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J. Clin. Med., Volume 12, Issue 22 (November-2 2023) – 241 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) are a class of antidiabetic agents known to exert cardioprotective, renoprotective, and hypoglycemic effects. To obtain maximal benefits, uninterrupted SGLT2i therapy is essential. However, these agents have been associated with adverse effects, which results in drug discontinuation. Herein, we aimed to determine the reasons for discontinuing treatment with SGLT2is among Japanese patients with diabetes. This retrospective cohort study enrolled 766 patients. The follow-up period was 2 years from the initiation of the SGLT2is. Overall, 97 patients (12.7%) discontinued the SGLT2is. The most common reasons for discontinuation were frequent urination (19.6%), followed by genital infection (11.3%), and renal dysfunction (8.2%). To avoid discontinuation, precautions against various factors that may cause frequent urination must be implemented. View this paper
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22 pages, 1483 KiB  
Review
Trend of Outcome Metrics in Recent Out-of-Hospital-Cardiac-Arrest Research: A Narrative Review of Clinical Trials
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(22), 7196; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12227196 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 795
Abstract
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) research traditionally focuses on survival. In 2018, the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) proposed more patient-centered outcomes. Our narrative review assessed clinical trials after 2018 to identify the trends of outcome metrics in the field OHCA research. We performed [...] Read more.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) research traditionally focuses on survival. In 2018, the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) proposed more patient-centered outcomes. Our narrative review assessed clinical trials after 2018 to identify the trends of outcome metrics in the field OHCA research. We performed a search of the PubMed database from 1 January 2019 to 22 September 2023. Prospective clinical trials involving adult humans were eligible. Studies that did not report any patient-related outcomes or were not available in full-text or English language were excluded. The articles were assessed for demographic information and primary and secondary outcomes. We included 89 studies for analysis. For the primary outcome, 31 (35%) studies assessed neurocognitive functions, and 27 (30%) used survival. For secondary outcomes, neurocognitive function was present in 20 (22%) studies, and survival was present in 10 (11%) studies. Twenty-six (29%) studies used both survival and neurocognitive function. Since the publication of the COSCA guidelines in 2018, there has been an increased focus on neurologic outcomes. Although survival outcomes are used frequently, we observed a trend toward fewer studies with ROSC as a primary outcome. There were no quality-of-life assessments, suggesting a need for more studies with patient-centered outcomes that can inform the guidelines for cardiac-arrest management. Full article
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10 pages, 501 KiB  
Article
Do Barrier Films Impact Long-Term Skin Toxicity following Whole-Breast Irradiation? Objective Follow-Up of Two Randomised Trials
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(22), 7195; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12227195 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 495
Abstract
Purpose: Hydrofilm, a polyurethane-based barrier film, can be used to prevent acute radiation dermatitis (RD) in adjuvant whole-breast irradiation (WBI) for breast cancer. This cost-effective prophylactic measure is currently being recommended to a growing number of patients, yet long-term safety data and its [...] Read more.
Purpose: Hydrofilm, a polyurethane-based barrier film, can be used to prevent acute radiation dermatitis (RD) in adjuvant whole-breast irradiation (WBI) for breast cancer. This cost-effective prophylactic measure is currently being recommended to a growing number of patients, yet long-term safety data and its impact on late radiation-induced skin toxicity such as pigmentation changes and fibrosis have not been investigated. Methods: We objectively evaluated patients who were previously enrolled in either of two intrapatient-randomised (lateral versus medial breast halve) controlled trials on the use of Hydrofilm for RD prevention (DRKS00029665; registered on 19 July 2022). Results: Sixty-two patients (47.7% of the initial combined sample size) provided consent for this post-hoc examination, with a median follow-up time (range) of 58 (37–73) months. Following WBI, there was a significant increase in yellow skin tones of the entire breast when compared to baseline measurements before WBI (p < 0.001) and a significant increase of cutis, subcutis, and oedema thickness (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p = 0.004, respectively). At follow-up, there were no significant differences in either pigmentation changes or skin fibrosis between the Hydrofilm and standard of care breast halves. Conclusion: These data suggest that Hydrofilm can be safely used in the context of acute RD prevention, without affecting late side effects, supporting its widespread use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevention and Treatment of Skin Pigmentation Disorders)
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23 pages, 1623 KiB  
Systematic Review
Treatment Approaches to Molar Incisor Hypomineralization: A Systematic Review
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(22), 7194; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12227194 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1146
Abstract
Aim: This systematic review aimed to comprehensively evaluate the available literature on treating molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) or enamel hypomineralization published between 2013 and 2023, focusing on identifying relevant studies and their characteristics. Materials and Methods: The search process encompassed reputable academic databases, [...] Read more.
Aim: This systematic review aimed to comprehensively evaluate the available literature on treating molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) or enamel hypomineralization published between 2013 and 2023, focusing on identifying relevant studies and their characteristics. Materials and Methods: The search process encompassed reputable academic databases, including PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science, using a precise keyword strategy (“((molar incisor hypomineralization) OR (enamel hypomineralization)) AND (treatment)”). A total of 637 articles were initially retrieved, followed by a strict selection process adhering to PRISMA guidelines. The inclusion criteria encompassed Randomized Control Trials (RCTs), case series with more than five clinical cases (CSs), studies involving human participants, availability as free full-text or accessible with university credentials, and English-language publications. Exclusion criteria included systematic or literature reviews, editorials, single-case reports, studies conducted in vitro, those involving animals, paid articles, and non-English-language publications. Results: The search yielded 864 articles, of which 23 met the stringent inclusion criteria after a meticulous selection process. These studies will serve as the basis for a comprehensive analysis of MIH treatment approaches. The systematic review ensures the quality and relevance of the chosen studies for a detailed assessment of MIH treatment strategies. Conclusions: This systematic review will provide valuable insights into the characteristics of selected studies, patient profiles, and available treatment options for molar incisor hypomineralization, contributing to a better understanding of this dental condition’s management. Full article
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9 pages, 882 KiB  
Article
Validity of a Mobile Application to Diagnose Temporomandibular Disorders
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(22), 7193; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12227193 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1000
Abstract
This study aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of a mobile application by comparing its diagnoses to those of Orofacial Pain and Oral Medicine specialists and further imaging results (CBCT and MRI) in 500 patients with temporomandibular disorder (TMD). The research focused on [...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of a mobile application by comparing its diagnoses to those of Orofacial Pain and Oral Medicine specialists and further imaging results (CBCT and MRI) in 500 patients with temporomandibular disorder (TMD). The research focused on three diagnostic categories: the initial specialist diagnoses, the final diagnoses after imaging, and the mobile app’s diagnoses. The concordance rates, sensitivities, specificities, and positive predictive values of the diagnoses were examined, with further imaging serving as the gold standard. The mobile app demonstrated a high concordance rate compared to both the final (0.93) and the initial specialists’ diagnoses (0.86). The sensitivities, specificities, and positive predictive values also indicated strong reliability, affirming the app’s diagnostic validity. Although the concordance rate was slightly lower when comparing the app’s diagnoses to the imaging results (CBCT and MRI), the specialists’ diagnoses yielded similar results. The study suggests that user-friendly diagnostic mobile applications, based on the diagnostic criteria for TMD, could enhance the clinical management of TMD. Given the reliability of mobile applications for diagnostic purposes, their wider implementation could facilitate the provision of appropriate and timely treatments for patients with TMD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Management of Oral Healthcare in Diverse Patient Populations)
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12 pages, 796 KiB  
Article
Oral Health-Related Quality of Life in Adult Patients with Depression or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(22), 7192; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12227192 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 593
Abstract
The aim of this cross-sectional study was the evaluation of the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in patients with depression or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in comparison with a group of mentally healthy individuals. Patients from the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University [...] Read more.
