# Research on Receiving Seeds Performance of Belt-Type High-Speed Corn Seed Guiding Device Based on Discrete Element Method

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. Structure and Operating Principle of Belt-Type Corn Seed Guiding Device

#### 2.1.1. Device Structure

#### 2.1.2. Principle of Operation

#### 2.2. Analysis of Seed Receiving System

#### 2.2.1. Composition and Operating Principle of Seed Receiving System

_{0}is the forward sowing speed in m/s; ω

_{1}is the primary feeder wheel’s rotational angular velocity in rad/s; and ω

_{2}is the auxiliary feeder wheel’s rotational angular velocity in rad/s, ω

_{2}= 1.7·ω

_{1}.

#### 2.2.2. Mechanical Analysis of Seeds Receiving Process

- (1)
- Mechanical analysis of clamping seeds

_{1}and f

_{2}to the seeds when the feeder wheel clamps them. The combined force of f

_{1}and f

_{2}is what makes up the clamping force F

_{c}of the feeder wheel on the seeds. As shown in Figure 4, the seeds are additionally subject to the forces of gravity G, centrifugal force J, suction force P of negative pressure on the seeds, and supporting force N of the hole on the seeds.

_{c}of the feeder wheel on the seeds should be greater than T (the resultant force of seed gravity G and centrifugal force J) and N

_{1}(the supporting force of the hole on the seeds in the direction parallel to the seed disk) if the seeds are removed smoothly.

_{c}is the clamping force of feeder wheel on seeds; T is the resultant force of gravity and inertia; N

_{1}is the supporting force of the hole to the seeds along the direction parallel to the seed disk; δ is the angle between T and N

_{1}.

_{1}acting in a direction parallel to the seed-metering device can be written as follows:

_{1}is the rotating speed of seed disk; P is the suction force on seeds; Pa is the atmospheric pressure; P

_{0}is the vacuum chamber pressure; D is the diameter of hole; N

_{c}is the coefficient of supporting force; N is the hole’s support for seeds; J is the centrifugal force of seed disk on seeds; G is the seed gravity; τ is the angle between G and J.

- (2)
- Mechanical analysis of transporting seeds

_{c}(the sum of f

_{1}and f

_{2}) of the feeder wheels, the supporting forces F

_{N}

_{1}and F

_{N}

_{2}of the primary and secondary feeder wheels, and the gravity G of the seeds themselves during the transportation stage after the primary and secondary feeder wheels have taken the seeds down. Establish the rectangular coordinate system xoy using the seed center as the coordinate origin. The force acting on the seed at this time is depicted in Figure 5.

_{N}

_{1}and F

_{N}

_{2}supporting forces are expressed as follows:

_{c}is the resultant force of the friction forces f

_{1}and f

_{2}of the primary and auxiliary feeder wheels on the seeds at a specific time point:

_{N}

_{1}is the supporting force of the fingers of the primary feeder wheel on the seeds; F

_{N}

_{2}is the supporting force of the fingers of the auxiliary feeder wheel on the seeds; θ

_{1}is the included angle between the seed supporting force of the primary feeder wheel and the horizontal plane; θ

_{2}is the included angle between the seed supporting force of the auxiliary feeder wheel and the horizontal plane; μ is the friction coefficient between finger and seed; f

_{1}is the friction of the primary feeder wheel against the seed; f

_{2}is the friction of the auxiliary feeder wheel against the seed.

_{1}, θ

_{2}between the feeder wheel’s supporting force on the seeds and the horizontal plane and the friction coefficient have an impact on the clamping force F

_{c}on the seeds when the feeder wheel transports the seeds, as shown by Formula (8). The friction between the fingers and seeds can be improved by raising the coefficient of friction between the two, which also prevents slipping. As seen in Figure 6, the value of the included angle between the feeder wheel’s seed-supporting force and the horizontal plane is correlated with the wheels’ center distance L. θ

_{1}and θ

_{2}increase with the decrease in the wheels’ center distance L (θ

_{1}> θ

_{1}’, θ

_{2}> θ

_{2}’), and the supporting force of the feeder wheel on the seed increases accordingly (F

_{N}

_{1}> F

_{N}

_{1}’, F

_{N}

_{2}> F

_{N}

_{2}’), which improves the friction between the finger and the seed and avoids the sliding phenomenon between the fingers and the seeds. The seed receiving load will increase and the finger wear will worsen if the wheels’ center distance is too small. The finger and the seed will slide relatively and lose the active seed receiving function if the wheels’ centers are too far apart. Therefore, this study conducted simulation test research in order to further clarify the impact of the wheels’ center distance on seed stress.

