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J. Mar. Sci. Eng., Volume 11, Issue 12 (December 2023) – 182 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The proposed sensorial system is able to measure the volume, regardless of its orientation. This system consists of an inclinometer and capacitive sensors. The inclinometer provides the rotational angle of the cylinder with respect to the horizontal plane. It is necessary to use three capacitive sensors, two of which are circular in shape (positioned on the flat surfaces of the cylinder). The metallic plate is covered with a layer of vinyl, which serves as a dielectric material and is in contact with the seawater. The third sensor is a copper rod (positioned along the longitudinal axis) that passes through the covers. The dielectric material is a thermorectile tube. The aluminum rings, which are in contact with the seawater, make up the second fictitious plate of each of the capacitors. View this paper
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15 pages, 4740 KiB  
Article
Effects of Methanol–Ammonia Blending Ratio on Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Compression Ignition Engine
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(12), 2388; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11122388 - 18 Dec 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 776
Abstract
Sustainable ammonia is one of the leading candidates in the search for alternative clean fuels for marine applications. This paper aims to build a simulation model of a six-cylinder, four-stroke diesel engine to investigate the effects of increasing the ammonia proportion in methanol–ammonia [...] Read more.
Sustainable ammonia is one of the leading candidates in the search for alternative clean fuels for marine applications. This paper aims to build a simulation model of a six-cylinder, four-stroke diesel engine to investigate the effects of increasing the ammonia proportion in methanol–ammonia fuel blends on engine performance and emissions. In the present study, the conditions of different speeds and different proportions of ammonia in fuel blends are investigated. The results show that the average effective pressure, brake power, and brake torque increase by about 5% with an increased ammonia substitution ratio. In terms of economic performance, the changes under medium and low speed conditions are not obvious. However, the change in high speed conditions is significant. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) is reduced by 6.6%, and the brake thermal efficiency (BTE) is increased by 4%. It is found that the performance of the engine is best at medium speed. The best performance is achieved with higher efficiency and lower emissions. The present results can provide guidance for the optimization of ammonia–methanol blends and their applications in engines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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41 pages, 3346 KiB  
Review
Small Unmanned Surface Vessels—A Review and Critical Analysis of Relations to Safety and Safety Assurance of Larger Autonomous Ships
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(12), 2387; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11122387 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1258
Abstract
Autonomous ships represent an emerging paradigm within the maritime sector, poised to bring multiple advantages. Although numerous prototypes have been developed, the deployment of large autonomous ships has predominantly remained confined to domestic waters or specialized military applications. The extensive adoption of autonomous [...] Read more.
Autonomous ships represent an emerging paradigm within the maritime sector, poised to bring multiple advantages. Although numerous prototypes have been developed, the deployment of large autonomous ships has predominantly remained confined to domestic waters or specialized military applications. The extensive adoption of autonomous ships is hampered by several challenges, primarily centered around safety. However, the direct assessment of autonomous technologies on large-scale vessels can be very costly. Small-scale autonomy testing may provide a cheaper option. This study reviews the current small autonomous ship models used by maritime researchers and industry practitioners. It aims to evaluate how these autonomous models currently augment and can augment safety assurances on larger autonomous ships. The review identifies relevant very small Unmanned Surface Vessels (USVs), the main research groups behind them and their applications. Then, the current use of USVs for safety and safety assurance is analyzed. Finally, the paper suggests innovative strategies and research directions for using USVs for the safety assurance of larger autonomous ships. Full article
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23 pages, 7016 KiB  
Article
An Improved VMD–EEMD–LSTM Time Series Hybrid Prediction Model for Sea Surface Height Derived from Satellite Altimetry Data
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(12), 2386; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11122386 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 662
Abstract
Changes in sea level exhibit nonlinearity, nonstationarity, and multivariable characteristics, making traditional time series forecasting methods less effective in producing satisfactory results. To enhance the accuracy of sea level change predictions, this study introduced an improved variational mode decomposition and ensemble empirical mode [...] Read more.
Changes in sea level exhibit nonlinearity, nonstationarity, and multivariable characteristics, making traditional time series forecasting methods less effective in producing satisfactory results. To enhance the accuracy of sea level change predictions, this study introduced an improved variational mode decomposition and ensemble empirical mode decomposition–long short-term memory hybrid model (VMD–EEMD–LSTM). This model decomposes satellite altimetry data from near the Dutch coast using VMD, resulting in components of the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) with various frequencies, along with a residual sequence. EEMD further dissects the residual sequence obtained from VMD into second-order components. These IMFs decomposed by VMD and EEMD are utilized as features in the LSTM model for making predictions, culminating in the final forecasted results. The experimental results, obtained through a comparative analysis of six sets of Dutch coastal sea surface height data, confirm the excellent accuracy of the hybrid model proposed (root mean square error (RMSE) = 47.2 mm, mean absolute error (MAE) = 33.3 mm, coefficient of determination (R2) = 0.9). Compared to the VMD-LSTM model, the average decrease in RMSE was 58.7%, the average reduction in MAE was 60.0%, and the average increase in R2 was 49.9%. In comparison to the EEMD-LSTM model, the average decrease in RMSE was 27.0%, the average decrease in MAE was 28.0%, and the average increase in R2 was 6.5%. The VMD–EEMD–LSTM model exhibited significantly improved predictive performance. The model proposed in this study demonstrates a notable enhancement in global mean sea lever (GMSL) forecasting accuracy during testing along the Dutch coast. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Oceanography)
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19 pages, 3734 KiB  
Article
Hydrodynamic and Structural Optimization of a Truss-Floating Aquaculture Vessel
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(12), 2385; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11122385 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 528
Abstract
A truss-floating aquaculture vessel is an innovative addition to the aquaculture industry, characterized by its large, porous, ship-shaped structure. It differs from traditional ships, offshore structures, and individual net cages. Due to its distinctive features, a large-scale truss-floating aquaculture vessel requires dedicated hydrodynamic [...] Read more.