The aim of this cross-sectional study was the evaluation of the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in patients with depression or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in comparison with a group of mentally healthy individuals. Patients from the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Leipzig, Germany, were recruited. A healthy comparison group (HC) was recruited from the Department of Cariology, Endodontology and Periodontology. The OHRQoL was assessed using the Oral Health Impact Profile G14 (OHIP G14). Furthermore, a questionnaire regarding oral hygiene behaviour was applied. A total of 141 patients with depression or ADHD (depression n = 94, ADHD n = 47) and 145 HC individuals with a balanced age and gender distribution were surveyed. OHIP G14 median scores were significantly higher in the overall psychiatric patient group compared to HC (5.00 vs. 0.00, p < 0.001). This was also found for the four dimensions of OHIP G14 (p < 0.001). The OHIP G14 sum score of patients with depression and ADHD was comparable (5.00 vs. 6.50, p = 0.302). A significant association among psychiatric patients between smoking, gum bleeding, professional tooth cleaning, oral health education, interdental cleaning, and elevated OHIP scores was found (p < 0.001). In conclusion, patients with depression and adults with ADHD show a reduced OHRQoL. A contradictory association between oral hygiene/oral health behaviour and OHRQoL supports the hypothesis of a changed perception of oral conditions in patients with mental diseases. Interdisciplinary collaboration between psychiatric specialists and dentists should be fostered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Status of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)
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12 pages, 1234 KiB  
Article
Low Energy Intake Diagnosed Using the Harris–Benedict Equation Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Elderly Heart Failure Patients
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(22), 7191; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12227191 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 482
Abstract
Introduction: Insufficient nutrient intake is a strong independent predictor of mortality in elderly patients with heart failure. However, it is unclear to what extent energy intake affects their prognosis. This study investigated the association between patient outcomes and actual measured energy intake in [...] Read more.
Introduction: Insufficient nutrient intake is a strong independent predictor of mortality in elderly patients with heart failure. However, it is unclear to what extent energy intake affects their prognosis. This study investigated the association between patient outcomes and actual measured energy intake in elderly patients (≥65 years) with heart failure. Methods: This study enrolled 139 elderly patients who were hospitalized with worsening heart failure at Shingu Municipal Medical Center, Shingu, Japan, between May 2017 and April 2018. Energy intake was evaluated for three days (from three days prior to the day of discharge until the day of discharge). Based on basal energy expenditure calculated using the Harris–Benedict equation, the patients were classified into a low-energy group (n = 38) and a high-energy group (n = 101). We assessed the prognosis in terms of both all-cause mortality and readmission due to worsening heart failure as a primary outcome. Results: Compared to the patients in the high-energy group, the patients in the low-energy group were predominantly female, less frequently had smoking habits and ischemic heart diseases, and had a higher left ventricular ejection fraction. The low-energy group had higher mortality than the high-energy group (p = 0.028), although the two groups showed equivalent event rates of the primary outcome (p = 0.569). Conclusion: Calculations based on the Harris–Benedict equation revealed no significant difference in the primary outcome between the two groups, with a secondary outcome that showed worse mortality in the low-energy group. Given this result, energy requirement-based assessments using the Harris–Benedict equation might help in the management of elderly heart failure patients in terms of improved life outcomes. Full article
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11 pages, 385 KiB  
Article
The Association between Direct Oral Anticoagulants Prescribing Behavior and Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation Outcomes: An Instrumental Variable Analysis of Real-World Data
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(22), 7190; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12227190 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 833
Abstract
Several observational studies have compared apixaban with rivaroxaban in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF), but these analyses may be confounded by unmeasured characteristics. This study used provider prescribing preference (PPP) as an instrumental variable (IV) to assess the association between prescriber choice [...] Read more.
Several observational studies have compared apixaban with rivaroxaban in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF), but these analyses may be confounded by unmeasured characteristics. This study used provider prescribing preference (PPP) as an instrumental variable (IV) to assess the association between prescriber choice of rivaroxaban vs. apixaban and the study outcomes of stroke/systemic embolism (SE), major bleeding, and death in a retrospective cohort of NVAF patients in the US. Initiators of either medication were linked to their prescribers and followed until the first of the study outcome, the end of rivaroxaban/apixaban use, or 365 days after initiation. PPP for each patient was the percent of rivaroxaban initiations issued by the provider for the prior 10 NVAF patients. Cox regression models tested associations between quintiles of PPP and each outcome. A total of 61,155 patients and 1726 providers were included. The IV was a strong predictor of rivaroxaban prescription (OR = 17.9; 95% CI: 16.6, 19.3). There were statistically significant associations between increasing preference for rivaroxaban and rates of major bleeding (ptrend = 0.041) and death (ptrend = 0.031), but not stroke/SE (ptrend = 0.398). This analysis provides evidence of the relative safety of apixaban over rivaroxaban for the risk of major bleeding and death. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiovascular Medicine)
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11 pages, 1352 KiB  
Article
Detection of Periodontal Bone Loss on Periapical Radiographs—A Diagnostic Study Using Different Convolutional Neural Networks
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(22), 7189; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12227189 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1091
Abstract
Interest in machine learning models and convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for diagnostic purposes is steadily increasing in dentistry. Here, CNNs can potentially help in the classification of periodontal bone loss (PBL). In this study, the diagnostic performance of five CNNs in detecting PBL [...] Read more.
