# Design and Experiment of Uniform Seed Device for Wide-Width Seeder of Wheat after Rice Stubble

^{1}

^{2}

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Material and Methods

#### 2.1. WRS Agronomic Model with Wide Width

#### 2.2. Structure and Principle

#### 2.3. Analysis of the Relationship between Seed Distribution Plate Structure and Particle Motion

_{x}, p

_{y}, p

_{z}) on the SDP surface as the research object, at this point the following relationship holds.

_{1}and k

_{2}are the slopes of two tangents, respectively. These two tangents respectively belong to the section curves parallel to the ridge arc and the bottom arc.

#### 2.4. Simulation System Settings

^{2}. In this study, the wheat-seeding dosage was set to 225 kg/hm

^{2}, that is, the wheat production speed of the particle factory is set to 6 g/s.

#### 2.5. Evaluation Index Calculation Method

_{ij}is the number of seeds in the ijth statistical cell; M denotes the number of grids per row; N represents the number of grids per column; Y is the CVLU value, %.

#### 2.6. The Effect of SDP Structure on the Seed Uniform Distribution Performance

#### 2.7. Comprehensive Optimization of Crucial Structural Parameters of SDP

#### 2.8. Verification Test

^{2}, respectively. The forward speed of the bench test is set to 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 m/s, respectively. After the bench test is completed, the seeds on the surface are collected according to the zones shown in Figure 6. Each level test was repeated three times and the average value was taken. In addition, to further verify the field operation performance and smoothness of the optimized SDP, a field verification test was conducted at the rice-wheat rotation test base of the Nanjing Institute of Agricultural Mechanization, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs. The soil type was clayey, and no treatment was done in the field after the rice harvest. The average height of the rice straw is ≥400 mm. A WRS wide-width planter with crushed straw inter-row mulching was used as the test platform, and an optimized SDP was configured after its rotary tillage device to conduct the field trial, as shown in Figure 7. The forward speed and seeding dosage are set to be the same as those of the bench test, and the other working parameters of the machine were matched at the same time; that is, the rotational speed of the crushing device was 2000 r/min, and the rotational speed of the rotary tillage device was 300 r/min. Each level test was repeated three times and the average value was taken. The performance of the SDP is evaluated according to the method of Section 2.5.

## 3. Results and Discussion

#### 3.1. The Effect Law of the SDP Structure Parameter on the CVLU

#### 3.1.1. The Effect of Ridge Parameters on the CVLU

#### 3.1.2. The Effect of Bottom Parameters on the CVLU

#### 3.2. Results Analysis of Response Surface Test

#### 3.2.1. Results of Variance Analysis

^{2}= 0.94, and the adjusted R

^{2}= 0.90. It shows that the model is well-fitted and high reliability. Comparing the F-value and p-value of each factor term, the following conclusions were obtained. The order of the main effect relationships of the four factors is A > C > B > D. The extremely significant items are ordered from large to small as A, C, B, C

^{2}, A

^{2}, D, BC. The significant items ordered from large to small are AB, AC, and CD.

#### 3.2.2. Analysis of Interaction Effects of Factors

#### 3.2.3. Acquisition and Verification of Optimal Parameter Combination

#### 3.3. Results Analysis of Verification Tests

^{2}, the CVLU of the simulation, bench and field tests all reach the minimum value, which are 16.47%, 18.77% and 22.62%, respectively; when the forward speed is 1.2 m/s and the seeding dosage is 180 kg/hm

^{2}, the CVLU of the simulation, bench and field tests all reach the maximum value, which are 25.89%, 29.28% and 33.28%, respectively; as the forward speed increases or the dosage decreases, CVLU gradually increases, but the effect of dosage on CVLU is greater than that of the forward speed. The possible reason for this is that with the increase in forward speed, the wheat mass flow through the SDP increases, and the stacking between wheat particles increases, resulting in a decrease in distribution uniformity. With the increase in sowing dosage, the number of seeds in each test cell increases, which reduces the CVLU value. Under the conditions of different forward speeds and sowing dosage, the results of the simulation test and the bench test at each factor level are relatively close, but the simulation test has better uniformity than the bench test. This is mainly because the three-dimensional dimensions of the wheat particles in the simulation test are the same, but there is a small deviation in the actual wheat size. What is more, in the simulation test, wheat particles remain relatively stationary with the receiving plate after contact with the particles, while in the actual test, there are different degrees of rebounds due to the difference in phase angle and falling velocity. Overall, the comparison between the bench test and the simulation test proves the accuracy of the optimization results through simulation.