A truss-floating aquaculture vessel is an innovative addition to the aquaculture industry, characterized by its large, porous, ship-shaped structure. It differs from traditional ships, offshore structures, and individual net cages. Due to its distinctive features, a large-scale truss-floating aquaculture vessel requires dedicated hydrodynamic and structural analysis, which is the primary focus of this paper. Our study starts with the calculation of wave loads acting on the vessel using the equivalent design wave method. Subsequently, it delves into the analysis of structural characteristics and stress distribution of the truss-floating aquaculture vessel, upon which structural optimization is performed. To determine the optimal design variables, a sensitivity analysis of the truss members is carried out using a parametric research method. Finally, the structure with multiple objectives is optimized using two distinct approaches: the adaptive simulated annealing algorithm (ASA) and the multi-island genetic algorithm (MIGA). The results reveal that prior to optimization, there is a risk of buckling and yielding damage occurring at various connections within the vessel structure. After optimization, the structural strength is significantly improved, accompanied by a reduction in the total weight of the vessel. This study offers a valuable reference for the design and structural safety assessment of this innovative truss-floating tank-type aquaculture vessel. Full article
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18 pages, 12152 KiB  
Article
An Adversarial Single-Domain Generalization Network for Fault Diagnosis of Wind Turbine Gearboxes
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(12), 2384; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11122384 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 609
Abstract
In deep learning-based fault diagnosis of the wind turbine gearbox, a commonly faced challenge is the domain shift caused by differing operational conditions. Traditional domain adaptation methods aim to learn transferable features from the source domain and apply them to the target data. [...] Read more.
In deep learning-based fault diagnosis of the wind turbine gearbox, a commonly faced challenge is the domain shift caused by differing operational conditions. Traditional domain adaptation methods aim to learn transferable features from the source domain and apply them to the target data. However, such methods still require access to target domain data during the training process, which limits their applicability in real-time fault diagnosis. To address this issue, we introduce an adversarial single-domain generalization network (ASDGN). It relies solely on data from a single length of data acquisition in wind turbine fault diagnosis. This novel approach introduces a more flexible and efficient solution to the field of real-time fault diagnosis for wind turbines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sensor Technology in Smart Ships and Offshore Facilities)
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16 pages, 5004 KiB  
Article
A Jacket-Frame Mounted Oscillating Water Column with a Variable Aperture Skirt
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(12), 2383; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11122383 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 894
Abstract
During the last decade jacket-frames have emerged as the main kind of substructure for bottom-mounted offshore wind farms in intermediate water depths. With the offshore wind industry moving towards deeper waters, the predominance of jacket-frames is expected to increase in future years. Multipurpose [...] Read more.
During the last decade jacket-frames have emerged as the main kind of substructure for bottom-mounted offshore wind farms in intermediate water depths. With the offshore wind industry moving towards deeper waters, the predominance of jacket-frames is expected to increase in future years. Multipurpose platforms combining wind and wave energy are proposed as an innovative solution to enhance the sustainability of offshore wind energy. In this research, a multipurpose platform is investigated with a novel feature in its oscillating water column (OWC) wave energy converter—a variable geometry skirt. A comprehensive physical modelling campaign was carried out using a 1:50 scale model. The performance of the OWC and its interaction with the wave field were investigated under four different skirt aperture angles. It was found that the skirt aperture angle plays a significant role in the capture-width ratio and the pneumatic mean power of the OWC. The best performance was obtained with a skirt aperture angle of 140 deg. More generally, these results prove that the variable-geometry skirt is a promising innovation for hybrid wave-wind systems mounted on jacket-frame substructures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Offshore Wind and Wave Energies—2nd Edition)
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18 pages, 3673 KiB  
Article
Shoreline Changes Due to the Construction of Ports: Case Study—Calabria (Italy)
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(12), 2382; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11122382 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 533
Abstract
An important process that began in many Mediterranean countries in the last century, after the end of the Second World War, concerns the displacement of a large part of the population from inland to coastal areas, expanding many existing cities and building new [...] Read more.
An important process that began in many Mediterranean countries in the last century, after the end of the Second World War, concerns the displacement of a large part of the population from inland to coastal areas, expanding many existing cities and building new ones. Following this expansion, some existing ports were expanded, and many new ports were built, mainly for commercial and tourist purposes. This strong anthropogenic pressure has modified not only the landscape but also the coastal dynamics, and significant shoreline erosion processes have often been observed, even at considerable distances from the ports. This paper analyzes shoreline changes due to the construction of ports in Calabria, based on geomorphological factors and wave forcings. Calabria is a region of Southern Italy, on the Mediterranean Sea, that is characterized by geomorphological, climatic, and anthropic peculiarities. In addition, other important effects caused by the construction of ports were also analyzed, such as shoreline advancement updrift, construction of coastal protection structures, siltation, and anthropogenic pressure. The main finding of this analysis is that coastal morphology plays a key role in the extent of shoreline changes due to the construction of ports. In fact, the greatest shoreline retreats were observed downdrifts of ports built in straight coastal areas. Furthermore, this analysis highlights that there is no direct correlation between wave climate and shoreline changes near the examined ports. The analysis described in this paper may be of interest both to the scientific field and to the planning and management of coastal areas. Furthermore, it is based on open-access data and was carried out using free software such as QGIS, so it is easily replicable and applicable in any coastal context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Systems: Monitoring, Protection and Adaptation Approaches)
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24 pages, 15749 KiB  
Article
Study on the Formation Characteristics and Disaster Mitigation Mechanisms of Rip Currents on Arc-Shaped Beach
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(12), 2381; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11122381 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 481
Abstract
Rip currents are fast offshore currents generated during the breaking process of waves propagating nearshore, posing a potential life safety threat to coastal bathers. This study utilizes a Boussinesq phase-resolving model to investigate the formation mechanism of rip currents at Dadonghai Beach, based [...] Read more.