Interest in machine learning models and convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for diagnostic purposes is steadily increasing in dentistry. Here, CNNs can potentially help in the classification of periodontal bone loss (PBL). In this study, the diagnostic performance of five CNNs in detecting PBL on periapical radiographs was analyzed. A set of anonymized periapical radiographs (N = 21,819) was evaluated by a group of trained and calibrated dentists and classified into radiographs without PBL or with mild, moderate, or severe PBL. Five CNNs were trained over five epochs. Statistically, diagnostic performance was analyzed using accuracy (ACC), sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP), and area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). Here, overall ACC ranged from 82.0% to 84.8%, SE 88.8–90.7%, SP 66.2–71.2%, and AUC 0.884–0.913, indicating similar diagnostic performance of the five CNNs. Furthermore, performance differences were evident in the individual sextant groups. Here, the highest values were found for the mandibular anterior teeth (ACC 94.9–96.0%) and the lowest values for the maxillary posterior teeth (78.0–80.7%). It can be concluded that automatic assessment of PBL seems to be possible, but that diagnostic accuracy varies depending on the location in the dentition. Future research is needed to improve performance for all tooth groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stomatognathic Diseases: State of the Art and Future Perspectives)
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10 pages, 272 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Stimulus Repetition Rate on Electrically Evoked Auditory Brainstem Potentials in Postlingually Deafened Adult Cochlear Implant Recipients
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(22), 7188; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12227188 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 508
Abstract
Background: By using outcome prediction scores, it is possible to distinguish between good and poor performers with cochlear implants (CI) after CI implantation. The reasons for poor performance, despite good basic conditions, can be manifold. On the one hand, the postoperative fitting may [...] Read more.
Background: By using outcome prediction scores, it is possible to distinguish between good and poor performers with cochlear implants (CI) after CI implantation. The reasons for poor performance, despite good basic conditions, can be manifold. On the one hand, the postoperative fitting may be inadequate; on the other, neurophysiological disease processes may impair speech understanding with a CI. These disease processes are not yet fully understood. In acoustics, it is known that the auditory brainstem responses (ABR) and their latencies and amplitudes allow differential diagnosis based on reference values for normal-hearing individuals. The aim of this study was to provide reference values for electrically evoked brainstem responses (EABRs) in terms of rate-dependent latencies and amplitudes. Methods: 20 ears of 18 experienced adult CI recipients with a predicted and measured good postoperative word recognition score were recruited from the clinic’s patient pool. In the same stimulation mode and intensity we measured latencies and interpeak-latencies of EABRs and electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs). With a defined supra-threshold stimulation intensity above the individual ECAP threshold, we applied stimulation at several rates between 11 and 91 stimuli per second. Results: We found rate dependences for EABR latency t3 and t5 in the order of 0.19 ms and 0.37 ms, respectively, while ECAP was not affected by rate. Correspondingly, the interpeak intervals’ rate dependences for t5t1, t5t3 and t3t1 were of the order of 0.37 ms, 0.18 ms and 0.19 ms. Comparing the EABR amplitudes between the stimulation rates 11/s and 81/s, we found that at 81/s the amplitudes were significantly reduced down: to 73% for A3 and 81% for A5. These rate dependences of latency and amplitude in EABR have characteristics comparable to those of acoustic ABR. Conclusions: These data may serve to provide reference values for EABR and ECAP latencies, interpeak intervals and amplitudes with respect to stimulation rate. Altered response patterns of ECAPs and EABRs to normalised stimulation modes could be used in the future to describe and classify neuropathological processes in a better-differentiated way. Full article
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9 pages, 1246 KiB  
Article
The Effectiveness of Rehabilitation after Open Surgical Release for Trigger Finger: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Study
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(22), 7187; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12227187 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 505
Abstract
Background: It is not clear whether rehabilitation after surgery for trigger finger is effective. The aim of this study was to reveal its effectiveness for trigger finger. Methods: This study was a randomized, controlled trial that included patients who underwent operations for trigger [...] Read more.
Background: It is not clear whether rehabilitation after surgery for trigger finger is effective. The aim of this study was to reveal its effectiveness for trigger finger. Methods: This study was a randomized, controlled trial that included patients who underwent operations for trigger fingers. The patients in the rehabilitation group had postoperative occupational therapy (OT) for 3 months, while the patients in the control group were not referred for rehabilitation but received advice for a range of motion exercises. We evaluated the severity of trigger finger, Disability of Arm-Shoulder-Hand (DASH) score, pain-visual analogue scale (VAS), grip strength, whether they gained a full range of motion (ROM), and complications before and after surgery. Results: Finally, 29 and 28 patients were included in the control and rehabilitation groups, respectively. At final follow-up, the DASH score, grip strength, and ROM were significantly improved in the rehabilitation group compared to that preoperatively. At final follow-up, pain was significantly improved in both groups from that preoperatively. There were no significant differences in the results, including the DASH score, grip strength, ROM and pain-VAS between the control and rehabilitation groups at the final follow-up. Subgroup analysis showed that there is a significant difference in the DASH score of patients doing housework or light work and those with a duration of symptoms >12 months between the control and rehabilitation groups at the final follow-up. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hand and Wrist Surgery: Challenges and New Perspectives)
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12 pages, 2623 KiB  
Article
The Comparison of Endovascular and Open Surgical Treatment for Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Terms of Safety and Efficacy on the Basis of a Single-Center 30-Year Experience
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(22), 7186; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12227186 - 20 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 495
Abstract
Objective: Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) is a critical condition with a high mortality rate. Over the years, endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) has evolved as a viable treatment option in addition to open repair (OR). The primary objective of this study was to [...] Read more.
