# Design and Experiment of Air-Suction Maize Seed-Metering Device with Auxiliary Guide

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Work Process and Theoretical Analysis

#### 2.1. Seed-Metering Device Structure and Working Principle

#### 2.2. Auxiliary Guided Seed Filling Principle

_{C}is the centrifugal force applied to the seed, N; G is the gravitational force on the seed, N; F

_{N}is the holding force on the seed, N; θ is the angle in the opposite direction of the centrifugal force F

_{C}of the seed at the edge of the hole-guiding table, or the angle of the hole-guiding table, (°); α is the angle at which the filling of the seed starts, (°); Q

_{1}is the combined force of gravity and centrifugal force applied to the seed, N; Q is the combined force of gravity, centrifugal force, and holding force applied to the seed, N; d is the distance from Q to the hole-guiding table, mm; S is the area of the suction pore, mm

^{2}; F

_{P}is the adsorption force applied to the seed, N; r

_{1}is the diameter of the suction pore, mm; and P is the adsorption negative pressure of one adsorption pore, Pa.

_{N}given to the seed by the pore-conducting table is not taken into account, the negative adsorption pressure P is obtained as follows:

_{N}given to the seed by the pore-conducting charging table is considered, the negative adsorption pressure P is obtained as follows:

_{2}and the y-axis, (°); τ is the angle between the gravity force and the y-axis, (°); and Q

_{2}is the combined force of the population on the stressed seed, N.

_{N}sinε in Equation (5) increases, so when ε > 0°, the trend of the seed movement along the x-axis is more and more obvious, so the guide table can play a guiding role.

#### 2.3. Design of Key Structural Parameters of the Seed Plate

_{1}parallel to the linear speed of the seed plate, and the speed V

_{2}that ensures that the seed can do variable acceleration of linear motion.

_{1}is the distance from point C to the center of the circle, mm; ω is the rotational speed of the seed plate, rad/s; V

_{0}is the initial speed of the seed, m/s; V is the absolute speed, m/s; V

_{1}is the implicit speed, m/s; V

_{2}is the relative speed, m/s; a is the acceleration generated by the seed plate on the seed, m/s

^{2}; T is the time of the seed plate on the seed action movement, s; t is the seed’s actual movement time, s; φ is the angle of the line segment OA and OC, rad; R is the radius of the base circle of the seed guide groove curve, mm; and l

_{AC}is the absolute displacement distance for the seed movement, mm.

_{m}is the operating speed, km/h; n

_{p}is the rotational speed of the seed discharge plate, r/min; S

_{1}is the plant spacing, mm, taken as 250 mm; Z is the number of type holes, taken as 27; m is the mass of a single corn seed, g, taken as 0.35 g; β is the angle of G and the x-axis, (°); v is the speed of the corn seed in the limiting position, m/s; and μ is the sliding friction coefficient, according to the reference [22], taken as 0.2.

_{m}of the seeding machine, the minimum speed is 5 km/h and the highest is 12 km/h. Through calculation it can be obtained that the rotational speed n

_{p}is 12.3 r/min and 29.6 r/min, respectively, brought into Equation (9), and it can be obtained that the optimal filling angle β of the type hole guide filling table is 40~85°. In order to ensure that the seed filling position is in the optimal range, the simulation will be used for optimization of the structure of the vacuum chamber.

## 3. Structural Analysis of the Flow Field

#### 3.1. Simulation Modeling and Analysis

^{−5}, using hybrid initialization for the operation.

#### 3.2. Simulation and Result Analysis

_{2}and A

_{3}, the two levels of negative pressure in the seed-filling area, the gap is not significant, and the optimal level A

_{2}should be chosen. For the seed-clearing area, the gap between B

_{3}and B

_{1}is not obvious; in order to allow resorption of the seed clearing, B

_{1}should be selected, but for the C

_{1}filling area, the gap between the pressure of the holes in that type is bigger, and so in order to ensure effective filling, C

_{1}should be selected. For the seed-carrying area, the negative pressure is constant and stable, and from the table it is concluded that the three levels of internal negative pressure are more even and constant, and so C

_{1}should be selected. For the seed-carrying area, the negative pressure that is constant and stable is the most critical; from Table 3, the three levels of internal negative pressure are more constant, and the impact is not significant. Combined with the best filling angle β of 40~85° obtained from Equation (8), the best flow structure A

_{2}B

_{1}C

_{1}is selected.

## 4. Simulation and Analysis of Negative Pressure Flow Field

#### 4.1. Simulation Pre-Processing and Fluent Parameterization

#### 4.2. Variation of Flow Field with Different Negative Pressure

#### 4.3. Flow Field Changes at Different Speeds

## 5. Test Program

#### 5.1. Test Condition

_{1}is the qualified index, %; R

_{2}is the missing index, %; R

_{3}is the multiple index, %; n

_{1}is the number of qualified seedings; n

_{2}is the number of occurrences of missing; n

_{3}is the number of occurrences of multiple; and N

_{1}is the number of total type holes of the record.