^{2}, the average sowing depth has a maximum value of 44.6 mm, while when the forward speed is 1.2 m/s and the dosage is 270 kg/hm

^{2}, the average sowing depth has a minimum value of 33.2 mm. With the increase in forward speed or sowing dosage, the average sowing depth decreased gradually, and the influence of the forward speed on sowing depth is greater than that of the sowing dosage. The possible reason for this is that the absolute velocity of soil particles throwing backward decreases with the increase in forward speed, which leads to the weakening of soil movement ability, thus reducing the ability of soil to cross the SDP. With the increase in sowing dosage, the collision between soil particles and seeds increased, which led to a decrease in the spanning ability of some soil particles, so the sowing depth decreased slightly. In addition, a phenomenon was noticed; that is, the consistency of the sowing depth was more variable than that of the ordinary furrow sowing method. This is because there is no trench opener in the seeding device, and the soil thrown by rotary tillage directly covers the seeds across the SDP; thus, the consistency of the sowing depth is not as consistent as the conventional operation mode. However, due to the special planting environment of WRS sowing, agronomic experts have reached a consensus that even if wheat seeds are not completely covered by the soil, they can be regarded as qualified; that is, there is no strict requirement for the consistency of sowing depth. From this perspective, the uniform seed device meets agronomic requirements for WRS sowing in full rice straw and stubble.

^{2}, the seed uniformity performance of the SDP before and after optimization was compared. The results of the field test showed that the CVLU was 30.27%. This has a certain variability from the theoretical value (21.42%), which is mainly due to the poor leveling of the site ground and the interference of soil particles on the movement of seed grains. However, comparing the results of the field test before optimization (63%), the CVLU was significantly reduced after optimization, which indicates the accuracy of the parameter optimization.

## 4. Discussions

## 5. Conclusions

- 1.
- Combined with agronomic standards, the structural design and theoretical analysis of the SDP were carried out. The key factors (chord length of ridge, installation inclination, ACT, span, and bottom curve radius) affecting CVLU value are identified.
- 2.
- Through simulation tests, six structures of SDP were compared, and the structure of S6 was determined to be the optimal structural model. The influence of key parameters on performance was analyzed. Four factors (chord length of ridge, installation inclination, span, and bottom curve radius) were determined as factors for a comprehensive optimization. In addition, the ACT was determined to be 13°, and the corresponding CVLU is 42.98%.
- 3.
- Through comprehensive optimization experiments, the influence of parameters on the CVLU is analyzed, and parameters are comprehensively optimized. The order of the main effect relationships of the four factors is A > C > B > D. The best parameter combination after optimization was obtained as the chord length of a ridge of 140 mm, installation inclination of 40°, span of 75 mm and` bottom curve radius of 50 mm. The corresponding theoretical CVLU value is 21.42%, and the corresponding field test value is 30.27%.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**Operation effect of technique with straw inter-row mulching and wide-width sowing WRS: (

**a**) untreated rice straw land after rice harvest; (

**b**) field after operation.

**Figure 2.**The overall structure of a wide-width planter with crushed straw inter-row mulching: 1. Straw-crushing device; 2. straw diversion device; 3. seed strip rotary tillage device; 4. seed uniform distribution device with wide width; 5. press wheel.

**Figure 5.**Using EDEM software post-processing module for data statistics: (

**a**) DEM model of wheat; (

**b**) test and statistical method of CVLU.

**Figure 7.**Performance verification test of SDP: (

**a**) bench test to verify the accuracy of simulation results; (

**b**) field performance verification test.

**Figure 8.**The effect of ridge parameters on CVLU: (

**a**) the effect of the chord length of the ridge on CVLU; (

**b**) the effect of installation inclination on CVLU; (

**c**) the effect of ACT on CVLU.

**Figure 9.**The effect of ridge parameters on CVLU: (

**a**) the effect of span on CVLU; (

**b**) the effect of bottom transverse radius on CVLU.

**Figure 10.**Effect of interaction between factors on CVLU. (

**a**) Y = f (A, B, 0, 0); (

**b**) Y = f (A, 0, C, 0); (

**c**) Y = f (0, B, C, 0); (

**d**) Y = f (0, 0, C, D).

**Figure 12.**Statistical results of actual verification tests: (

**a**) Comparison of the results of CVLU at different levels; (

**b**) comparison of the results of sowing depth at different levels. Note: Q1, Q2, and Q3 mean 180, 225, and 270 kg/hm

^{2}, respectively.

Item | Wheat Particle | PLA | Soil Board |
---|---|---|---|

Density/(kg/m^{3}) | 1350 | 1060 | 2650 |

Shear modulus/Pa | 5.1 × 10^{7} | 8.9 × 10^{8} | 1.0 × 10^{6} |

Poisson ratio | 0.29 | 0.4 | 0.3 |

Rolling friction coefficient (Interaction with wheat) | 0.08 | 0.05 | 0.3 |

Static friction coefficient (Interaction with wheat) | 0.58 | 0.4 | 0.58 |

Restitution coefficient (Interaction with wheat) | 0.50 | 0.6 | 0.52 |

Cross Section/Ridge | Line | Arc | Ant-Arc |
---|---|---|---|

Line | |||

S1 | S2 | S3 | |

Arc | |||

S4 | S5 | S6 |

Symbols | Parameters | Test Levels | ||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Ridge parameters | A | The ridge length of the ridge line | mm | 50 | 75 | 100 | 125 | 150 |

