# Numerical Simulation and Verification of Seed-Filling Performance of Single-Bud Billet Sugarcane Seed-Metering Device Based on EDEM

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## Abstract

**:**

_{q}and 0.869 for S

_{e}, which demonstrated the validity of using EDEM software to simulate the seed-filling process. Finally, the velocity and force of the particles in the seed-filling process were analyzed in EDEM. The analysis results indicated that there are two circulation circles in the seed box, and the larger the circulation circle, the easier the billets enter the rake bar. The EDEM simulation provides a basis for optimizing the structure and parameters of the sugarcane billet planter in future work.

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. Particle Model of Single-Bud BILLET

#### 2.2. Geometric Model of Single-Bud Billet Seed-Metering Device

#### 2.3. Contact Model and Parameters Setting

^{7}Pa. All the steel geometries in the model were set with a Poisson’s ratio of 0.3, a shear modulus of 7.9 × 10

^{10}Pa, and a density of 7850 kg/m

^{3}[20]. The setting of other physical and contact mechanical property parameters is shown in Table 1. The average values of these parameters were selected based on the test measurement results of the previous study [21].

#### 2.4. Angle of Repose Experiment

#### 2.5. Seed-Filling Experiment

_{q}. The ratio between the number of rake bars with no billets and the total number of rake bars is called the miss out filling rate Se. In this study, the two indexes were used to evaluate the seed-filling uniformity. According to previous work [2], the rotation speed of the rake bar chain wheel was set to 90 rpm, the number of billets was set to 200, and the angle of the rake bar chain was set to four levels (97°, 107°, 117°, and 127°) with each treatment being repeated three times.

## 3. Results and Discussion

#### 3.1. Analysis of the Angle of Repose Results

#### 3.2. Analysis of the Seed-Filling Experiment Results

_{q}and the miss out filling rate S

_{e}under different angles of the rake bar chain in the physical and simulation experiments have the same variation trend. With the increase in the angle of the rake bar chain, the S

_{q}increases first from 43.52% to 76.4% and then decreases to 71.96% in the physical experiments, whereas it increases first from 67.92% to 89.84% and then decreases to 80.46% in the simulation experiments. The variation trend of S

_{e}is the opposite to that of S

_{q}. Because there were only 200 billets in the seed box, the S

_{q}in both physical and simulation experiments is low. The increase in billets improves the S

_{q}, which has been demonstrated in the previous study [2], but it also increases the simulation time. The S

_{q}in the simulation experiments is generally higher than that in the physical experiments, which may be related to the individual difference in the billets of the physical experiments. The parameters are also variable, and the vibration of the rake bar chain and seed box may affect the physical experimental results. According to the linear regression analysis of the simulation and physical experimental results, the linear correlation coefficient was 0.762 for S

_{q}and 0.869 for S

_{e}. The simulation result is consistent with the physical experiment result, demonstrating the validity of using the EDEM software to simulate the seed-filling of billets. The single-bud billet seed-metering device has been applied in HN 2CZD-2 single-bud sugarcane planter. The planter did a good job in the farm of Guangdong Guangken Agricultural Machinery Service Co., Ltd., Guangzhou, China.

#### 3.3. Motion of Single-Bud Billet in Seed-Metering Device Analysis

## 4. Conclusions

_{q}and 0.869 for S

_{e}, which demonstrates the validity of using the EDEM software to simulate the seed-filling process of billets. Moreover, the motion information of the seed-filling process was analyzed in EDEM. The analysis results show that the seed box has two small circulation circles on both sides of the rake bar chain, and the larger the circulation circle, the easier it is for billets to enter the rake bar. Additionally, the seed-metering device can be improved to bring more billets close to the rake bar while covering the rake bar more to expand the circulation circle. The analysis of the total force simulation of billets in EDEM reveals that the billets that did not successfully enter the rake bar were affected more by forces; the damage to billets during the seed-filling process needs to be investigated in the future. This EDEM simulation method provides a basis for optimizing the structures and parameters of the sugarcane billet planter in future work.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 5.**The relationship between the angle of the rake bar chain and the qualification filling rate S

_{q}and the miss out filling rate S

_{e}.

**Figure 7.**The simulated motion of billets in the seed-filling process. (

**a**) Front view of the seed box; (

**b**) side view of the seed box.

**Figure 8.**The trajectory of the selected billets in the seed-filling process. (

**a**) The trajectory of the billet that did not enter the rake bar; 1: billet 1; 2: billet 2; 3: billet 3; (

**b**) the side view of the trajectory of the billet that entered the rake bar; 5: billet 5; 6: billet 6; 7: billet 7.

**Figure 9.**The motion of billet 3 with time (

**a**) the velocity of billet 3; (

**b**) the total force of billet 3.

**Figure 10.**The motion of billet 4 with time (

**a**) the velocity of billet 4; (

**b**) the total force of billet 4.

Materials | Parameter | Value |
---|---|---|

Billet | Poisson’s ratio | 0.344 |

Shear modulus (Pa) | 1.08 × 10^{7} | |

Density (kg/m3) | 244.67 | |

Steel | Poisson’s ratio | 0.3 |

Shear modulus (Pa) | 7.9 × 1010 | |

Density (kg/m^{3}) | 7850 | |

Billet–billet | Coefficient of restitution | 0.668 |

Static friction coefficient | 0.352 | |

Rolling friction coefficient | 0.026 | |

Billet–steel | Coefficient of restitution | 0.572 |

Static friction coefficient | 0.377 | |

Rolling friction coefficient | 0.039 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Wang, M.; Liu, Q.; Ou, Y.; Zou, X.
Numerical Simulation and Verification of Seed-Filling Performance of Single-Bud Billet Sugarcane Seed-Metering Device Based on EDEM. *Agriculture* **2022**, *12*, 983.
https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12070983

**AMA Style**

Wang M, Liu Q, Ou Y, Zou X.
Numerical Simulation and Verification of Seed-Filling Performance of Single-Bud Billet Sugarcane Seed-Metering Device Based on EDEM. *Agriculture*. 2022; 12(7):983.
https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12070983

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Wang, Meimei, Qingting Liu, Yinggang Ou, and Xiaoping Zou.
2022. "Numerical Simulation and Verification of Seed-Filling Performance of Single-Bud Billet Sugarcane Seed-Metering Device Based on EDEM" *Agriculture* 12, no. 7: 983.
https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12070983