Rip currents are fast offshore currents generated during the breaking process of waves propagating nearshore, posing a potential life safety threat to coastal bathers. This study utilizes a Boussinesq phase-resolving model to investigate the formation mechanism of rip currents at Dadonghai Beach, based on its actual topography, and explores the characteristics of rip current formation under various wave conditions, with an emphasis on analyzing vortices, the mean water level and the spatial distribution of average velocity. The results indicate that rip current formation is significantly influenced by wave height and period. The increase in wave height and period results in more intense rip currents and higher water level fluctuations on arc-shaped beaches and on both sides of the bay, leading to complex vortex distributions. An increase in the angle of wave incidence hinders rip current formation in arc-shaped beach areas but is favorable to the generation of deflection rips on both sides of the bay. Furthermore, an increase in bottom friction inhibits rip current formation. When the water depth decreases in the channels, rip currents transition into longshore currents. The findings of this research offer valuable scientific insights into the formation mechanisms of rip currents and contribute to their prediction and prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Coastal Engineering)
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22 pages, 3109 KiB  
Article
Advanced State Estimation Approach for Partially Observable Shipboard Power Systems
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(12), 2380; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11122380 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 574
Abstract
In instances where vessels encounter impacts or other factors leading to communication impairments, the status of electrical equipment becomes inaccessible through standard communication lines for the controllers. Consequently, the shipboard power system enters the partial observable state. Failure to timely ascertain and respond [...] Read more.
In instances where vessels encounter impacts or other factors leading to communication impairments, the status of electrical equipment becomes inaccessible through standard communication lines for the controllers. Consequently, the shipboard power system enters the partial observable state. Failure to timely ascertain and respond to the current state of the shipboard power system with appropriate restorative controls can result in irreversible damages to the electrical infrastructure and potentially precipitate a complete systemic failure. In this paper, an innovative fault-tolerant control and state estimation approach is proposed to address the partial observability problem of shipboard power systems, based on distributed control architecture and hybrid automata modeling, where controllers are unable to fully acquire equipment status due to device failures like sensor malfunctions. This approach infers the overall state of subsystems using data from intact equipment and discrete events from circuit breakers. Through fault-tolerant control techniques, it ensures that the subsystem state avoids invalid regions, effectively preventing the system from entering unhealthy operational states and significantly reducing the risk of performance degradation or systemic collapse due to faults. Simulation results confirm that this approach can quickly and accurately estimate the system’s current state under partial observation, enabling subsequent fault recovery strategies to accurately pinpoint fault locations and identify optimal recovery solutions. Full article
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23 pages, 2568 KiB  
Article
Analyzing Port State Control Data to Explore Future Improvements to GMDSS Training
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(12), 2379; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11122379 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 765
Abstract
This article uses data generated by Port State Control (PSC) inspections of ships in national ports (Paris MoU) to assess their compliance with radio-communications safety regulations. By mainly applying binary logistic regression methods, the aim is to examine and understand the relationship between [...] Read more.
This article uses data generated by Port State Control (PSC) inspections of ships in national ports (Paris MoU) to assess their compliance with radio-communications safety regulations. By mainly applying binary logistic regression methods, the aim is to examine and understand the relationship between the severity of deficiencies in maritime communications and some characteristics of inspected ships. The raw data from the PSC detention database from 2005 to 2022 undergoes post-processing before being analyzed to explore patterns and coincidences with the rest of the potential risk areas. To do so, 23,725 PSC inspections were used. Several classification criteria have been proposed that can better gauge the risk related to distress communications at sea from the dataset. The results connect the probability of detention with the ship age at the inspection date, the flag of the registry, the type of ship, and the location of the port within the countries adhering to the Paris MoU. Another achievement is that the number of PSC inspections of maritime communications in a given period is a better indicator of the risk to safety than the total number of deficiencies detected in these inspections during the same period. This study also explores inspection deficiencies related to competency gaps identified in the Global Maritime Distress Safety System (GMDSS) operators, and precisely using the number of PSC inspections as a criterion of risk for safety is consistent with the recommendations of the Maritime Safety Committee Circular (2006), MSC.1/Circ.1208. Another finding from the time series is that a greater rate of decrease is identified for GMDSS equipment-related deficiencies compared to GMDSS training-related deficiencies. This alone poses a review of the refreshing courses and methods to maintain the General Operator Certificate (GOC) qualification to operate maritime radio communications facilities belonging to the (current and future) GMDSS. Full article
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17 pages, 6199 KiB  
Article
Re-Distribution of Welding Residual Stress in Fatigue Crack Propagation Considering Elastic–Plastic Behavior
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(12), 2378; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11122378 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 617
Abstract
The welding residual stress re-distribution behavior during fatigue crack propagation in butt-welded high-strength steel plates for ship construction is investigated based on experimental test results and numerical analyses. The specimens’ initial welding residual stresses are obtained from X-ray for middle tensile (MT) specimens [...] Read more.
The welding residual stress re-distribution behavior during fatigue crack propagation in butt-welded high-strength steel plates for ship construction is investigated based on experimental test results and numerical analyses. The specimens’ initial welding residual stresses are obtained from X-ray for middle tensile (MT) specimens cut from butt-welded high-strength steel plates. Then, fatigue crack propagation experiments on MT specimens are conducted, and a strain gauge is used to measure the residual stress re-distribution field around cracks. A practical fatigue crack propagation simulation procedure is developed with a dynamic update of in-situ welding residual stress, where the residual stress intensity factor Kres of the MT specimen is deduced. The stress ratio effect on Kres during fatigue crack propagation is analyzed and a good agreement between experimental and numerical results is achieved. Full article
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20 pages, 5111 KiB  
Article
An Analytical Model for Estimating Ship-Related Emissions in Port Areas
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(12), 2377; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11122377 - 17 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 637
Abstract
Intensive shipping activity in port areas is considered one of the leading problems in the maritime sector, which has a negative effect on climate change and local air quality. The compilation of detailed inventories of combustion gases released by ships should therefore provide [...] Read more.