Objective: Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) is a critical condition with a high mortality rate. Over the years, endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) has evolved as a viable treatment option in addition to open repair (OR). The primary objective of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of EVAR and OR for the treatment of rAAA based on a comprehensive analysis of our single-centre 30-year experience. Methods: Patients treated for rAAA at the Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, University Hospital Düsseldorf, Germany from 1 January 1993 to 31 December 2022 were included. Relevant information was retrieved from archived medical records. Patient survival and surgery-related complications were analysed. Results: None of the patient-specific markers, emergency department-associated parameters, and co-morbidities were associated with patient survival. The 30-day and in-hospital mortality was higher in the OR group vs. in the EVAR group (50% vs. 8.7% and 57.1% vs. 13%, respectively). OR was associated with more frequent occurrence of more severe complications when compared to EVAR. Overall patient survival was 56 ± 5% at 12 months post-surgery (52 ± 6% for OR vs. 73 ± 11% for EVAR, respectively) (p < 0.05). Patients ≥70 years of age showed poorer survival in the OR group, with a 12-month survival of 42 ± 7% vs. 70 ± 10% for patients <70 years of age (p < 0.05). In the EVAR group, this age-related survival advantage was not found (12-month survival: ≥70 years: 67 ± 14%, <70 years: 86 ± 13%). Gender-specific survival was similar regardless of the applied method of care. Conclusion: OR was associated with more severe complications in our study. EVAR initially outperformed OR for rAAA regarding patient survival while re-interventions following EVAR negatively affect survival in the long-term. Elderly patients should be treated with EVAR. Gender does not seem to have a significant impact on survival. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Aortic Diseases)
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23 pages, 1131 KiB  
Review
Pediatric Bone Marrow Failure: A Broad Landscape in Need of Personalized Management
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(22), 7185; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12227185 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1059
Abstract
Irreversible severe bone marrow failure (BMF) is a life-threatening condition in pediatric patients. Most important causes are inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFSs) and (pre)malignant diseases, such as myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and (idiopathic) aplastic anemia (AA). Timely treatment is essential to prevent infections [...] Read more.
Irreversible severe bone marrow failure (BMF) is a life-threatening condition in pediatric patients. Most important causes are inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFSs) and (pre)malignant diseases, such as myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and (idiopathic) aplastic anemia (AA). Timely treatment is essential to prevent infections and bleeding complications and increase overall survival (OS). Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) provides a cure for most types of BMF but cannot restore non-hematological defects. When using a matched sibling donor (MSD) or a matched unrelated donor (MUD), the OS after HSCT ranges between 60 and 90%. Due to the introduction of post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy) to prevent graft versus host disease (GVHD), alternative donor HSCT can reach similar survival rates. Although HSCT can restore ineffective hematopoiesis, it is not always used as a first-line therapy due to the severe risks associated with HSCT. Therefore, depending on the underlying cause, other treatment options might be preferred. Finally, for IBMFSs with an identified genetic etiology, gene therapy might provide a novel treatment strategy as it could bypass certain limitations of HSCT. However, gene therapy for most IBMFSs is still in its infancy. This review summarizes current clinical practices for pediatric BMF, including HSCT as well as other disease-specific treatment options. Full article
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16 pages, 355 KiB  
Review
Evolution of a Pathogenic Microbiome
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(22), 7184; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12227184 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 880
Abstract
The process of microbiome development arguably begins before birth. Vertical transmission of bacteria from the mother to the infant is a keystone event in microbiome development. Subsequent to birth, the developing microbiome is vulnerable to influence from a wide range of factors. Additionally, [...] Read more.
The process of microbiome development arguably begins before birth. Vertical transmission of bacteria from the mother to the infant is a keystone event in microbiome development. Subsequent to birth, the developing microbiome is vulnerable to influence from a wide range of factors. Additionally, the microbiome can influence the health and development of the host infant. This intricate interaction of the gastrointestinal microbiome and the host has been described as both symbiotic and dysbiotic. Defining these terms, a symbiotic microbiome is where the microbiome and host provide mutual benefit to each other. A pathogenic microbiome, or more precisely a gastrointestinal microbiome associated with disease, is increasing described as dysbiotic. This review seeks to investigate the factors that contribute to evolving a disease-causing or ‘dysbiotic’ microbiome. This review covers the development of the gastrointestinal microbiome in infants, the interaction of the microbiome with the host, and its contribution to host immunity and investigates specific features of the gastrointestinal microbiome that are associated with disease. Full article
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12 pages, 1630 KiB  
Article
The “Aging Effect” of BMI on Cardiorespiratory Fitness: A New Insight on Functional Evaluation in Obesity
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(22), 7183; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12227183 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 664
Abstract
Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a strong predictor of morbidity and mortality in patients with obesity. This study investigates the CRF range and its clinical determinants in patients with obesity. Moreover, a practical proposal for CRF interpretation is provided. In this study, 542 patients [...] Read more.
Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a strong predictor of morbidity and mortality in patients with obesity. This study investigates the CRF range and its clinical determinants in patients with obesity. Moreover, a practical proposal for CRF interpretation is provided. In this study, 542 patients (69% females) with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 performed an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET). Patients had a median (IQR) age of 47.0 (6.2) years with a mean BMI of 41.7 ± 6.7 kg/m2. Normal values curves of VO2peak/kg showed a median (IQR) of 20.3 (37.6) mL/min/kg. The lower-quartile threshold of VO2peak/kg was at 17.9 mL/min/kg. Analysis of covariance revealed that VO2peak/kg inversely correlates with age and BMI with a significant age × BMI interaction effect (all p < 0.0001); as BMI class increases, CRF decreases, but a smaller age-related decline in VO2peak/kg is observed. A multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that belonging to the lower quartile of VO2peak/kg was independently determined by age (OR 2.549, 95% CI 1.205–5.392, p < 0.0001) and BMI (OR 5.864, 95% CI 2.920–11.778, p < 0.0001) but not by comorbidities. At very high BMI, the effect of age on functional capacity is lower, suggesting that BMI acts as an “aging factor” on CRF. Age and BMI, but not comorbidities, are independent determinants of low VO2peak/kg. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sports Medicine)
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14 pages, 2553 KiB  
Article
Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Identifies Responders to Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy with an Assessment of Septal Scar and Left Ventricular Dyssynchrony
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(22), 7182; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12227182 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 586
Abstract
Background: The response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) depends on septal viability and correction of abnormal septal motion. This study investigates if cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) as a single modality can identify CRT responders with combined imaging of pathological septal motion (septal [...] Read more.
Background: The response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) depends on septal viability and correction of abnormal septal motion. This study investigates if cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) as a single modality can identify CRT responders with combined imaging of pathological septal motion (septal flash) and septal scar. Methods: In a prospective, multicenter, observational study of 136 CRT recipients, septal scar was assessed using late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) (n = 127) and septal flash visually from cine CMR sequences. The primary endpoint was CRT response, defined as ≥15% reduction in LV end-systolic volume with echocardiography after 6 months. The secondary endpoint was heart transplantation or death of any cause assessed after 39 ± 13 months. Results: Septal scar and septal flash were independent predictors of CRT response in multivariable analysis (both p < 0.001), while QRS duration and morphology were not. The combined approach of septal scar and septal flash predicted CRT response with an area under the curve of 0.86 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.78–0.94) and was a strong predictor of long-term survival without heart transplantation (hazard ratio 0.27, 95% CI: 0.10–0.79). The accuracy of the approach was similar in the subgroup with intermediate (130–150 ms) QRS duration. The combined approach was superior to septal scar and septal flash alone (p < 0.01). Conclusions: The combined assessment of septal scar and septal flash using CMR as a single-image modality identifies CRT responders with high accuracy and predicts long-term survival. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Clinical Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
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13 pages, 1118 KiB  
Article
Nutritional Risk Assessment and Adverse Events in Patients Undergoing Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation—A Retrospective Cohort Study Using Hospital Information System
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(22), 7181; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12227181 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 574
Abstract
Clinical or subclinical malnutrition occurs in 30% to 70% of patients with advanced heart failure and increases the risk of postoperative adverse events. The main objective of this study was to assess the nutritional status of patients prior to left ventricular assist device [...] Read more.
