# Design and Study of Mechanical Cutting Mechanism for Submarine Cable Burial Machine

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Analysis of Mechanical Soil Cutting Mechanism

- ${P}_{i}$ is the theoretical productivity;
- ${v}_{x}$ is the horizontal working speed of the trenching machine;
- ${B}_{T}$ is the trench width;
- ${H}_{T}$ is the trench depth;
- ${v}_{a}$ is the absolute movement speed of the trenching machine chain;
- ${v}_{e}$ is the relative movement speed of the trenching machine chain.

- ${v}_{x}$ is the horizontal movement speed of the trenching machine;
- ${L}_{c}$ is the pitch distance of the trenching chain;
- $n$ is the number of blades cutting the soil simultaneously by the trenching machine;
- $\delta $ is the cutting thickness. Based on existing experimental results, a reasonable cutting thickness under normal conditions is [20]

- $P$ represents the actual cutting chain productivity;
- ${P}_{i}$ is the productivity calculated based on the chain blade’s soil-discharging capacity and the productivity for continuous operation under the “calculation conditions”;
- ${K}_{P}$ is the soil loosening coefficient;
- $\Delta $ is the soil spreading coefficient related to the chain speed, as shown in Table 2.

- ${h}_{c}$ represents the height of the chain blade in the trenching mechanism;
- ${\phi}_{r}$ is the angle of natural repose.

- $\omega $ represents the angular velocity of the chain axis;
- $n$ stands for the number of trenching blades simultaneously engaged in cutting the soil.

- ${C}_{rz}$ represents the number of impacts for hardness measurement;
- ${b}_{c}$ is the cutting width of the trenching blade;
- $\delta $ is the cutting thickness of the trenching blade;
- ${K}_{\phi}$ is the influence coefficient of the cutting angle, $\phi $;
- ${Z}_{r}$ stands for the lateral cutting quantity of the trenching blade;
- ${K}_{B}$ is the influence coefficient of the trenching blade’s soil processing;
- ${K}_{S}$ is the proportion coefficient of the trenching blade’s lateral soil cutting.

- $\alpha $ represents the angle between the relative velocity of the trenching chain blade and the horizontal velocity of movement;
- ${H}_{T}$ denotes the trenching depth;
- ${L}_{c}$ stands for the trenching chain pitch.

- ${H}_{0}$ is the width between two blades;
- ${K}_{b}$ is the coefficient of potential soil particle clogging between the chain blade and the trench sidewall (set as 1 in this paper);
- ${\gamma}_{S}$ represents the soil bulk density.

- ${C}_{0}$ is the experimentally determined soil resistance coefficient of the helical soil conveyor, typically ranging from 4 to 5 for most soils;
- ${L}_{B}$ is the maximum distance for moving soil along the trench edge, usually taken as 0.45 to 0.5.

- ${\eta}_{1}$ represents the chain transmission efficiency;
- ${\eta}_{2}$ denotes the efficiency of the equipment’s travel transmission.

- G stands for the weight of the trenching machine;
- $\mu $ represents the coefficient of rolling resistance.

## 3. Mechanical Cutting Parameter Simulation Analysis

#### 3.1. Model Establishment

- (1)
- During the blade cutting process, the forward speed and chain velocity are assumed to be constant, i.e., the direction and magnitude of the blade’s absolute velocity remain unchanged.
- (2)
- The soil model established in LS-DYNA has consistent stiffness and moisture content and a uniform soil structure.
- (3)
- In the cutting simulation process, it is assumed that the blade always moves within the same plane.
- (4)
- During the cutting process, the soil is assumed to remain stationary, and the combined velocity of the machine’s forward movement and chain velocity is in the direction of the blade’s motion.

#### 3.2. Simulation Analysis

## 4. Analysis of Chain Blade Cutting Experiment

#### 4.1. Design of Experimental Platform

#### 4.2. Experimental Analysis

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**Different types of seabed cable laying machines. (

**a**) Jetting-type seabed cable laying machine. (

**b**) Plow-type seabed cable laying machine. (

**c**) Mechanical-type seabed cable laying machine.

**Figure 3.**Kinematic relationships. (

**a**) Chain Blade Thickness Vector Diagram. (

**b**) Velocity Schematic.

**Figure 4.**The relationship between the excavation speed of the mechanical soil cutting operation and the cutting thickness.

**Figure 9.**Variation in cutting force. (

**a**) In F1-1 condition. (

**b**) In F1-2 condition. (

**c**) In F1-3 condition. (

**d**) In F1-4 condition. (

**e**) In F1-5 condition. (

**f**) In F1-6 condition.

**Figure 12.**Cutting power under different working conditions. (

**a**) Power change with time with different working conditions. (

**b**) Cutting power required for different cutting speeds and cutting depths.

Category | Characteristics |
---|---|

Jetting | Advantages: Simple structure, low cost, easy operation. Disadvantages: Cannot excavate all types of soil. |

Ploughing | Advantages: Low failure rate, fast trenching speed, capable of excavating various soil types. Disadvantages: Expensive, requires a high standard for the mother ship, cannot operate intermittently. |

Mechanical | Advantages: Capable of excavating various soil types, suitable for deep-water operations. Disadvantages: Complex structure, low operational efficiency. |