Intensive shipping activity in port areas is considered one of the leading problems in the maritime sector, which has a negative effect on climate change and local air quality. The compilation of detailed inventories of combustion gases released by ships should therefore provide a more accurate overview of emission levels, which can serve as a basis for analysing impacts on the port community and lead to the establishment of better environmental measures. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop an adaptable and relevant analytical model capable of integrating a comprehensive methodology with large databases of ship movements and technical details to provide clear ship-related emission estimates in large port areas. Considering the lack of research in Croatia that includes the mentioned approach and the insufficient monitoring of air pollutants in ports, the model was used to produce an initial overall emissions inventory for the Port of Split, the busiest passenger port in Croatia. In the model, bottom-up logic with an energy-based method was applied to detailed technical and near-real-time shipping data from AIS, creating the first high-density spatial and temporal overview of shipping emissions in the City port basin. The results showed strong seasonal fluctuations and large discrepancies in the quantities emitted between different ship types and operating modes. The analysis therefore raised the question of the need for the future development and implementation of a scalable system that would provide a more transparent and efficient overview of the important characteristics of air pollution from ships and port areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Maritime Transport: Trends and Solutions)
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21 pages, 58703 KiB  
Article
A Four-Year Video Monitoring Analysis of the Posidonia oceanica Banquette Dynamic: A Case Study from an Urban Microtidal Mediterranean Beach (Poetto Beach, Southern Sardinia, Italy)
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(12), 2376; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11122376 (registering DOI) - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 715
Abstract
This paper investigates the dynamics of the cross-shore extensions of banquettes, a sedimentary structure mostly made by rests of Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile, in a sandy urban beach located in the Gulf of Cagliari, Italy, western Mediterranean. A video monitoring station was installed [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the dynamics of the cross-shore extensions of banquettes, a sedimentary structure mostly made by rests of Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile, in a sandy urban beach located in the Gulf of Cagliari, Italy, western Mediterranean. A video monitoring station was installed above the promontory south of the beach. We analysed a four-year image database and related these dynamics to wave and wind parameters (obtained from the Copernicus and ERA5 databases) from September 2016 to September 2020. Our results showed that banquette deposition occurred in concomitance with the presence of leaf litter in the surf zone associated with mild storm events. Erosion of the banquettes occurred during more intense storms. When leaf litter was not present in the surf zone, banquettes were not deposited even with mild storms. Wind can influence the banquette dynamics: under certain conditions of speed intensity, the banquettes may be removed offshore, supplying litter in the surf zone, or they may be covered by sediment. The permanence of the banquettes on the beaches also depended on their composition: when the banquettes were intertwined with reeds, their removal by the waves did not occur even during intense storms, and this sedimentary structure can protect the beach from flooding. Full article
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12 pages, 1820 KiB  
Article
Testing Galileo High-Accuracy Service (HAS) in Marine Operations
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(12), 2375; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11122375 - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1213
Abstract
Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) technology supports all phases of maritime navigation and serves as an integral component of the Automatic Identification System (AIS) and, by extension, Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) systems. However, the accuracy of standalone GNSS is often insufficient for specific [...] Read more.
Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) technology supports all phases of maritime navigation and serves as an integral component of the Automatic Identification System (AIS) and, by extension, Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) systems. However, the accuracy of standalone GNSS is often insufficient for specific operations. To address this limitation, various regional and local-area solutions have been developed, such as Differential GNSS (DGNSS), Satellite Based Augmentation Service (SBAS) and Real Time Kinematic (RTK) techniques. A notable development in this field is the recent introduction of the Galileo High-Accuracy Service (HAS), which saw its initial service declared operational by the European Commission (EC) on 24 January 2023. Galileo HAS provides high-accuracy Precise Point Positioning (PPP) corrections (orbits, clocks and signal biases) for Galileo and GPS, enhancing real-time positioning performance at no additional cost to users. This article presents the results of the first Galileo HAS testing campaign conducted at sea using a buoy-laying vessel temporarily equipped with a Galileo HAS User Terminal. The results presented in this Article include accuracy and position availability performance achieved using the Galileo HAS User Terminal. The article also highlights challenges posed by high-power radio-frequency interference, which likely originated from the Long-Range Identification and Tracking (LRIT) system antenna on board the vessel. Furthermore, the article provides additional assessments for different phases of navigation, demonstrating better performance in slow-motion scenarios, particularly relevant to mooring and pilotage applications. In these scenarios, values for horizontal accuracy reached 0.22 m 95% and 0.13 m 68% after removing interference periods. These results are in line with the expectations outlined in the Galileo HAS Service Definition Document (SDD). Full article
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13 pages, 2893 KiB  
Communication
The Impact of Anthropogenic Pollution on Tidal Water Quality in Mangrove Wetlands
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(12), 2374; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11122374 - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 793
Abstract
Mangrove wetlands are vulnerable coastal ecosystems that provide critical habitats for aquatic life. Tai O is a popular tourist village on Lantau Island, Hong Kong, which is surrounded by mangrove wetlands with rich biodiversity; and this village is also famous for its traditional [...] Read more.