Clinical or subclinical malnutrition occurs in 30% to 70% of patients with advanced heart failure and increases the risk of postoperative adverse events. The main objective of this study was to assess the nutritional status of patients prior to left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation using different methods of malnutrition assessment and to evaluate the relationship between nutritional status and postoperative adverse events. A retrospective cohort study included 120 patients aged 26–74 years referred for LVAD surgery. Preoperative nutritional status (NRS-2002—Nutritional Risk Score 2002, NRI—Nutritional Risk Index, PNI—Prognostic Nutritional Index; TLC—total lymphocyte count) and postoperative adverse events were assessed. Moderate to severe malnutrition was found in 55.8%, 43.3%, 40.0%, and 20% of all patients, respectively, according to the PNI, NRI, TLC, and NRS-2002 scores. Patients with a TLC < 1200 cells/m3 had a higher risk of postoperative acute renal failure [hazard ratio (HR): 2.5; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.01–6.3] and death during the observation period [HR = 2.1; 95% CI: 1.2–3.5]. Moderate to severe malnutrition was also associated with a significantly increased risk of in-hospital death [for the NRI score, HR = 4.9 (95% CI: 1.1–22.0); for the PNI score, HR = 5.0 (95% CI: 1.1–22.3)]. In conclusion, moderate to severe malnutrition prior to LVAD implantation has been identified as a risk factor for postoperative acute renal failure and mortality. Assessment of nutritional risk may improve patient selection and early initiation of nutritional support. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Mechanical Circulatory Support in Heart Failure)
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22 pages, 8196 KiB  
Article
Nutrition and Mental Well-Being: Exploring Connections and Holistic Approaches
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(22), 7180; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12227180 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1152
Abstract
Quality of life, well-being, and psycho-emotional balance are closely related to the quality of the diet, the level of physical activity, the quality of rest, but also the absence of the consumption of narcotic substances and tobacco, or alcohol abuse. Based on the [...] Read more.
Quality of life, well-being, and psycho-emotional balance are closely related to the quality of the diet, the level of physical activity, the quality of rest, but also the absence of the consumption of narcotic substances and tobacco, or alcohol abuse. Based on the distribution of a questionnaire that included 30 questions, we aimed to statistically evaluate several factors that influence mental health and vices. It recorded a total of 1719 valid responses, which came from 78.3% female respondents and 21.7% male respondents. After processing the anthropometric data, it was observed that the majority of respondents are of normal weight (63.87%) and come from women in particular (36.13%). Based on the answers recorded, although over 60% of the respondents participating in the study are up to 40 years old, there is an increased tendency towards sedentarism (over 58% of the respondents declaring that they do sports very rarely or not at all), a low tendency regarding optimal consumption of vegetables and fruits, many respondents do not hydrate properly, which is why approximately 60% of respondents feel frequently tired, and over 32% are frequently nervous. The increased level of stress among the respondents and emotional eating are also generated by inadequate rest, reduced physical activity, and a diet that does not help the efficient detoxification of the body. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Updates in Liver Cirrhosis)
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3 pages, 181 KiB  
Comment
Comment on Kilian et al. Comparing Characteristics and Treatment of Brain Vascular Malformations in Children and Adults with HHT. J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12, 2704
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(22), 7179; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12227179 - 20 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 350
Abstract
We read with interest the recent article by Killian et al. regarding the characteristics and treatment of brain vascular malformations (VMs) in children and adults with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) [...] Full article
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Case Report
Tenofovir-Induced Fanconi Syndrome Presenting with Life-Threatening Hypokalemia: Review of the Literature and Recommendations for Early Detection
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(22), 7178; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12227178 - 20 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 902
Abstract
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is a nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor that has been widely used for the treatment of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. Despite the excellent safety records of this regimen, a few cases of [...] Read more.
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is a nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor that has been widely used for the treatment of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. Despite the excellent safety records of this regimen, a few cases of acute renal failure and Fanconi syndrome have been reported among HIV patients exposed to TDF. However, in the HBV monoinfection scenario, only five cases of TDF-associated Fanconi syndrome have been reported thus far, two of them providing a confirmatory kidney biopsy. Here, we describe the case of a 68-year-old woman with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) who developed TDF-induced Fanconi syndrome that reverted after TDF withdrawal from tenofovir alafenamide. Though the overall risk of TDF-associated severe renal toxicity in HBV patients appears to be negligible, both glomerular and tubular functions should be monitored in patients exposed to TDF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Acute Kidney Injury: Advances in Clinical Management)
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14 pages, 2015 KiB  
Article
Recurrent Atrial Fibrillation Ablation after Initial Successful Pulmonary Vein Isolation
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(22), 7177; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12227177 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 746
Abstract
Background: Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is an effective treatment option for patients with symptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the electrical recovery of pulmonary veins (PVs) is the main trigger for AF recurrences. This study investigates the characteristics of patients admitted for redo AF [...] Read more.