- (3)
- Mechanical analysis of releasing seeds

_{t}

_{1}and F

_{t}

_{2}of the finger on the seeds, when the seeds leave the feeder wheel, they will be thrown obliquely into the seed cavity (Figure 7), where Fe is the combined force of the elastic force Ft of the finger on the seed and the seed gravity.

_{e}is the resultant force of the elastic force of fingers on seeds and the gravity of seeds; F

_{t}

_{1}is the elastic force of the fingers of the primary feeder wheel on the seeds; F

_{t}

_{2}is the elastic force of the fingers of the auxiliary feeder wheel to the seeds; Δx

_{1}is the finger shape variable of primary feeder wheel; Δx

_{2}is the fingering shape variable of the auxiliary feeder wheel; k is the elastic coefficient of fingers; g is the acceleration of gravity.

_{x}is the speed of seeds on the x axis; v

_{y}is the speed of seeds in the direction of the y axis; R is the feeder wheel radius; n

_{2}is the feeder wheel speed; v

_{0}is the initial speed of oblique downward throwing of seeds; α is the angle at which seeds are thrown obliquely downward; t is the time taken for the seed to enter the seed cavity; a is the seed released acceleration.

#### 2.3. Improvement Scheme of the Feeder Wheel

#### 2.4. EDEM Simulation and Analysis of Seed Receiving

#### 2.4.1. Particle Modeling of Corn Seeds

#### 2.4.2. Geometric Modeling

#### 2.4.3. Parameter Setting of the Simulation

^{−2}ms, and the simulation time was 10 s in order to guarantee the simulation continuity.

## 3. Results and Discussion

#### 3.1. Corn Seed Stress Analysis

#### 3.1.1. Stress Analysis of Corn Seeds with Herringbone Lines

#### 3.1.2. Force Analysis of Wheels Center Distance on Corn Seeds

#### 3.2. Analysis of the Seed Cavity’s Seed Entering Speed

#### 3.2.1. Analysis of Feeder Wheel Speed on the Speed of Seeds Entering the Seed Cavity

#### 3.2.2. Analysis of Finger Length on the Speed of Seed Entering Seed Cavity

#### 3.3. Verification Test

## 4. Conclusions

- (1)
- Taking the belt-type high-speed corn seed guiding device with a seed receiving system as the research object, the seed receiving system was analyzed, the seed dynamics model in the process of clamping, transporting, and releasing seeds by feeder wheel was established, the improved method of adding herringbone lines on the finger surface was put forward, and it was clear that the main factors affecting the seed receiving stability and the accuracy of seeds entering the seed cavity were the wheels’ center distance, the feeder wheel speed, and the finger length.
- (2)
- By using EDEM simulation technology, the seed receiving process was simulated. The findings demonstrate that by adding herringbone lines to the feeder wheel, the stress on seeds can be clearly increased. The average value of the stress on the seeds was the highest at a wheel center distance of 37 mm. The stability and speed fluctuation of seeds introduced into the seed cavity were better when the feeder wheel speed was 560 r/min. The speed of fluctuation and stability of seeds introduced into the seed cavity were better when the finger length was 12 mm.
- (3)
- The bench test results were largely consistent with the virtual simulation according to the results of the verification test, so it can be used to model and examine how the seed receiving system of a belt-type high-speed corn seed guiding device functions.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 1.**Structure diagram of the belt-type high-speed corn seed guiding device. 1. Feeder wheel. 2. Seed cleaning claw. 3. Motor. 4. Driving pulley. 5. Seed conveying belt. 6. Pre-tightening spring. 7. Driven pulley. 8. Gear box. 9. Seed protection cover. 10. Seed conveying belt shell. 11. Seed throwing plate.