Mangrove wetlands are vulnerable coastal ecosystems that provide critical habitats for aquatic life. Tai O is a popular tourist village on Lantau Island, Hong Kong, which is surrounded by mangrove wetlands with rich biodiversity; and this village is also famous for its traditional stilt houses. However, the untreated municipal sewage from some stilt houses is directly discharged into nearby tidal channels, potentially threatening health of the adjacent mangrove wetlands. In order to evaluate the anthropogenic impact on these wetlands and identify the potential sources of their pollution, this study aimed to evaluate spatial (at the sampling points) and temporal (during weekdays and weekends) differences in the quality of their tidal water, and examine relationships between the water quality and the density of the stilt houses. The results indicated that the water quality was worse during weekends. The ammonia concentrations in most samples exceeded the limits of the Hong Kong Water Quality Objectives, China’s Sea Water Quality Standards, and even the U.S. EPA criterion for fish reproduction. This high ammonia input could potentially adversely affect the mangrove ecosystem, underscoring the need for further comprehensive studies. Moreover, some of the weekend water samples had lower dissolved oxygen levels and were polluted by phosphate. Our Principal Component Analysis revealed that water quality was correlated with stilt house density, suggesting that anthropogenic inputs of untreated sewage was the major source of pollution. These findings highlight that nutrients released from human activities, particularly ammonia and phosphate, must be controlled for a better protection of mangrove wetland ecosystems. Full article
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19 pages, 6640 KiB  
Article
A New Multi-Mechanism Synergistic Acoustic Structure for Underwater Low-Frequency and Broadband Sound Absorption
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(12), 2373; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11122373 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 630
Abstract
The acoustic absorption characteristics of anechoic coatings attached to the surface of underwater vehicles are closely related to their acoustic stealth. Owing to the essential property of local resonance, the narrow sound-absorption band cannot meet the underwater broadband sound absorption requirements. To this [...] Read more.
The acoustic absorption characteristics of anechoic coatings attached to the surface of underwater vehicles are closely related to their acoustic stealth. Owing to the essential property of local resonance, the narrow sound-absorption band cannot meet the underwater broadband sound absorption requirements. To this end, a multi-mechanism synergistic composite acoustic structure (MMSC−AS) was designed according to the integration of multiple acoustic dissipation mechanisms in this paper. Then, the acoustical calculation model for MMSC−AS was developed by using the graded finite element method (G-FEM), and the feasibility and the correctness of the established acoustical calculation model were verified. The underwater sound absorption behaviors of MMSC−AS were studied, and the optimization of the sound absorption characteristics of the MMSC−AS was also carried out. The results indicated that the calculation accuracy of the G-FEM was better than that of the FEM under the condition of the same mesh elements. Moreover, there were many sound wave regulation mechanisms in the MMSC−AS, and the synergy between the mechanisms enriched the mode of sound acoustic energy dissipation, which could widen the absorption band with effect. This study provides theoretical and technical basis for breaking through the challenge of low-frequency and broadband acoustic structure design of underwater vehicles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ship Design and Structure Dynamics)
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23 pages, 4646 KiB  
Article
Statistical Modeling and Applications of Joint Distributions for Significant Wave Height, Spectral Peak Period, and Peak Direction of Propagation: A Case Study in the Norwegian Sea
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(12), 2372; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11122372 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 631
Abstract
The estimation of long-term extreme response is a crucial task in the design of marine structures. The target extreme responses are typically defined by annual exceedance probabilities of 10−2 and 10−4. Various approaches can be employed for this purpose, with [...] Read more.
The estimation of long-term extreme response is a crucial task in the design of marine structures. The target extreme responses are typically defined by annual exceedance probabilities of 10−2 and 10−4. Various approaches can be employed for this purpose, with preference given to statistical long-term analysis, which involves aggregating the exceedance probabilities of all potential sea states contributing to the exceedance of the target extremes. A joint model encompassing important metocean parameters such as wind, waves, and current is often necessary. This study specifically focuses on waves and wave-induced responses. In characterizing short-term sea state conditions, significant wave height (Hs), spectral peak period (Tp) and peak direction of propagation (Φp) are identified as the most important sea state characteristics. The objective of this work is to present the results of the joint model for the three sea state parameters, i.e., Hs, Tp and Φp, at an offshore site in the Norwegian Sea. The conditional modeling approach is applied using long-term hindcast data, and different statistical models are discussed for fitting the marginal and conditional distributions. The fitted parameters for all directional sectors are provided, offering a comprehensive representation of the joint model for direct use in long-term response analysis. Two case studies are included to illustrate the application of the fitted joint model in long-term response analyses. The case studies identify the governing wave directions and the most important combinations of short-term sea state characteristics regarding the estimation of long-term extreme responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Design of Marine Structures)
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22 pages, 4103 KiB  
Article
Design and Study of Mechanical Cutting Mechanism for Submarine Cable Burial Machine
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(12), 2371; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11122371 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 582
Abstract
This paper aims to explore the current state of research on submarine cable burial machines and proposes a novel mechanical burial machine design employing a chain-type structure based on a combination of theoretical considerations and practical requirements. Through theoretical analysis, simulation, and experimental [...] Read more.
This paper aims to explore the current state of research on submarine cable burial machines and proposes a novel mechanical burial machine design employing a chain-type structure based on a combination of theoretical considerations and practical requirements. Through theoretical analysis, simulation, and experimental studies, the cutting process of the mechanical burial machine is investigated in detail, with special attention given to the seabed conditions in the Northeast Asia region. Starting from the dynamic process of the blade–soil interaction and the working mechanism of the blade–soil system, an accurate and reliable model for the seabed rock–soil stress is established, along with a fast computation method. A destructive analysis of rock–soil mechanical cutting is performed, elucidating the influences of the cutting depth, cutting angle, and chain blade cutting speed on cutting resistance. This paper provides reference parameters for the design of chain-type trenching devices under different seabed conditions, and adjustments are made based on simulation experiments and actual soil trenching test results. These analyses contribute practical and reliable guidance for the design and optimization of submarine cable burial machines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Marine Mechanical and Structural Engineering)
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12 pages, 2773 KiB  
Article
The Escape Intensity and Its Influencing Factors in Antarctic Krill (Euphausia superba) Passing through Large Mesh at the Front End of a Commercial Trawl
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(12), 2370; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11122370 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 509
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to comprehend the escape intensity and its influencing factors in Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) that escaped through large mesh located at the front end of commercial trawl nets. Two pocket nets were employed to collect [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to comprehend the escape intensity and its influencing factors in Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) that escaped through large mesh located at the front end of commercial trawl nets. Two pocket nets were employed to collect escaped krill that passed through the mesh opening in the first section (400 mm mesh size, without liner) and second section (16 mm mesh size liner) of the trawl body. The results show that krill escape primarily took place in the first section of the trawl body. Meanwhile, there was almost no krill escape observed in the second section of the trawl body, primarily attributable to the presence of a 16 mm mesh size liner. In terms of body length composition, the average PSI (percentage similarity index) was 67.31 (95% CI: 61.86–72.87) for krill from the pocket net on the larger mesh part and the codend. In addition, the PSI was significantly different (p < 0.05) between the day (60.96, 95% CI: 55.68–66.71) and night (83.62, 95% CI: 76.80–89.46). The escape intensity of krill ranged from 20.83 to 213.13 g·m−2 per ton per hour in the area at the front end of trawl body, with a mean value of 76.52 (95% CI: 55.22–101.09) g·m−2 per ton per hour during the daytime, and 144.66 (95% CI: 110.44–180.03) g·m−2 per ton per hour at night. These results indicate that krill can see and avoid contacting the netting easily during the day, particularly for larger individuals. This provides insight into the design of krill trawls, specifically on the arrangement of liners, which should be integrated from the front part of the trawl body. Full article
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16 pages, 2857 KiB  
Article
Food Selectivity in Juvenile Three-Spined Stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus L. (Gasterosteidae) at Nursery Grounds in the White Sea
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(12), 2369; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11122369 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 473
Abstract
The spatial and temporal variability in the dietary preferences of juvenile three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus were studied across the typical coastal habitats of Keret Archipelago, Kandalaksha Bay(the White Sea). The sampling of fish using a beach seine was conducted in the late July–early [...] Read more.
