservation Index, and Recreation Index. Furthermore, the assessment of beach conditions will include the Threat Index, which consists of erosion rates and shoreline recession caused by sea level rise. The trends index will prioritize beach conditions for appropriate management actions. The study suggests management strategies that aim to preserve the physical and environmental aspects of the beach, while restoring its functionality for ecosystem services by applying engineering structures with beach nourishment. The main purpose of this study is to develop a beach condition that can be used as a guideline for sandy beach management in Thailand. It provides insights and recommendations to policymakers for enhancing the sustainability and resilience of Thailand’s coastal areas in the face of urbanization and climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Coastal Management)
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20 pages, 5364 KiB  
Article
Particle Filter Based on Harris Hawks Optimization Algorithm for Underwater Visual Tracking
by Junyi Yang, Yutong Yao and Donghe Yang
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(7), 1456; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11071456 - 21 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 884
Abstract
Due to the complexity of the underwater environment, tracking underwater targets via traditional particle filters is a challenging task. To resolve the problem that the tracking accuracy of a traditional particle filter is low due to the sample impoverishment caused by resampling, in [...] Read more.
Due to the complexity of the underwater environment, tracking underwater targets via traditional particle filters is a challenging task. To resolve the problem that the tracking accuracy of a traditional particle filter is low due to the sample impoverishment caused by resampling, in this paper, a new tracking algorithm using Harris-hawks-optimized particle filters (HHOPF) is proposed. At the same time, the problem of particle filter underwater target feature construction and underwater target scale transformation is addressed, the corrected background-weighted histogram method is introduced into underwater target feature recognition, and the scale filter is combined to realize target scaling transformation during tracking. In addition, to enhance the computational speed of underwater target tracking, this paper constructs a nonlinear escape energy using the Harris hawks algorithm in order to balance the exploration and exploitation processes. Based on the proposed HHOPF tracker, we performed detection and evaluation using the Underwater Object Tracking (UOT100) vision database. The proposed method is compared with evolution-based tracking algorithms and particle filters, as well as with recent tracker-based correlation filters and some other state-of-the-art tracking methods. By comparing the results of tracking using the test data sets, it is determined that the presented algorithm improves the overlap accuracy and tracking accuracy by 11% compared with other algorithms. The experiments demonstrate that the presented HHOPF visual tracking provides better tracking results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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20 pages, 11359 KiB  
Article
Development of a Numerical Ice Tank Based on DEM and Physical Model Testing: Methods, Validations and Applications
by Yukui Tian, Dongbao Yang, Xuhao Gang, Chaoge Yu, Shunying Ji and Qianjin Yue
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(7), 1455; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11071455 - 21 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 923
Abstract
The determination of ice loads on polar vessels and offshore structures is important for ice-resistant design, safe operation, and management of structural integrity in ice-infested waters. Physical model testing carried out in an ice tank/basin is usually an important technical approach for evaluating [...] Read more.
The determination of ice loads on polar vessels and offshore structures is important for ice-resistant design, safe operation, and management of structural integrity in ice-infested waters. Physical model testing carried out in an ice tank/basin is usually an important technical approach for evaluating the ice loads. However, the high cost and time consumption make it difficult to perform multiple repetitions or numerous trials. Recently, the rapid development of high-performance computation techniques provides a usable alternative where the numerical methods represented by the discrete element method (DEM) have made remarkable contributions to the ice load predictions. Based on DEM simulations validated by physical model tests, numerical ice tanks can be developed as an effective complement to their counterparts. In this paper, a numerical ice tank based on 3D spherical DEM was established with respect to the small ice model basin of China Ship Scientific Research Center (CSSRC-SIMB). Based on spherical DEM with parallel bond model, the model tests of typical structures (vertical cylinder and inclined plate) in level ice sheets were established in the numerical ice tank, and the ice–structure interaction process under the same initial conditions was simulated. The accuracy of the simulations is verified by comparing the simulated ice loads with the measured ice loads from the model tests in the CSSRC-SIMB. Furthermore, the application of the numerical ice tank was extended to simulate the navigation of a Wass bow in level ice and broken ice conditions. The value of the break resistance of the Wass bow in level ice was evaluated, and the numerical ice tank produced results that were found to be consistent with those obtained from Lindqvist’s formula. The statistical properties of the bow load for different broken ice fields with the same initial physical conditions are analyzed by performing a repeatability test on the broken ice fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ice-Structure Interaction in Marine Engineering)
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20 pages, 18019 KiB  
Article
Predicting Compound Coastal Flooding in Embayment-Backed Urban Catchments: Seawall and Storm Drain Implications
by Boxiang Tang and T. W. Gallien
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(7), 1454; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11071454 - 21 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1216
Abstract
Urban coastal flooding is a global humanitarian and socioeconomic hazard. Rising sea levels will increase the likelihood of hydrologic events interacting with high marine water levels. These compound events may, in turn, nonlinearly interact with urban infrastructure, potentially resulting in more extreme coastal [...] Read more.