Background: Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is an effective treatment option for patients with symptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the electrical recovery of pulmonary veins (PVs) is the main trigger for AF recurrences. This study investigates the characteristics of patients admitted for redo AF ablation, the PV reconnection rates depending on previous ablation modalities and the impact of different ablation strategies for redo procedures. Methods: Consecutive patients undergoing first redo AF ablation were included. Patients were grouped according to the electrical recovery of at least one PV. The impacts of the technique for first AF ablation on PV reconnection rates and patients with and without PV reconnection were compared. Different ablation strategies for redo procedures were compared and its recurrence rates after a mean follow-up of 25 ± 20 months were investigated. Results: A total of 389 patients (68 ± 10 years; 57% male; 39% paroxysmal AF) underwent a first redo. The median time between the first and redo procedure was 40 ± 39 months. Radiofrequency was used in 278 patients, cryoballoon was used in 85 patients and surgical AF ablation was performed on 26 patients. In total, 325 patients (84%) had at least one PV reconnected, and the mean number of reconnected PVs was 2.0 ± 1.3, with significant differences between ablation approaches (p for all = 0.002); this was mainly due to differences in the left inferior PV and right superior PV reconnections. The presence of PV reconnection during redo was not associated with better long-term success compared to completely isolated PVs (67% vs. 67%; log-rank p = 0.997). Overall, the different ablation strategies for redos were comparable regarding AF recurrences during follow-up (p = 0.079), with the ablation approach having no impact in the case of left atrial low voltage or without. Conclusions: PV reconnections after initial successful PVI are common among all techniques of AF ablation. Long-term rhythm control off antiarrhythmic drugs was possible in 2/3 of all patients after the redo procedure; however, different ablation strategies with extra-PV trigger ablation did not improve long-term success. Patients with recurrent AF after PVI constitute a challenging group of patients. Full article
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14 pages, 1337 KiB  
Review
Endo Belly: What Is It and Why Does It Happen?—A Narrative Review
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(22), 7176; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12227176 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1723
Abstract
Endometriosis is a chronic inflammatory disease where endometrial-like lesions settle outside the uterus, resulting in extensive inflammatory reactions. It is a complex disease that presents with a range of symptoms, with pain and infertility being the most common. Along with severe dysmenorrhea, cyclic [...] Read more.
Endometriosis is a chronic inflammatory disease where endometrial-like lesions settle outside the uterus, resulting in extensive inflammatory reactions. It is a complex disease that presents with a range of symptoms, with pain and infertility being the most common. Along with severe dysmenorrhea, cyclic and acyclic lower abdominal pain, cyclic dysuria and dyschezia, dyspareunia, and infertility, there are also nonspecific complaints that can cause confusion and make endometriosis the chameleon among gynecological diseases. These symptoms include unspecific intestinal complaints, cyclic diarrhea, but also constipation, nausea, vomiting, and stomach complaints. It appears that in addition to general bowel symptoms, there are also specific symptoms related to endometriosis such as cyclic bloating of the abdomen, known as endo belly. During the second half of the menstrual cycle leading up to menstruation, the abdomen becomes increasingly bloated causing discomfort and pain due to elevated sensitivity of the intestinal wall. Patients with endometriosis exhibit a reduced stretch pain threshold of the intestinal wall. Here, we review the endo belly, for the first time, pathophysiology and the influence of other diseases (such as irritable bowel syndrome—IBS), microbiome, hormonal levels, inflammation, and diet on the presentation of this condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Obstetrics & Gynecology)
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17 pages, 2089 KiB  
Article
Topographical Correlation between Structural and Functional Impairment of the Macular Inner Retinal Layers in Multiple Sclerosis Eyes with a History of Optic Neuropathy
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(22), 7175; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12227175 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 664
Abstract
We investigated the potential correlation between morphological and functional parameters describing the rarefaction and dysfunction of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), located in the macula, in multiple sclerosis eyes with a history of optic neuritis (MS-ON). A total of 19 MS-ON eyes from 19 [...] Read more.
We investigated the potential correlation between morphological and functional parameters describing the rarefaction and dysfunction of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), located in the macula, in multiple sclerosis eyes with a history of optic neuritis (MS-ON). A total of 19 MS-ON eyes from 19 MS patients (mean age: 44.16 ± 4.66 years; 11 females and 8 males), with a mean disease duration of 10.06 ± 6.12 years and full recovery of visual acuity, and 30 age-similar (mean age: 45.09 ± 5.08 years) healthy eyes were submitted for ophthalmological evaluation using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) and multifocal photopic negative response (mfPhNR) to study the structural and functional features of localized RGCs. Both GCL+ thickness (via SS-OCT) and response amplitude density (RAD) (via mfPhNR) measurements were obtained from annular regions and ETDRS sectors. Morphological and electrophysiological data from the control and MS groups were compared by using an ANOVA test. GCL+ values were correlated with the corresponding RADs derived from almost superimposable areas using Pearson’s tests (p < 0.01). In MS-ON eyes, the mean values of macular GCL+-T and mfPhNR RAD detected in all rings and ETDRS sectors were significantly reduced (p < 0.01) when compared with control ones. In addition, when plotting the GCL+-T and mfPhNR RAD individual data from MS-ON eyes, we found statistically significant linear correlations (p < 0.01) when considering responses from both rings and sectors. In conclusion, in MS-ON eyes, a topographical correlation between structural and functional impairment of macular RGCs occurs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ophthalmology)
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14 pages, 2549 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Assessment of Plasma von Willebrand Factor and ADAMTS13 Predicts Mortality in Hospitalized Patients with SARS-CoV-2 Infection
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(22), 7174; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12227174 - 19 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 901
Abstract
Background: Plasma levels of von Willebrand factor (VWF) are significantly elevated in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, dynamic changes and prognostic value of this biomarker in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 have not been determined. Methods: A total of 124 patients infected [...] Read more.
Background: Plasma levels of von Willebrand factor (VWF) are significantly elevated in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, dynamic changes and prognostic value of this biomarker in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 have not been determined. Methods: A total of 124 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 were prospectively recruited for the study. Serial blood samples were obtained at the time of admission (D1), 3–4 days following standard-care treatments (D2), and 1–2 days prior to discharge or any time collected prior to death (D3). Plasma VWF antigen, ADAMTS13 antigen, and ADAMTS13 proteolytic activity, as well as the ratio of VWF/ADAMTS13 were determined, followed by various statistical analyses. Results: On admission, plasma levels of VWF in COVID-19 patients were significantly elevated compared with those in the healthy controls, but no statistical significance was detected among patients with different disease severity. Plasma ADAMTS13 activity but not its antigen levels were significantly lower in patients with severe or critical COVID-19 compared with that in other patient groups. Interestingly, the ratios of plasma VWF antigen to ADAMTS13 antigen were significantly higher in patients with severe or critical COVID-19 than in those with mild to moderate disease. More importantly, plasma levels of VWF and the ratios of VWF/ADAMTS13 were persistently elevated in patients with COVID-19 throughout hospitalization. Kaplan–Meier and Cox proportional hazard regression analyses demonstrated that an increased plasma level of VWF or ratio of VWF/ADAMTS13 at D2 and D3 was associated with an increased mortality rate. Conclusions: Persistent endotheliopathy, marked by the elevated levels of plasma VWF or VWF/ADAMTS13 ratio, is present in all hospitalized patients following SARS-CoV-2 infection, which is strongly associated with mortality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in COVID-19 and Cancer)
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11 pages, 625 KiB  
Review
The Antineoplastic Effect of Heparin on Colorectal Cancer: A Review of the Literature
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(22), 7173; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12227173 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 682
Abstract
Heparin and derivatives are commonly used for thrombophylaxis in surgical colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Recent studies have suggested that, besides its protective effect on the incidence of venous thromboembolism, heparin has an anti-cancer effect. The aim of this review was to explore the [...] Read more.