#### 5.2. Test Methods

#### 5.3. Modeling Regression

#### 5.4. Optimal Parameter Optimization

_{1}, and minimum of R

_{2}and R

_{3}, respectively.

## 6. Discussion

## 7. Conclusions

## 8. Patents

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 1.**Schematic diagram of the structure for the precision seed-metering device. (

**a**). Exploded view of the structure. (

**b**). Schematic diagram of the work area division. 1. Seed plate; 2. front shell; 3. seed dispenser; 4. seed intake; 5. seed cleaning serration; 6. transmission mechanism; 7. air sealing cushion; and 8. backshell.

**Figure 2.**Schematic of seed-force analysis. (

**a**) Motion analysis y-z plane for full species. (

**b**) Pore-type adsorption x-z plane. Note: the yellow part is the motion of the maize, clockwise.

**Figure 5.**Schematic of the levels of factors. (

**a**) Vacuum chamber width, (

**b**) vacuum chamber height, and (

**c**) air–chamber interface position.

**Figure 6.**Three-deminsional model of the flow field and meshing. (

**a**) Three-dimensional modeling of the flow field, (

**b**) meshing. 1. Vacuum chamber (static area); 2. Type hole (dynamic area); and 3. Seed filling chamber (static area).

**Figure 7.**Variation of flow field at different vacuum levels. (

**a**) Pressure map of the contact surface of the borehole, (

**b**) speed maps of end-type holes in the seed-filled region, (

**c**) pressure map of the end face of the borehole, and (

**d**) speed map of the end face of the borehole.

**Figure 9.**Pressure and speed distribution of the molded hole under different negative pressures, (

**a**) pressure, (

**b**) speed.

**Figure 10.**Variation of flow field at different rotational speeds. (

**a**) Speed profile of borehole end face, (

**b**) pressure map of the contact surface of the borehole, and (

**c**) speed maps of end-type pores in the seed-filled zone.

**Figure 12.**Seed displacer performance tester. 1. Air-suction maize seeder (Factory of the Future., Shenzhen, China), 2. seeder performance testing device (China Agricultural University and Langfang Ward Technology Co., Beijing, China), 3. stand, 4. seed guide tube (China Agricultural University and Changzhou Huaiyu Electronics Co., Beijing, China), 5. Shuangfu BDX-400 fan (Dongguan Changan Shuangfeng Hardware Store., Dongguan, China).

**Figure 13.**Response surface plots for the interaction of factors. (

**a**) Impact on qualified index, (

**b**) impact on the missing index, and (

**c**) impact on multiple index.

Levels | Experimental Factors | ||
---|---|---|---|

Vacuum Chamber Width/(mm) | Vacuum Chamber Height/(mm) | Air–Chamber Interface Position/(°) | |

1 | 16 | 10 | 0 |

2 | 18 | 12 | 45 |

3 | 20 | 14 | 90 |

Test Number | Factors | Seed-Filling Area Type Holes Pressure/Pa | Seed-Clearing Area Type Hole Pressure/Pa | Seed-Carrying Area Type Holes Pressure/Pa | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

A | B | C | ||||

1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | −1730.2 | −768.6 | −307.7 |

2 | 1 | 2 | 2 | −1483.7 | −1152.0 | −572.0 |

3 | 1 | 3 | 3 | −1213.4 | −1207.7 | −786.2 |

4 | 2 | 1 | 2 | −1574.3 | −1222.4 | −558.5 |

5 | 2 | 2 | 3 | −1163.3 | −1224.7 | −790.9 |

6 | 2 | 3 | 1 | −1732.1 | −1099.4 | −672.8 |

7 | 3 | 1 | 3 | −1217.6 | −1242.2 | −781.2 |

8 | 3 | 2 | 1 | −1696.8 | −1055.0 | −617.8 |

9 | 3 | 3 | 2 | −1455.1 | −1266.8 | −836.0 |

Evaluation Indexes | Factors | Factor Levels | Extremely Poor | Excellent Level | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 2 | 3 | ||||

Seed-filling area type holes pressure/Pa | A | −1475.8 | −1489.9 | −1456.5 | 33.4 | 2 |

B | −1507.4 | −1447.9 | −1466.9 | 59.4 | 1 | |

C | −1719.7 | −1504.4 | −1198.1 | 521.6 | 1 | |

Seed-clearing area type holes pressure/Pa | A | −1042.8 | −1182.2 | −1188.0 | 145.2 | 3 |

B | −1077.7 | −1143.9 | −1191.3 | 113.6 | 3 | |

C | −974.3 | −1213.7 | −1224.9 | 250.5 | 3 | |

Seed-carrying area type holes pressure/Pa | A | −555.3 | −674.1 | −745.0 | 189.7 | 3 |

