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J. Clin. Med., Volume 12, Issue 21 (November-1 2023) – 256 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Cardiovascular disease, including ischemic heart disease, is the leading cause of death worldwide, and percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) have been demonstrated to improve the prognosis of these patients on top of optimal medical therapy. There has been a constant technical and scientific improvement in stent technology from bare metal stents to the era of drug-eluting stents (DESs) to overcome clinical challenges such as target lesion failure related to in-stent restenosis or stent thrombosis. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of these adverse events has led DESs to evolve from first-generation DESs to thinner and ultrathin third-generation DESs with improved polymer biocompatibility. This review aims to provide a brief historical overview of the evolution of coronary DES platforms and an update on clinical studies of the most currently used DESs. View this paper
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15 pages, 1041 KiB  
Protocol
Immunosuppressive Therapy and Nutritional Status of Patients after Kidney Transplantation: A Protocol for a Systematic Review
by Aleksandra Anna Kajdas, Dorota Szostak-Węgierek, Marta Dąbrowska-Bender, Anne Katrine Normann and Ditte Søndergaard Linde
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(21), 6955; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12216955 - 06 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1510
Abstract
(1) Background: Kidney transplantation is widely recognized as the most effective method of treating end-stage renal disease. Immunosuppressive therapy plays a pivotal role in the treatment of kidney transplant patients, encompassing all patients (except identical twins), and is administered from organ transplantation until [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Kidney transplantation is widely recognized as the most effective method of treating end-stage renal disease. Immunosuppressive therapy plays a pivotal role in the treatment of kidney transplant patients, encompassing all patients (except identical twins), and is administered from organ transplantation until the end of its function. The aim of this systematic review is to identify the evidence of the association between immunosuppressive therapy and nutritional status of patients following kidney transplantation. (2) Methods: This protocol has been designed in line with Preferred Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA-P). Our search encompasses several databases, including MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE (Elsevier), Scopus and Web of Science. We intend to include observational studies (cross-sectional, case-control, and cohort designs), randomized controlled trials (RCTs), as well as completed and ongoing non-randomized study designs. We will confine our search to studies published in English within the past decade (from inception to 17 February 2023). Qualitative studies, case studies, and conference reports will be excluded. The selection process will be done in Covidence by two independent reviewers. Data extraction will be conducted using a standardized MS Excel template version 16.0. Quality assessment of included studies will be performed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool for randomized trials (RoB2), or the Risk of Bias in Non-randomized Studies of Interventions (ROBINS-I) tool. Risk-of-bias plots will be generated using the web application Robvis. Relevant data that have been extracted from eligible studies will be presented in a narrative synthesis. We expect the studies to be too heterogeneous to perform subgroup analyses. (3) Conclusion: This systematic review will offer insights into the evidence regarding association between immunosuppressive therapy and nutritional status of adult patients (18 years of age or older) within the initial year following kidney transplantation. To our knowledge, there is no systematic review addressing that question. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nephrology & Urology)
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12 pages, 750 KiB  
Article
Propofol-Based Anesthesia Maintenance and/or Volatile Anesthetics during Intracranial Aneurysm Repair: A Comparative Analysis of Neurological Outcomes
by Shooka Esmaeeli, Negar Motayagheni, Andres Brenes Bastos, Christopher S Ogilvy, Ajith J Thomas, Richard Pollard, Lauren K Buhl, Maxwell B Baker, Sheshanna Phan, Omron Hassan, Corey R Fehnel, Matthias Eikermann, Shahzad Shaefi and Ala Nozari
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(21), 6954; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12216954 - 06 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1513
Abstract
Background: Volatile and intravenous anesthetics have substantial effects on physiological functions, notably influencing neurological function and susceptibility to injury. Despite the importance of the anesthetic approach, data on its relative risks or benefits during surgical clipping or endovascular treatments for unruptured intracranial aneurysms [...] Read more.
Background: Volatile and intravenous anesthetics have substantial effects on physiological functions, notably influencing neurological function and susceptibility to injury. Despite the importance of the anesthetic approach, data on its relative risks or benefits during surgical clipping or endovascular treatments for unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) remains scant. We investigated whether using volatile anesthetics alone or in combination with propofol infusion yields superior neurological outcomes following UIA obliteration. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 1001 patients who underwent open or endovascular treatment for UIA, of whom 596 had short- and long-term neurological outcome data (modified Rankin Scale) recorded. Multivariable ordinal regression analysis was performed to examine the association between the anesthetic approach and outcomes. Results: Of 1001 patients, 765 received volatile anesthetics alone, while 236 received propofol infusion and volatile anesthetics (combined anesthetic group). Short-term neurological outcome data were available for 619 patients and long-term data for 596. No significant correlation was found between the anesthetic approach and neurologic outcomes, irrespective of the type of procedure (open craniotomy or endovascular treatment). The combined anesthetic group had a higher rate of ICU admission (p < 0.001) and longer ICU and hospital length of stay (LOS, p < 0.001). Similarly, a subgroup analysis revealed longer ICU and hospital LOS (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.001, respectively) in patients who underwent endovascular UIA obliteration under a combined anesthetic approach (n = 678). Conclusions: The addition of propofol to volatile anesthetics during UIA obliteration does not provide short- or long-term benefits to neurologic outcomes. Compared to volatile anesthetics alone, the combination of propofol and volatile anesthetics may be associated with an increased rate of ICU admission, as well as longer ICU and hospital LOS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Neuroscience in Anesthesiology)
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19 pages, 966 KiB  
Review
Application of Electrophysiology in Non-Macular Inherited Retinal Dystrophies
by Yulia Haraguchi, Tsun-Kang Chiang and Minzhong Yu
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(21), 6953; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12216953 - 06 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1247
Abstract
Inherited retinal dystrophies encompass a diverse group of disorders affecting the structure and function of the retina, leading to progressive visual impairment and, in severe cases, blindness. Electrophysiology testing has emerged as a valuable tool in assessing and diagnosing those conditions, offering insights [...] Read more.