B | Installation inclination | ° | 20 | 25 | 30 | 35 | 40 | |

C | The angle between chord and tangent of the end of ridgeline | ° | 5 | 10 | 15 | 20 | 25 | |

Bottom parameters | D | Span | mm | 50 | 65 | 80 | 95 | 110 |

E | Bottom transverse radius | mm | 50 | 80 | 110 | 140 | 170 |

Test Number | A/mm | B/° | D/mm | E/mm | Y/% |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 75 | 36.5 | 98.75 | 110 | 42.18 |

2 | 75 | 29.5 | 76.25 | 110 | 56.67 |

3 | 100 | 33 | 87.5 | 90 | 39.04 |

4 | 50 | 33 | 87.5 | 90 | 51.65 |

5 | 100 | 33 | 87.5 | 90 | 35.91 |

6 | 75 | 36.5 | 76.25 | 70 | 42.51 |

7 | 100 | 26 | 87.5 | 90 | 46.93 |

8 | 125 | 36.5 | 76.25 | 110 | 37.38 |

9 | 125 | 36.5 | 98.75 | 70 | 32.72 |

10 | 100 | 33 | 65 | 90 | 50.63 |

11 | 125 | 36.5 | 98.75 | 110 | 33.32 |

12 | 75 | 36.5 | 98.75 | 70 | 40.8 |

13 | 75 | 36.5 | 76.25 | 110 | 50.96 |

14 | 100 | 33 | 87.5 | 90 | 35.4 |

15 | 75 | 29.5 | 76.25 | 70 | 48.5 |

16 | 100 | 33 | 87.5 | 90 | 38.83 |

17 | 125 | 29.5 | 76.25 | 70 | 43.87 |

18 | 100 | 33 | 87.5 | 90 | 37.73 |

19 | 75 | 29.5 | 98.75 | 110 | 39.87 |

20 | 150 | 33 | 87.5 | 90 | 40.85 |

21 | 100 | 33 | 87.5 | 50 | 31.94 |

22 | 100 | 33 | 87.5 | 130 | 42.78 |

23 | 100 | 40 | 87.5 | 90 | 33.36 |

24 | 75 | 29.5 | 98.75 | 70 | 39.32 |

25 | 125 | 29.5 | 76.25 | 110 | 45.44 |

26 | 100 | 33 | 110 | 90 | 42.59 |

27 | 125 | 29.5 | 98.75 | 110 | 39.26 |

28 | 125 | 29.5 | 98.75 | 70 | 37.11 |

29 | 100 | 33 | 87.5 | 90 | 37.72 |

30 | 125 | 36.5 | 76.25 | 70 | 32.89 |

Source | Sum of Squares | df | Mean Square | F-Value | p-Value | Significance |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Model | 1063.09 | 10 | 106.31 | 27.71 | <0.0001 | *** |

A | 269.47 | 1 | 269.47 | 70.23 | <0.0001 | *** |

B | 172.91 | 1 | 172.91 | 45.07 | <0.0001 | *** |

D | 202.54 | 1 | 202.54 | 52.79 | <0.0001 | *** |

E | 100.21 | 1 | 100.21 | 26.12 | <0.0001 | *** |

AB | 28.78 | 1 | 28.78 | 7.50 | 0.0130 | ** |

AD | 23.28 | 1 | 23.28 | 6.07 | 0.0235 | ** |

BD | 36.60 | 1 | 36.60 | 9.54 | 0.0060 | *** |

DE | 20.25 | 1 | 20.25 | 5.28 | 0.0331 | ** |

A^{2} | 110.95 | 1 | 110.95 | 28.92 | <0.0001 | *** |

D^{2} | 121.29 | 1 | 121.29 | 31.61 | <0.0001 | *** |

Lack of Fit | 61.74 | 14 | 4.41 | 1.98 | 0.2328 | |

Pure Error | 11.16 | 5 | 2.23 | |||

Cor Total | 1135.99 | 29 |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Luo, W.; Chen, X.; Qin, M.; Guo, K.; Ling, J.; Gu, F.; Hu, Z.
Design and Experiment of Uniform Seed Device for Wide-Width Seeder of Wheat after Rice Stubble. *Agriculture* **2023**, *13*, 2173.
https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13112173

**AMA Style**

Luo W, Chen X, Qin M, Guo K, Ling J, Gu F, Hu Z.
Design and Experiment of Uniform Seed Device for Wide-Width Seeder of Wheat after Rice Stubble. *Agriculture*. 2023; 13(11):2173.
https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13112173

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Luo, Weiwen, Xulei Chen, Mingyang Qin, Kai Guo, Jie Ling, Fengwei Gu, and Zhichao Hu.
2023. "Design and Experiment of Uniform Seed Device for Wide-Width Seeder of Wheat after Rice Stubble" *Agriculture* 13, no. 11: 2173.
https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13112173