The spatial and temporal variability in the dietary preferences of juvenile three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus were studied across the typical coastal habitats of Keret Archipelago, Kandalaksha Bay(the White Sea). The sampling of fish using a beach seine was conducted in the late July–early August period and in late August. Additionally, zooplankton samples were collected to conduct a quantitative assessment of the abundance of potential prey items. The similarity percentage (SIMPER) analysis was applied to the data obtained from the stomach content and revealed the five planktonic taxa most prominently contributing to the diet of juvenile sticklebacks. Among these, the copepod Temora longicornis was the most important prey item at marine sites, while Acartia longiremis dominated the diet of fish in the marine lagoon. The calculation of the selectivity index revealed that some taxa (such as A. longiremis) were always avoided by juvenile fish, whereas the selectivity of some taxa increased in late August. In general, juvenile sticklebacks demonstrated a pronounced individual variation in their selectivity, even when a particular prey item was selected positively during the whole period of study. Our data highlight that despite the predominant consumption of easily available prey by juvenile sticklebacks, they demonstrate taxonomic- and size-specific prey selectivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Marine Biology)
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18 pages, 3607 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Fishing Impact on the Marine Ecosystem of Guishan Island in the Northeastern Waters of Taiwan Using Ecopath and Ecosim
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(12), 2368; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11122368 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 579
Abstract
The northeastern waters of Guishan Island constitute one of the crucial fishing grounds for coastal trawl fishery in Taiwan and have been exploited for many decades. To construct the marine ecosystem and to examine the interactions among trophic levels of fisheries resources in [...] Read more.
The northeastern waters of Guishan Island constitute one of the crucial fishing grounds for coastal trawl fishery in Taiwan and have been exploited for many decades. To construct the marine ecosystem and to examine the interactions among trophic levels of fisheries resources in the waters of Guishan Island, historical catch, catch composition, biological information, fishing effort, environmental data such as sea surface temperature, salinity, and nutrients were analyzed using Ecopath with Ecosim. The results indicated that the longline and drift net fisheries have a very minor incidental catch of cetaceans, with a fishing mortality (F) of 0.01 year−1 and an exploitation rate (E) of 0.03. The F and E were 0.308 year−1 and 0.617 for small skates and rays, and were 0.261 year−1 and 0.580, respectively, for small sharks. The F and E of the dolphinfish, Coryphaena hippurus, an important pelagic species, were 0.411 year−1 and 0.245, respectively. Fisheries had negative impact on major commercial species except the dolphinfish and the oil fish, Lepidocybium spp., which benefited from the reduction of their predators or competitors. The keystone species of the Guishan Island marine ecosystem is phytoplankton, which has the lowest trophic level and great biomass, and is an important energy source of the ecosystem. The influences of zooplankton and anchovy rank as second and third, respectively, with regard to the keystone species in the ecosystem due to their great biomass. Regarding the biomass of less abundant species, carangids had the highest influence followed by hairtail due to their feeding habits. The results of simulations using Ecosim indicated that the hairtail, small sharks, skates and rays, mackerels, and marine eels will benefit if fishing efforts are reduced by 30%. On the other hand, the biomass of phytoplankton, zooplankton, demersal benthivores, and shrimps will decrease due to the increase in the biomass of their predators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Conservation and Management of Marine Ecosystems)
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3 pages, 183 KiB  
Editorial
Biodiversity, Adaptation Strategies, and Opportunities in Extreme Marine Environments
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(12), 2367; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11122367 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 550
Abstract
Extreme marine environments are peculiar ecosystems characterized by extremely variable and hostile physicochemical parameters [...] Full article
17 pages, 3790 KiB  
Article
Reproductive Cycle of the Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816) on the Central West Coast of Portugal: New Perspective on the Gametogenic Cycle
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(12), 2366; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11122366 - 14 Dec 2023
Viewed by 693
Abstract
A population of sea urchins, Paracentrotus lividus, from the central west coast of Portugal was studied to characterise their reproductive biology and possible relationships with environmental factors. An annual gametogenic cycle was found, with a broad spawning season, from May to November, [...] Read more.