Inherited retinal dystrophies encompass a diverse group of disorders affecting the structure and function of the retina, leading to progressive visual impairment and, in severe cases, blindness. Electrophysiology testing has emerged as a valuable tool in assessing and diagnosing those conditions, offering insights into the function of different parts of the visual pathway from retina to visual cortex and aiding in disease classification. This review provides an overview of the application of electrophysiology testing in the non-macular inherited retinal dystrophies focusing on both common and rare variants, including retinitis pigmentosa, progressive cone and cone-rod dystrophy, bradyopsia, Bietti crystalline dystrophy, late-onset retinal degeneration, and fundus albipunctatus. The different applications and limitations of electrophysiology techniques, including multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG), full-field ERG (ffERG), electrooculogram (EOG), pattern electroretinogram (PERG), and visual evoked potential (VEP), in the diagnosis and management of these distinctive phenotypes are discussed. The potential for electrophysiology testing to allow for further understanding of these diseases and the possibility of using these tests for early detection, prognosis prediction, and therapeutic monitoring in the future is reviewed. Full article
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19 pages, 4290 KiB  
Systematic Review
Five-Year Efficacy and Safety of TiNO-Coated Stents Versus Drug-Eluting Stents in Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis
by Frederic C. Daoud, Bogdan Catargi, Pasi P. Karjalainen and Edouard Gerbaud
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(21), 6952; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12216952 - 06 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1046
Abstract
(1) Background: Percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are performed with titanium-nitride-oxide-coated stents (TiNOSs) or drug-eluting stents (DESs). The initial completion of this prospective systematic literature review (SLR) of prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showed that TiNOSs are [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are performed with titanium-nitride-oxide-coated stents (TiNOSs) or drug-eluting stents (DESs). The initial completion of this prospective systematic literature review (SLR) of prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showed that TiNOSs are non-inferior to DESs in major adverse cardiac event (MACE) rates and present a lower risk of recurrent myocardial infarction (MI) at 1-year follow-up. This iteration of the SLR protocol performs the critical assessment of 5-year follow-up outcomes with clinical validity and generalizability assessments. (2) Methods: The previously described SLR and meta-analysis protocol, per PRISMA, Cochrane methods, and GRADE, was applied to 5-year follow-up outcomes. (3) Results: Three RCTs were eligible, comprising 1620 patients with TiNOS vs. 1123 with DES. The pooled risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals were MACE 0.82 [0.68, 0.99], MI 0.58 [0.44, 0.78], cardiac death (CD) 0.46 [0.28, 0.76], ischemia-driven target lesion revascularization (TLR) 1.03 [0.79, 1.33], probable or definite stent thrombosis (ST) 0.32 [0.21, 0.59], and all-cause mortality (TD) 0.84 [0.63, 1.12]. The evidence certainty was high in MACE, CD, MI, and ST, and moderate in TLR and TD. (4) Conclusions: TiNOSs in ACS at 5-year follow-up appear safer than DESs and equally efficacious. The pooled RRs stratified by clinical presentation and stent type will be required to test this meta-analysis’s clinical validity and generalize its results to patient populations with varying proportions of clinical presentations and DES options. Full article
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10 pages, 487 KiB  
Article
Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes: Is Age at Onset a Determining Factor in Advanced Hybrid Closed-Loop Insulin Therapy?
by Alfonso Lendínez-Jurado, Juan Pedro López-Siguero, Ana Gómez-Perea, Ana B. Ariza-Jiménez, Icía Becerra-Paz, Leopoldo Tapia-Ceballos, Carmen Cruces-Ponce, José Manuel Jiménez-Hinojosa, Sonsoles Morcillo and Isabel Leiva-Gea
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(21), 6951; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12216951 - 06 Nov 2023
Viewed by 898
Abstract
Background: The integration of continuous glucose monitoring systems with insulin infusion pumps has shown improved glycemic control, with improvements in hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, Hb1Ac, and greater autonomy in daily life. These have been most studied in adults and there are currently not many articles [...] Read more.