Urban coastal flooding is a global humanitarian and socioeconomic hazard. Rising sea levels will increase the likelihood of hydrologic events interacting with high marine water levels. These compound events may, in turn, nonlinearly interact with urban infrastructure, potentially resulting in more extreme coastal flooding events. Here, an integrated Delft3D-FM based numerical modeling framework is used to concomitantly resolve multi-source flood processes (i.e., high marine water levels, precipitation) and infrastructure (e.g., seawalls, storm drains). Hydrodynamic model results are validated with embayment pressure sensor data and photographic observations from historical events. The impact of tide and precipitation phasing are examined. Multiple storm drain characterizations are presented and evaluated. Results show seawall and storm drain infrastructure is fundamental to accurately resolving spatial and temporal flood dynamics. Importantly, coastal management strategies such as raising seawall elevations to mitigate tidal flooding may exacerbate precipitation-based flooding in low-lying urban regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Flooding: Causes, Impacts and Mitigation)
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18 pages, 2707 KiB  
Article
Seasonal Pattern of Taxonomic Diversity and Functional Groups of Macro-Benthos from a Sub-Tropical Mangrove Estuary
by Bithy Khatun, Md. Abu Sayed Jewel, Md. Ayenuddin Haque, Sumaiya Akter, Mohammad Belal Hossain, Mohammed Fahad Albeshr and Takaomi Arai
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(7), 1453; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11071453 - 21 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1228
Abstract
Macro-benthos is commonly considered an indicator for evaluating the health of an aquatic ecosystem. Earlier research from sub-tropical mangrove estuaries, however, has primarily relied on conventional taxonomic methods to determine the pattern of macro-benthos diversity. Therefore, this study aimed to describe the pattern [...] Read more.
Macro-benthos is commonly considered an indicator for evaluating the health of an aquatic ecosystem. Earlier research from sub-tropical mangrove estuaries, however, has primarily relied on conventional taxonomic methods to determine the pattern of macro-benthos diversity. Therefore, this study aimed to describe the pattern of both taxonomic and functional groups of macro-benthos with respect to ecological variables in three separate seasons (pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon) from a mangrove-dominated Pasur River estuary, Bangladesh. The findings revealed significant seasonal variations in the water and sediment parameters (p < 0.05). During the study period, 47 species belonging to 35 families of macro-benthos were identified. The pollution indicator species, Capitella capitata complex was found to be dominant. The highest density of macro-benthos was recorded in post-monsoon (545 ± 13.76 ind./m2) followed by pre-monsoon (214 ± 5.57 ind./m2) and monsoon (63 ± 2.27 ind./m2). Diversity indices, Shannon, and evenness also displayed a similar seasonal trend. This pattern may be explained by the more stable bottom and higher food availability during post-monsoon, and on the other side, by erosion and higher turbidity during monsoon. Analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) detected a significant difference in community assemblage among the seasons (R = 0.7222, p = 0.0005), whereas similarity percentage analysis (SIMPER) identified Dendronereis aestuarina as the most contributory species for the overall average dissimilarity. Six functional feeding groups (FFGs) were identified where gathering collectors (GC) had the highest total density (221.83 ind./m2) and relative abundance (26.97%). The community was shown to be shaped by the amount of sedimentary silt and dissolved oxygen in the water main, according to a canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) study, they were positively correlated with the abundance of Pristinella acuminata, Lumbrineris sp., Cossura coasta, C. capitata complex, Neritina violacea, Laccotrephes griseus, Hydrometra butleri, Gomphus sp. and Libellula sp. CCA analysis also revealed a significant positive influence of pH, NO3-N, PO4-P, and organic matter, whereas, sand particles of sediments were found to have a negative effect on FFGs. Overall, the study suggests that the estuary is moderately diverse with macro-benthos and their functional feeding groups and influenced by monsoon strongly. The present study on FFGs of macro-benthos in an estuarine river of Bangladesh will provide baseline information for further investigation of other estuaries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Marine Ecology)
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2 pages, 163 KiB  
Editorial
Strength of Ship Structures
by Erkan Oterkus
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(7), 1452; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11071452 - 20 Jul 2023
Viewed by 857
Abstract
Ships are the main drivers of global transportation [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strength of Ship Structures)
22 pages, 7173 KiB  
Article
Coupled Analysis of Hydrodynamic Responses of a Small Semi-Submersible Platform and a Large Floating Body
by Jianye Yang, Jun Yan, Yan Zhao, Jinlong Chen and Heng Jin
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(7), 1451; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11071451 - 20 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1041
Abstract