A population of sea urchins, Paracentrotus lividus, from the central west coast of Portugal was studied to characterise their reproductive biology and possible relationships with environmental factors. An annual gametogenic cycle was found, with a broad spawning season, from May to November, according to a relatively synchronous gamete maturation process. Depending on the environmental factors (temperature, photoperiod), two separate periods could be distinguished, with more individuals maturing and spawning at the same time. When this happened, the first event evolved when temperature rose to a critical point, and the second occurred afterwards, when temperature decreased significantly. Notwithstanding, it was found that individuals matured later than previously described for other populations (e.g., north of Portugal), mostly in late spring, with a higher gonadosomatic index in May. A new classification scale was proposed for identifying the stages of P. lividus gametogenic cycle, based on new findings. It contributed to its simplification and easier comprehension. This study provides useful information for a differentiated sustainable management of P. lividus, according to local conditions. Establishing a closed harvesting season might be considered, based on the differences observed between Portuguese populations and other European ones. Full article
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19 pages, 4143 KiB  
Article
Three-Dimensional Iterative Enhancement for Coverage Hole Recovery in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(12), 2365; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11122365 - 14 Dec 2023
Viewed by 491
Abstract
The efficient coverage of underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) has become increasingly important because of the scarcity of underwater node resources. Complex underwater environments, water flow forces, and undulating seabed reduce the coverage effect of underwater nodes, even leading to coverage holes in [...] Read more.
The efficient coverage of underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) has become increasingly important because of the scarcity of underwater node resources. Complex underwater environments, water flow forces, and undulating seabed reduce the coverage effect of underwater nodes, even leading to coverage holes in UWSNs. To solve the problems of uneven coverage distribution and coverage holes, a three-dimensional iterative enhancement algorithm is proposed for UWSN coverage hole recovery using intelligent search followed by virtual force. Benefiting from biological heuristic search algorithms, improved particle swarm optimization is applied for node pre-coverage. With the change in iteration times, the adaptive inertia weight, acceleration factor, and node position are constantly updated. To avoid excessive coverage holes caused by search falling into local optimum, underwater nodes are considered as particles in the potential field whose virtual forces are calculated to guide nodes towards higher coverage positions. In addition, based on the optimal node location obtained by the proposed algorithm, the monitoring area is divided based on the clustering idea. The underwater routing protocol DBR based on depth information is subsequently used to optimize node residual energy, and its average is calculated comprehensively and compared with the other three coverage algorithms using the DBR routing protocol. Based on the experimental data, after 100 iterations, the coverage rates for BES, 3D-IVFA, DABVF, and the proposed algorithm are 83.28%, 88.85%, 89.31%, and 91.36%, respectively. Moreover, the proposed algorithm is further verified from the aspects of different node numbers, coverage efficiency, node movement trajectory, coverage hole, and average residual energy of nodes, which provides conditions for resource development and scientific research in marine environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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19 pages, 13261 KiB  
Article
Maritime Transport Network in Korea: Spatial-Temporal Density and Path Planning
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(12), 2364; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11122364 - 14 Dec 2023
Viewed by 565
Abstract
The increase in maritime traffic and vessel size has strengthened the need for economical and safe maritime transportation networks. Currently, ship path planning is based on past experience and shortest route usage. However, the increasing complexity of the marine environment and the development [...] Read more.
The increase in maritime traffic and vessel size has strengthened the need for economical and safe maritime transportation networks. Currently, ship path planning is based on past experience and shortest route usage. However, the increasing complexity of the marine environment and the development of autonomous ships require automatic shortest path generation based on maritime traffic networks. This paper proposes an efficient shortest path planning method using Dijkstra’s algorithm based on a maritime traffic network dataset created by extracting maritime traffic routes through a spatial-temporal density analysis of large-scale AIS data and Delaunay triangulation. Additionally, the depth information of all digital charts in Korea was set as a safety contour to support safe path planning. The proposed network-based shortest path planning method was compared with the path planning and sailing distance of a training ship, and compliance with maritime laws was verified. The results demonstrate the practicality and safety of the proposed method, which can enable the establishment of a safe and efficient maritime transportation network along with the development of autonomous ships. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Artificial Intelligence in Maritime Transportation)
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23 pages, 4261 KiB  
Review
A Critical Review of On-Line Oil Wear Debris Particle Detection Sensors
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(12), 2363; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11122363 - 14 Dec 2023
Viewed by 768
Abstract
In the field of marine engineering, the friction and wear experienced by rotating mechanisms are recognized as significant contributors to the failure of marine machinery. In order to enhance the safety and dependability of marine ship operations, the implementation of on-line oil wear [...] Read more.
In the field of marine engineering, the friction and wear experienced by rotating mechanisms are recognized as significant contributors to the failure of marine machinery. In order to enhance the safety and dependability of marine ship operations, the implementation of on-line oil wear debris particle detection sensors enables the on-line monitoring of oil and facilitates the rapid identification of abnormal wear locations. This paper provides a critical review of the recent research progress and development trends in the field of sensors for on-line detection of oil wear debris particles. According to the method of sensor detection, wear debris particle detection sensors can be classified into two distinct categories: electrical and non-electrical sensors. Electrical sensors encompass a range of types, including inductive, capacitive, and resistive sensors. Non-electrical sensors encompass a range of technologies, such as image processing sensors, optical sensors, and ultrasonic sensors. Finally, this review addresses the future research directions for wear debris particle detection sensors in light of the challenging problems currently faced by these sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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21 pages, 63151 KiB  
Article
A Direction-Preserved Vessel Trajectory Compression Algorithm Based on Open Window
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(12), 2362; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11122362 - 14 Dec 2023
Viewed by 518
Abstract
Ship trajectory data can be used in most marine-related research, and most ship trajectory data come from AIS. The large number of ships and the short reporting period of AIS have resulted in a huge amount of ship trajectory data, which has caused [...] Read more.