Heparin and derivatives are commonly used for thrombophylaxis in surgical colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Recent studies have suggested that, besides its protective effect on the incidence of venous thromboembolism, heparin has an anti-cancer effect. The aim of this review was to explore the literature and report the antineoplastic effect of heparin and derivatives on CRC. MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for relevant articles. Nineteen studies were included (n = 19). Fifteen were lab studies conducted in vivo or in vitro on CRC cell lines and/or mice (n = 15). Four were in vivo clinical studies (n = 4). CRC tumor growth was reduced by 78% in one study, (p < 0.01), while tumorigenesis was suppressed in heparin-treated mice in seven studies. A high dose of low molecular weight heparin for extended duration significantly reduced post-operative VEGF, suggesting that such a regime may inhibit tumor angiogenesis and distant metastasis. A randomized trial demonstrated the antineoplastic effect of nadroparin as the 6 month survival in palliative patients increased. Another study has reported that disease-free survival of CRC patients was not affected by a similar tinzaparin regime. The anti-cancer properties of heparin and derivatives are promising, especially in lab studies. Further clinical trials are needed to investigate the anti-cancer benefit of heparin on CRC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Colorectal Cancer: Current Concept and Emerging Treatments)
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13 pages, 802 KiB  
Article
Factors Affecting the Duration of Surgery in the Management of Condylar Head Fractures
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(22), 7172; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12227172 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 527
Abstract
Prolonged operation times should be avoided due to the associated complications and negative effects on the efficiency of the use of operating room resources. Surgical treatment of mandibular condylar head fractures is a well-established routine procedure at our department, nevertheless, we recognized fluctuating [...] Read more.
Prolonged operation times should be avoided due to the associated complications and negative effects on the efficiency of the use of operating room resources. Surgical treatment of mandibular condylar head fractures is a well-established routine procedure at our department, nevertheless, we recognized fluctuating operating times. This study aims to pinpoint the influencing factors, in particular the hypothesis whether the efficiency of intraoperative muscle relaxation may decisively affect the duration of surgery. It analyses 168 mandibular condylar head fractures that were surgically treated in the period from 2007 to 2022 regarding the duration of the surgery and potential factors affecting it. The potential predictors’ influence on the dependent variable operation time was mainly calculated as a bivariate analysis or linear regression. Efficiency of relaxation (p ≤ 0.001), fragmentation type (p = 0.031), and fracture age (p = 0.003) could be identified as decisive factors affecting the duration of surgery, as the first surgeon was a constant. In conclusion, surgical intervention should start as soon as possible after a traumatic incident. In addition, a dosage regimen to optimize the efficiency of relaxation should be established in future studies. Fragmentation type and concomitant fractures should also be considered for a more accurate estimation of the operating time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Updates and Challenges in Maxillo-Facial Surgery)
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15 pages, 975 KiB  
Article
Clinical Aspects in Subacute Thyroiditis: A Real-Life Study on 226 Cases in Greece Amid the COVID-19 Pandemic
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(22), 7171; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12227171 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1314
Abstract
Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate various therapeutic approaches, identify potential predictive factors for the recurrence and development of hypothyroidism, and examine specific clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with subacute thyroiditis (SAT) due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the medical [...] Read more.
Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate various therapeutic approaches, identify potential predictive factors for the recurrence and development of hypothyroidism, and examine specific clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with subacute thyroiditis (SAT) due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 226 patients with confirmed SAT diagnosed from January 2020 to November 2022. Results: The mean age was 48.01 ± 0.75 years, and the F/M ratio was 2.3/1. At the end of the follow-up period, 69 patients (32.1%) had developed hypothyroidism. Treatment duration was significantly shorter with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (17.40 ± 2.56 days), while time-to-symptom relief was shorter with glucocorticoids (CGs). Recurrence was observed only in those treated with corticosteroid preparations (14.1%). C-reactive protein levels at treatment discontinuation were higher in patients who experienced SAT recurrence, while the coexistence of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis was a significant predictive factor for the development of hypothyroidism. The TSH value at the time of treatment withdrawal >4.12 μIU/mL showed optimal sensitivity and specificity for the prediction of permanent hypothyroidism. Regarding COVID-19, 34 patients (15%) experienced related SAT, with similar clinical manifestations of the disease but a higher BMI and shorter time-to-symptom relief. Conclusion: In conclusion, GCs administration alleviated acute symptoms earlier during the onset of SAT, whereas NSAIDs had a shorter treatment duration, and both regimens could not prevent the development of delayed hypothyroidism. The clinical characteristics of SAT due to COVID-19 infections were similar to those of typical SAT disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Perspectives on Diagnosis and Treatment of Thyroid Diseases)
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14 pages, 863 KiB  
Article
Stress Dynamics in Families with Children with Neuropsychiatric Disorders during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Three-Year Longitudinal Assessment
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(22), 7170; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12227170 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 718
Abstract
Background and Objectives: This study explores the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on families with children diagnosed with neuropsychiatric disorders, focusing on stress dynamics and quality of life. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal survey was conducted over three years (2020–2022) involving 168 families. [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: This study explores the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on families with children diagnosed with neuropsychiatric disorders, focusing on stress dynamics and quality of life. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal survey was conducted over three years (2020–2022) involving 168 families. The survey included data on demographics, diagnosed conditions, access to therapies, mental well-being, and perceived challenges. Results: The study involved 62, 51, and 55 families in 2020, 2021, and 2022, respectively. ADHD emerged as the most prevalent condition, diagnosed in approximately 32% of the children. The pandemic significantly affected therapy access, with parents reporting a decrease from an average score of 8.1 in 2020 to 6.5 in 2022 (p = 0.029). Parents also reported increased feelings of being overwhelmed, peaking at 8.0 in 2021 before declining to 6.3 in 2022 (p = 0.017). Despite these challenges, there was a positive trend in family mental well-being, with scores increasing from 5.1 in 2020 to 6.7 in 2022 (p = 0.031). The Parental Stress Index (PSI) indicated decreasing trends in Emotional Stress and Parent–Child Communication Difficulties (p < 0.001), and Behavioral Challenges in children showed a significant reduction across the years (p < 0.001). The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) reflected a moderate reduction in anxiety levels from 7.6 in 2020 to 6.0 in 2022 (p = 0.038), although depression scores did not show a significant change. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic introduced notable challenges for families with neuropsychiatrically diagnosed children, particularly in therapy access and increased parental stress. However, the study also reveals a general improvement in family dynamics, mental well-being, and a decrease in behavioral challenges over time. The necessity of this study stems from the critical need to examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on families with neuropsychiatrically diagnosed children, focusing on their resilience and adaptation in navigating therapy access, parental stress, and overall mental well-being. Full article
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10 pages, 1886 KiB  
Article
The CHANGED Score—A New Tool for the Prediction of Insulin Dependency in Gestational Diabetes
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(22), 7169; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12227169 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 705
Abstract
Gestational diabetes (GDM) is a frequent complication during pregnancy. We aimed to develop a score to predict future insulin dependency in gestational diabetes (GDM). Data from 1611 patients from Charité Berlins gestational diabetes clinic from 2015 to 2022 were utilized. A stepwise backwards [...] Read more.