B | −549.1 | −660.2 | −765.0 | 215.9 | 3 | |

C | −532.8 | −655.5 | −786.1 | 253.3 | 3 |

Evaluation Indexes | Optimal Parameter Combination |
---|---|

Seed-filling area type holes pressure | A_{2}B_{1}C_{1} |

Seed-clearing area type holes pressure | A_{3}B_{3}C_{3} |

Seed-carrying area type holes pressure | A_{3}B_{3}C_{3} |

Speed (km/h) | B: Seed Plate Speed (r/min) |
---|---|

6.0 | 14.8 |

7.5 | 18.5 |

9.0 | 22.2 |

10.5 | 25.9 |

12.0 | 29.6 |

Encodings | B: Seed Plate Speed (r/min) | A: Suction (kPa) |
---|---|---|

1.414 | 14.8 | −3.0 |

1 | 18.5 | −3.5 |

0 | 22.2 | −4.0 |

−1 | 25.9 | −4.5 |

−1.414 | 29.6 | −5.0 |

Encodings | Factors | Evaluation Indexes | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

B: Seed Plate Speed (r/min) | A: Suction (kPa) | Qualified Index/% | Missing Index/% | Multiple Index/% | |

1 | 0 | 0 | 94.3 | 2.7 | 3.2 |

2 | 1 | −1 | 93.2 | 3.2 | 3.6 |

3 | 1 | 1 | 90.9 | 8.3 | 0.8 |

4 | 0 | 1.414 | 89.7 | 9.4 | 0.9 |

5 | −1.414 | 0 | 86.5 | 11.0 | 2.5 |

6 | 0 | 0 | 93.2 | 2.2 | 4.6 |

7 | −1 | −1 | 91.2 | 4.7 | 4.1 |

8 | 0 | −1.414 | 93.8 | 0 | 6.2 |

9 | 0 | 0 | 94.2 | 1.6 | 4.2 |

10 | 0 | 0 | 93.8 | 2.1 | 4.1 |

11 | 1.414 | 0 | 97.9 | 0.9 | 1.2 |

12 | 0 | 0 | 94.2 | 1.9 | 3.9 |

13 | −1 | 1 | 86.8 | 10.4 | 2.8 |

Variance Source | R_{1}: Qualified Index | R_{2}: Missing Index | R_{3}: Multiple Index | |||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Sum of Squares | df | F-Value | p-Value | Sum of Squares | df | F-Value | p-Value | Sum of Squares | df | F-Value | p-Value | |

Model | 104.82 | 5 | 8.29 | ** 0.0074 | 160.69 | 5 | 11.71 | ** 0.0027 | 27.32 | 5 | 14.79 | ** 0.0013 |

A | 61.73 | 1 | 24.42 | ** 0.0017 | 39.98 | 1 | 14.56 | ** 0.0066 | 2.35 | 1 | 6.37 | * 0.0396 |

B | 19.53 | 1 | 7.72 | * 0.0273 | 72.56 | 1 | 26.43 | ** 0.0013 | 16.81 | 1 | 45.48 | ** 0.0003 |

AB | 1.10 | 1 | 0.44 | 0.5301 | 0.090 | 1 | 0.033 | 0.8614 | 0.56 | 1 | 1.52 | 0.2571 |

A^{2} | 10.57 | 1 | 4.18 | 0.0802 | 35.41 | 1 | 12.90 | ** 0.0088 | 7.58 | 1 | 20.51 | ** 0.0027 |

B^{2} | 14.78 | 1 | 5.85 | * 0.0462 | 18.51 | 1 | 6.74 | * 0.0356 | 0.26 | 1 | 0.71 | 0.4283 |

Residuals | 17.69 | 7 | 19.22 | 7 | 2.59 | 7 | ||||||

Lack of fit | 16.86 | 3 | 27.02 | ** 0.0041 | 18.56 | 3 | 37.49 | ** 0.0022 | 1.53 | 3 | 1.92 | 0.2678 |

Error | 0.83 | 4 | 0.66 | 4 | 1.06 | 4 | ||||||

Summation | 122.52 | 12 | 179.91 | 12 | 29.91 | 12 |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Ding, L.; Yuan, Y.; Dou, Y.; Li, C.; He, Z.; Guo, G.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, B.; Li, H.
Design and Experiment of Air-Suction Maize Seed-Metering Device with Auxiliary Guide. *Agriculture* **2024**, *14*, 169.
https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture14020169

**AMA Style**

Ding L, Yuan Y, Dou Y, Li C, He Z, Guo G, Zhang Y, Chen B, Li H.
Design and Experiment of Air-Suction Maize Seed-Metering Device with Auxiliary Guide. *Agriculture*. 2024; 14(2):169.
https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture14020169

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Ding, Li, Yechao Yuan, Yufei Dou, Chenxu Li, Zhan He, Guangmeng Guo, Yi Zhang, Bingjie Chen, and He Li.
2024. "Design and Experiment of Air-Suction Maize Seed-Metering Device with Auxiliary Guide" *Agriculture* 14, no. 2: 169.
https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture14020169