This paper focuses on the hydrodynamic interaction between the large floating body and a small transfer platform in a jettyless floating transfer system. A high-order boundary-element method combined with a direct time-domain-solution method to calculate and analyze the hydrodynamic response of the small [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on the hydrodynamic interaction between the large floating body and a small transfer platform in a jettyless floating transfer system. A high-order boundary-element method combined with a direct time-domain-solution method to calculate and analyze the hydrodynamic response of the small platform while berthed with the fixed large floating body and freely floating large body under wave action was applied and compared with the hydrodynamic response of a single small transfer platform. It was found that when the large floating body and the small transfer platform were both located on the leeward side, they had little mutual influence, and the hydrodynamic response agreed well with that of the single small transfer platform and the single large floating body. While the small platform was located on the leeward side of the large floating body, it significantly affected the hydrodynamic response of the platform, resulting in a significant reduction in horizontal motion and pitch motion, meaning that the shielding effect was significant. Within a certain range of wave periods, the heave-motion amplitudes can be significantly reduced, but beyond that range, they increase. Therefore, it is important to carefully consider the relative motions of LNG transport ships and small platforms when connecting them via aerial jumper pipes in jettyless floating transfer systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrodynamics and Mooring Analysis of Floating Structures)
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19 pages, 7523 KiB  
Article
Research on the Visual Perception of Ship Engine Rooms Based on Deep Learning
by Yongkang Wang, Jundong Zhang, Jinting Zhu, Yuequn Ge and Guanyu Zhai
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(7), 1450; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11071450 - 20 Jul 2023
Viewed by 972
Abstract
In the intelligent engine room, the visual perception of ship engine room equipment is the premise of defect identification and the replacement of manual operation. This paper improves YOLOv5 for the problems of mutual occlusion of cabin equipment, an unbalanced number of different [...] Read more.
In the intelligent engine room, the visual perception of ship engine room equipment is the premise of defect identification and the replacement of manual operation. This paper improves YOLOv5 for the problems of mutual occlusion of cabin equipment, an unbalanced number of different categories, and a large proportion of small targets. First, a coordinate attention (CA) mechanism is introduced into the backbone-extraction network to improve the ability of the network to extract main features. Secondly, this paper improves the neck network so that the network can learn a relatively important resolution for feature-fusion and enrich the semantic information between different layers. At the same time, this paper uses the Swin transformer as the prediction head (SPH). This enables the network to establish global connections in complex environments, which can improve detection accuracy. In order to solve the problem of cabin equipment covering each other, this paper replaces the original non-maxima suppression (NMS) with Soft-NMS. Finally, this paper uses the K-means algorithm based on the genetic algorithm to cluster new anchor boxes to match the dataset better. This paper is evaluated on the laboratory’s engine room equipment dataset (EMER) and the public dataset PASCAL VOC. Compared with YOLOv5m, the mAP of CBS-YOLOv5m increased by 3.34% and 1.8%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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27 pages, 1773 KiB  
Article
Optimization Model for Container Liner Ship Scheduling Considering Disruption Risks and Carbon Emission Reduction
by Lingpeng Meng, Xudong Wang, Jie Jin and Chuanfeng Han
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(7), 1449; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11071449 - 20 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1347
Abstract
In the context of economic globalization and the development of information networks, container liner transportation plays a crucial role in international trade. However, the inherent inflexibility of fixed schedules in liner operations poses challenges to the decarbonization of shipping and the stability of [...] Read more.
In the context of economic globalization and the development of information networks, container liner transportation plays a crucial role in international trade. However, the inherent inflexibility of fixed schedules in liner operations poses challenges to the decarbonization of shipping and the stability of liner networks. Therefore, this paper focuses on the impact of port disruptions on route operations, develops a mixed integer nonlinear programming model considering fuel costs, recovery costs, and carbon emissions, and designs a hybrid evolutionary algorithm to solve the proposed model. The research findings indicate that scheduling strategies based on increased vessel speed, the adjustment of port calling sequences, and transshipment leasing after port skipping can effectively reduce the recovery costs after disruption events while meeting freight demand. When a disruption duration is less than 96 h, acceleration strategies and the adjustment of the port calling sequence are favorable choices. When the disruption duration exceeds 96 h, transshipment leasing after port skipping is a feasible solution to ensure the on-time delivery of cargo. The shifting of disrupted port position restricts the selection of scheduling strategies, particularly for ports located at the intersections of routes, which incur higher recovery costs. The implementation of carbon taxes affects the overall operating costs of liner companies, and an appropriate carbon tax level can constrain carbon emissions and ensure the sustainable development of the shipping industry. Full article
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