Gestational diabetes (GDM) is a frequent complication during pregnancy. We aimed to develop a score to predict future insulin dependency in gestational diabetes (GDM). Data from 1611 patients from Charité Berlins gestational diabetes clinic from 2015 to 2022 were utilized. A stepwise backwards regression, including patient characteristics obtained at the initial presentation, was performed. Predictors examined included age, fasting blood glucose level, blood glucose levels one and two hours after oral glucose tolerance test, pre-pregnancy BMI, number of previous pregnancies and births, and fetal sex. The ideal cutoff value between high and low risk for insulin dependency was assessed and the score was internally validated. There were 1249 (77.5%) women diagnosed with dietary GDM and 362 (22.5%) were diagnosed with insulin-dependent GDM. The CHarité AssessmeNt of GEstational Diabetes (CHANGED) Score achieved an area under the curve of 0.77 (95% confidence interval 0.75–0.80; 0.75 in internal validation). The optimal cutoff value was calculated at a score value of 9 (72% sensitivity, 69% specificity). We developed an easily applicable tool to accurately predict insulin dependency in gestational diabetes. The CHANGED Score is routinely available and can potentially improve maternal and fetal outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Clinical Perspective on Pregnancy Complications and Symptoms)
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14 pages, 1394 KiB  
Article
External Validation and Recalibration of a Mortality Prediction Model for Patients with Ischaemic Stroke
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(22), 7168; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12227168 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 960
Abstract
Background: Stroke is a highly prevalent disease that can provoke severe disability. We evaluate a predictive model based on the Minimum Basic Data Set (MBDS) compiled by the Spain Health Ministry, obtained for the period 2008–2012 for patients with ischaemic stroke in Spain, [...] Read more.
Background: Stroke is a highly prevalent disease that can provoke severe disability. We evaluate a predictive model based on the Minimum Basic Data Set (MBDS) compiled by the Spain Health Ministry, obtained for the period 2008–2012 for patients with ischaemic stroke in Spain, to establish the model’s validity and to optimise its calibration. The MBDS is the main clinical-administrative database for hospitalisations recorded in Spain, and to our knowledge, no predictive models for stroke mortality have previously been developed using this resource. The main study aim is to perform an external validation and recalibration of the coefficients of this predictive model with respect to a chronologically later cohort. Material and Methods: External validation (testing the model on a different cohort to assess its performance) and recalibration (validation with optimisation of model coefficients) were performed using the MBDS for patients admitted for ischaemic stroke in the period 2016–2018. A cohort study was designed, in which a recalibrated model was obtained by applying the variables of the original model without their coefficients. The variables from the original model were then applied to the subsequent cohort, together with the coefficients from the initial model. The areas under the curve (AUC) of the recalibration and the external validation procedure were compared. Results: The recalibrated model produced an AUC of 0.743 and was composed of the following variables: age (odds ratio, OR:1.073), female sex (OR:1.143), ischaemic heart disease (OR:1.192), hypertension (OR:0.719), atrial fibrillation (OR:1.414), hyperlipidaemia (OR:0.652), heart failure (OR:2.133) and posterior circulation stroke (OR: 0.755). External validation produced an AUC of 0.726. Conclusions: The recalibrated clinical model thus obtained presented moderate-high discriminant ability and was generalisable to predict death for patients with ischaemic stroke. Rigorous external validation slightly decreased the AUC but confirmed the validity of the baseline model for the chronologically later cohort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Neurology)
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12 pages, 1111 KiB  
Article
Pulmonary Lobectomy for Early-Stage Lung Cancer with Uniportal versus Three-Portal Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery: Results from a Single-Centre Randomized Clinical Trial
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(22), 7167; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12227167 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 720
Abstract
Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) is a consolidated approach; however, there is no consensus on the number of ports leading to less postoperative pain. We compared early postoperative pain after uniportal and three-portal VATS lobectomy for early-stage NSCLC. In this randomized clinical trial, patients [...] Read more.
Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) is a consolidated approach; however, there is no consensus on the number of ports leading to less postoperative pain. We compared early postoperative pain after uniportal and three-portal VATS lobectomy for early-stage NSCLC. In this randomized clinical trial, patients undergoing VATS lobectomy were randomly assigned to receive uniportal (U-VATS Group) or three-portal (T-VATS Group) VATS. The inclusion criteria were age ≤ 80 years and ASA < 4. The exclusion criteria were clinical T3, previous thoracic surgery, induction therapy, chest radiotherapy, connective tissue or vascular diseases, major organ failure, and analgesics or corticosteroids use. The postoperative analgesia protocol was based on NRS. Pain was measured as analgesic consumption; the secondary endpoints were intra- and postoperative complications, conversion rate, surgical time, dissected lymph nodes, hospital stay, and respiratory function. Out of 302 eligible patients, 120 were included; demographics were distributed homogeneously. The mean cumulative morphine consumption (CMC) in the U-VATS Group after 7 days was lower than in the T-VATS Group (77.4 mg vs. 90.1 mg, p = 0.003). Intraoperative variables and postoperative complications were comparable. The 30-day intercostal neuralgia rate was lower in the U-VATS Group, without reaching statistical significance. Patients undergoing U-VATS showed a lower analgesic consumption compared with the T-VATS Group; analgesic consumption was moderate in both groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thoracic Surgery: Current and Future Strategies)
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