**Figure 2.**Schematic diagram of seed receiving system. 1. Primary feeder wheel. 2. Seed cleaning claw. 3. Motor. 4. Gear shaft. 5. Auxiliary feeder wheel. 6. Seed receiving port. 7. Gear box. 8. Rear cover. 9. Driving auxiliary feeder wheel gear. 10. Driving primary feeder wheel gear (dual gear). 11. Carrier gear. 12. Motor gear. (

**a**) Front view; (

**b**) Side view; (

**c**) Back view.

**Figure 11.**Effects of the feeder wheel with and without herringbone lines on the stress of seeds. (

**a**) Line graph of the stress change of corn seeds with herringbone lines. (

**b**) Line graph of the stress change of corn seeds without herringbone lines.

**Figure 12.**Effect of the different wheels’ center distance on the stress of corn seeds. (

**a**) Line graph of the seed stress change when the wheels’ center distance was 35 mm. (

**b**) Line graph of the seed stress change when the wheels’ center distance was 37 mm. (

**c**) Line graph of the seed stress change when the wheels’ center distance was 39 mm.

**Figure 13.**Effect of different feeder wheel speeds on the speed of corn seeds entering the seed cavity.

**Figure 15.**Test equipment for the performance detection of the seed receiving system. 1. Air-suction corn seed metering device. 2. Seed metering drive motor. 3. Belt-type high-speed corn seed guiding device. 4. Seed bed belt. 5. Computer. 6. Seed test controller. 7. LED lighting. 8. High-speed camera. (

**a**) JPS-16 computer vision seed metering test bed. (

**b**) Distribution of seeds in seed conveying belt. (

**c**) Seed receiving process under high-speed camera.

**Figure 16.**Results of the seed receiving rate and variation coefficient of the seed cavity spacing under bench test. (

**a**) Comparing experimental results with/without herringbone lines; (

**b**) Changes of test index with wheels’ center distance; (

**c**) Changes of test index with the feeder wheel speed; (

**d**) Changes in the test index with finger length.

Index | Minimal Value/mm | Maximum Value/mm | Mean Value/mm | Variance |
---|---|---|---|---|

Length | 9.89 | 12.08 | 11.564 | 0.133 |

Width | 6.07 | 8.61 | 8.212 | 0.076 |

Thickness | 4.01 | 5.98 | 4.23 | 0.017 |

Project | Poisson’s Ratio | Shear Modulus/Pa | Density/g·cm^{−1} |
---|---|---|---|

Corn seed | 0.40 | 1.77 × 108 | 1.180 |

ABS plastic | 0.50 | 1.37 × 108 | 1.197 |

Rubber | 0.47 | 2.90 × 109 | 0.940 |

Polyurethane | 0.42 | 3.77 × 107 | 1.650 |

Project | Elastic Recovery Coefficient | Coefficient of Sliding Friction | Coefficient of Rolling Friction |
---|---|---|---|

Corn seed-corn seed | 0.182 | 0.431 | 0.0782 |

Corn seed-ABS plastic | 0.621 | 0.482 | 0.0931 |

Corn seed-rubber | 0.134 | 0.867 | 0.8143 |

Corn seed-polyurethane | 0.122 | 0.468 | 0.0950 |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Ma, C.; Yi, S.; Tao, G.; Li, Y.; Wang, S.; Wang, G.; Gao, F.
Research on Receiving Seeds Performance of Belt-Type High-Speed Corn Seed Guiding Device Based on Discrete Element Method. *Agriculture* **2023**, *13*, 1085.
https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13051085

**AMA Style**

Ma C, Yi S, Tao G, Li Y, Wang S, Wang G, Gao F.
Research on Receiving Seeds Performance of Belt-Type High-Speed Corn Seed Guiding Device Based on Discrete Element Method. *Agriculture*. 2023; 13(5):1085.
https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13051085

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Ma, Chengcheng, Shujuan Yi, Guixiang Tao, Yifei Li, Song Wang, Guangyu Wang, and Feng Gao.
2023. "Research on Receiving Seeds Performance of Belt-Type High-Speed Corn Seed Guiding Device Based on Discrete Element Method" *Agriculture* 13, no. 5: 1085.
https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13051085