Ship trajectory data can be used in most marine-related research, and most ship trajectory data come from AIS. The large number of ships and the short reporting period of AIS have resulted in a huge amount of ship trajectory data, which has caused a certain amount of pressure on the relevant research. This paper proposes a direction-preserved vessel trajectory compression method based on Open Window, which can effectively retain the direction change feature points while ensuring the position error. In addition, the method can work in both offline and online modes. Also, the velocity threshold and low-speed redundancy points problems are considered. In order to verify the effect of the proposed method and the adaptability of the method to different feature data, a parallel experiment was performed on port water and coastal water datasets. The results show that our method can compress vessel trajectories while retaining the feature points. Meanwhile, by comparing it with the compression method that is based on distance thresholds, the vessel trajectory compress time is drastically reduced by up to 87.3% in the port water data. The research in this paper provides a new method through which to compress vessel trajectories for research in marine-related fields on vessel trajectory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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22 pages, 21246 KiB  
Article
Field-Measurement of Surface Wind and Sediment Transport Patterns in a Coastal Dune Environment, Case Study of Cala Tirant (Menorca, Spain)
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(12), 2361; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11122361 (registering DOI) - 14 Dec 2023
Viewed by 600
Abstract
Blowouts are integral features of coastal dune fields. Their presence enhances both geomorphological and ecological diversity and enables the movement of sand by wind. Their role as a ‘transport corridor’ may be, however, considered negative from a coastal management perspective in heavily touristic [...] Read more.
Blowouts are integral features of coastal dune fields. Their presence enhances both geomorphological and ecological diversity and enables the movement of sand by wind. Their role as a ‘transport corridor’ may be, however, considered negative from a coastal management perspective in heavily touristic areas, where the existence of blowouts close to the foredune can enhance the loss of sediment from the beach. This paper investigated the relationship between airflow dynamics and patterns of sediment transport from the beach to established dunes through a trough blowout located on the foredune. Seven three-cup anemometers were used to measure wind speed and direction over a 24 h sampling period at a frequency of 1 min under onshore (parallel to the blowout axis) medium and high wind speeds (max of 17.9 ms−1). To measure sediment transport, a total of 12 vertical sand traps were located at three positions along the length of the deflation basin. The results indicated that small amounts of sediments went into the blowout from the beach and that the highest rates of sediment remobilization took place within the deflation basin. These results highlight two processes: (a) flow channelization induced by the blowout topography caused an increase in wind speed and sediment transport toward the depositional lobe, and (b) the presence of embryo dunes and herbaceous vegetation at the beach–blowout boundary effectively reduced the amount of sediment transport from the beach to the landform. The results confirmed the significant role that vegetation plays in controlling sediment movement and conserving the beach–dune system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Coastal Management)
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21 pages, 7330 KiB  
Article
Spatial–Temporal Variations in Regional Sea Level Change in the South China Sea over the Altimeter Era
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(12), 2360; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11122360 - 14 Dec 2023
Viewed by 566
Abstract
This study utilizes 27 years of sea level anomaly (SLA) data obtained from satellite altimetry to investigate spatial–temporal variations in the South China Sea (SCS). The local mean decomposition (LMD) method is applied to decompose the sea level data into three components: high-frequency, [...] Read more.
This study utilizes 27 years of sea level anomaly (SLA) data obtained from satellite altimetry to investigate spatial–temporal variations in the South China Sea (SCS). The local mean decomposition (LMD) method is applied to decompose the sea level data into three components: high-frequency, low-frequency, and trend components. By removing the influence of high-frequency components, multiple time series of regular sea level changes with significant physical significance are obtained. The results indicate that the average multi-year SLA is 50.16 mm, with a linear trend of 3.91 ± 0.12 mm/a. The wavelet analysis method was employed to examine the significant annual and 1.5-year periodic signals in the SCS SLA series. At the seasonal scale, the sea level rise in coastal areas during autumn and winter surpasses that of spring and summer. Moreover, there are generally opposing spatial distributions between spring and autumn, as well as between summer and winter. The linear trends in multi-year SLA for the four seasons are 3.70 ± 0.13 mm/a, 3.66 ± 0.16 mm/a, 3.49 ± 0.16 mm/a, and 3.74 ± 0.33 mm/a, respectively. The causes of SCS sea level change are examined in relation to phenomena such as monsoons, the Kuroshio Current, and El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Based on the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis of SCS SLA, the contributions of the first three modes of variance are determined to be 34.09%, 28.84%, and 8.40%, respectively. The temporal coefficients and spatial distribution characteristics of these modes confirm their associations with ENSO, monsoons, and the double-gyre structure of SCS sea surface temperature. For instance, ENSO impacts SCS sea level change through atmospheric circulation, predominantly affecting the region between 116° E and 120° E longitude, and 14° N and 20° N latitude. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing Techniques in Marine Environment)
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12 pages, 635 KiB  
Article
Comparability of Outputs between Traditional and Simulation-Based Approaches to Collision Risk Modelling
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(12), 2359; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11122359 - 14 Dec 2023
Viewed by 650
Abstract
Tidal stream energy is a predictable renewable energy source; however, environmental consent of developments remains a key barrier to the expansion of this industry. Uncertainty around collision risk, i.e., the risk of animals colliding with a tidal device, remains a major barrier to [...] Read more.
Tidal stream energy is a predictable renewable energy source; however, environmental consent of developments remains a key barrier to the expansion of this industry. Uncertainty around collision risk, i.e., the risk of animals colliding with a tidal device, remains a major barrier to consent. Collision risk models are used in environmental impact assessments. Common collision risk models, like the Encounter Rate and Band Models, have limitations in accommodating new device designs and flexibility. To address this, a simulation-based approach was developed. To provide confidence in its use, it is important that the simulation-based approach is compared against the Band model and the Encounter rate model, which have been regularly used in the UK. Here, we compared collision risk estimates from the three models under the same exact conditions and one alternative condition. The results of the main scenario (where all conditions were the same) showed that the three models produced comparable results with <6% difference across all models. However, for the alternative scenario, the simulation-based approach produced a result three times higher compared to other models, which could not account for a vertical approach angle. These findings provide confidence in the simulation-based approach whilst also outlining the importance of selecting an appropriate collision risk model, tailored to the specific assessment scenario. Improved understanding and application of such models hold the key to more accurate risk evaluations in environmental impact assessments, thus facilitating the sustainable development of the tidal energy industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interface between Offshore Renewable Energy and the Environment)
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