${v}_{e}$ | 0.1 | 1 | 1.5 | 2 |

Δ | 0.97 | 0.92 | 0.85 | 0.75 |

Parameters | Value |
---|---|

density | 2082.3 kgm^{−3} |

relative density/specific gravity of soil | 2.68 |

bulk modulus | 35 MPa |

shear modulus | 20 MPa |

cohesion force | 30 KPa |

angle of friction | 24° |

water content | 34% |

Elastic Modulus/GPa | Density/g·cm^{−3} | Poisson’s Ratio |
---|---|---|

207 | 7.81 | 0.35 |

Operating Condition | Cutting Depth (mm) | Cutting Speed (m/s) |
---|---|---|

F1-1 | 50 | 0.5 |

F1-2 | 50 | 0.7 |

F1-3 | 50 | 1 |

F1-4 | 50 | 1.2 |

F1-5 | 50 | 1.5 |

F1-6 | 80 | 1.5 |

Operating Condition | Cutting Speed | Cutting Depth | Blade Thickness | Cutting Angle |
---|---|---|---|---|

P1-1 | 0.3 m/s | 50 mm | 6 mm | 0° |

P1-2 | 0.5 m/s | 50 mm | 6 mm | 0° |

P1-3 | 0.7 m/s | 50 mm | 6 mm | 0° |

Operating Condition | Cutting Speed | Cutting Depth | Blade Thickness | Cutting Angle |
---|---|---|---|---|

P2-1 | 0.3 m/s | 30 mm | 6 mm | 0° |

P2-2 | 0.3 m/s | 50 mm | 6 mm | 0° |

P2-3 | 0.3 m/s | 80 mm | 6 mm | 0° |

Operating Condition | Cutting Speed | Cutting Depth | Blade Thickness | Cutting Angle |
---|---|---|---|---|

P3-1 | 0.3 m/s | 50 mm | 4 mm | 0° |

P3-2 | 0.3 m/s | 50 mm | 6 mm | 0° |

P3-3 | 0.3 m/s | 50 mm | 8 mm | 0° |

Operating Condition | Cutting Speed | Cutting Depth | Blade Thickness | Cutting Angle |
---|---|---|---|---|

P4-1 | 0.3 m/s | 50 mm | 6 mm | 0° |

P4-2 | 0.3 m/s | 50 mm | 6 mm | 30° |

P4-3 | 0.3 m/s | 50 mm | 6 mm | 45° |

Operating Condition | Cutting Speed | Cutting Depth | Blade Thickness | Cutting Angle | Average Cutting Directional Resistance |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

P1-1 | 0.3 m/s | 50 mm | 6 mm | 0° | 274.7 N |

P1-2 | 0.5 m/s | 50 mm | 6 mm | 0° | 332 N |

P1-3 | 0.7 m/s | 50 mm | 6 mm | 0° | 385.3 N |

P2-1 | 0.3 m/s | 30 mm | 6 mm | 0° | 208.3 N |

P2-2 | 0.3 m/s | 50 mm | 6 mm | 0° | 274.7 N |

P2-3 | 0.3 m/s | 80 mm | 6 mm | 0° | 327.3 N |

P3-1 | 0.3 m/s | 50 mm | 4 mm | 0° | 263 N |

P3-2 | 0.3 m/s | 50 mm | 6 mm | 0° | 274.7 N |

P3-3 | 0.3 m/s | 50 mm | 8 mm | 0° | 285 N |

P4-1 | 0.3 m/s | 50 mm | 6 mm | 0° | 274.7 N |

P4-2 | 0.3 m/s | 50 mm | 6 mm | 30° | 289 N |

P4-3 | 0.3 m/s | 50 mm | 6 mm | 45° | 300.3 N |

Operating Condition | A Cutting Speed | B Cutting Depth | C Blade Thickness | D Cutting Angle | Average Cutting Directional Resistance |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

P1-1 | 1 | 2 | 2 | 1 | 274.7 N |

P1-2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 1 | 332 N |

P1-3 | 3 | 2 | 2 | 1 | 385.3 N |

P2-1 | 1 | 1 | 2 | 1 | 208.3 N |

P2-3 | 1 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 327.3 N |

P3-1 | 1 | 2 | 1 | 1 | 263 N |

P3-3 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 1 | 285 N |

P4-2 | 1 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 289 N |

P4-3 | 1 | 2 | 2 | 3 | 300.3 N |

K1 | 2047.6 | 208.3 | 263 | 2175.6 | |

K2 | 333 | 327.3 | 2216.9 | 289 | |

K3 | 385.3 | 2229.3 | 285 | 300.3 | |

k1 | 292.5143 | 208.3 | 263 | 310.8 | |

k2 | 333 | 327.3 | 316.7 | 289 | |

k3 | 385.3 | 318.4714 | 285 | 300.3 | |

Range R | 92.78571 | 119 | 53.7 | 21.8 | |

Main-Sub | B > A > C > D |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Yu, Z.; Jin, Z.; Wang, K.; Zhang, C.; Chen, J.
Design and Study of Mechanical Cutting Mechanism for Submarine Cable Burial Machine. *J. Mar. Sci. Eng.* **2023**, *11*, 2371.
https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11122371

**AMA Style**

Yu Z, Jin Z, Wang K, Zhang C, Chen J.
Design and Study of Mechanical Cutting Mechanism for Submarine Cable Burial Machine. *Journal of Marine Science and Engineering*. 2023; 11(12):2371.
https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11122371

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Yu, Zhou, Zhangyong Jin, Kaichuang Wang, Chunyue Zhang, and Jiawang Chen.
2023. "Design and Study of Mechanical Cutting Mechanism for Submarine Cable Burial Machine" *Journal of Marine Science and Engineering* 11, no. 12: 2371.
https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11122371