Background: The integration of continuous glucose monitoring systems with insulin infusion pumps has shown improved glycemic control, with improvements in hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, Hb1Ac, and greater autonomy in daily life. These have been most studied in adults and there are currently not many articles published in the pediatric population that establish their correlation with age of debut. Methods: Prospective, single-study. A total of 28 patients (mean age 12 ± 2.43 years, 57% male, duration of diabetes 7.84 ± 2.46 years) were included and divided into two groups according to age at T1D onset (≤4 years and >4 years). Follow-up for 3 months, with glucometric variables extracted at different cut-off points after the start of the closed-loop (baseline, 1 month, 3 months). Results: Significant improvement was evidenced at 1 month and 3 months after closed-loop system implantation, with better glycemic control in the older age group at baseline at TIR (74.06% ± 6.37% vs. 80.33% ± 7.49% at 1 month, p < 0.003; 71.87% ± 6.58% vs. 78.75% ± 5.94% at 3 months, p < 0.009), TAR1 (18.25% ± 4.54% vs. 14.33% ± 5.74% at 1 month, p < 0.006; 19.87% ± 5.15% vs. 14.67% ± 4. 36% at 3 months, p < 0.009) and TAR2 (4.75% ± 2.67% vs. 2.75% ± 1.96% at 1 month, p = 0.0307; 5.40% ± 2.85% vs. 3% ± 2.45% at 3 months, p < 0.027). Conclusions: the use of automated systems such as the MiniMedTM780G system brings glucometric results closer to those recommended by consensus, especially in age at T1D onset >4 years. However, the management in pediatrics continues to be a challenge even after the implementation of these systems, especially in terms of hyperglycemia and glycemic variability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endocrine Disorders in Children)
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13 pages, 3696 KiB  
Article
Initial Learning Curve for Robot-Assisted Total Knee Arthroplasty in a Dedicated Orthopedics Center
by Serban Dragosloveanu, Mihnea-Alexandru Petre, Bogdan Sorin Capitanu, Christiana Diana Maria Dragosloveanu, Romica Cergan and Cristian Scheau
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(21), 6950; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12216950 - 06 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 801
Abstract
Background and objectives: Our study aimed to assess the learning curve for robot-assisted (RA) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in our hospital, compare operative times between RA-TKAs and manual TKAs, and assess the early complications rate between the two approaches. Methods: We included 39 [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Our study aimed to assess the learning curve for robot-assisted (RA) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in our hospital, compare operative times between RA-TKAs and manual TKAs, and assess the early complications rate between the two approaches. Methods: We included 39 patients who underwent RA-TKA and 45 control patients subjected to manual TKA in the same period and operated on by the same surgical staff. We collected demographic and patient-related data to assess potential differences between the two groups. Results: No statistical differences were recorded in regard to age, BMI, sex, Kellgren–Lawrence classification, or limb alignment between patients undergoing RA-TKA and manual TKA, respectively. Three surgeons transitioned from the learning to the proficiency phase in our study after a number of 6, 4, and 3 cases, respectively. The overall operative time for the learning phase was 111.54 ± 20.45 min, significantly longer compared to the average of 86.43 ± 19.09 min in the proficiency phase (p = 0.0154) and 80.56 ± 17.03 min for manual TKAs (p < 0.0001). No statistically significant difference was recorded between the global operative time for the proficiency phase TKAs versus the controls. No major complications were recorded in either RA-TKA or manual TKA groups. Conclusions: Our results suggest that experienced surgeons may adopt RA-TKA using this platform and quickly adapt without significant complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Knee Surgery and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation)
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11 pages, 855 KiB  
Article
Real-World Efficacy and Safety of an 8-Week Glecaprevir/Pibrentasvir Regimen in Children and Adolescents with Chronic Hepatitis C—Results of a Multicenter EpiTer-2 Study
by Malgorzata Pawlowska, Krystyna Dobrowolska, Justyna Moppert, Maria Pokorska-Śpiewak, Mariola Purzynska, Magdalena Marczynska, Dorota Zarebska-Michaluk and Robert Flisiak
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(21), 6949; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12216949 - 06 Nov 2023
Viewed by 822
Abstract
The aim of the study was to analyze the effectiveness and safety of anti-HCV treatment based on a pangenotypic direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimen with glecaprevir/pibrentasvir (GLE/PIB) in children. The multi-center study was conducted in HCV-infected children who were treated in the period from [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to analyze the effectiveness and safety of anti-HCV treatment based on a pangenotypic direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimen with glecaprevir/pibrentasvir (GLE/PIB) in children. The multi-center study was conducted in HCV-infected children who were treated in the period from November 2022 to January 2023. The analysis included 23 pediatric patients with a mean (SD) age of 9.61 (3.68) years. The cohort included 13 girls and 10 boys. The most common HCV genotypes were GT1b (n = 9, 39.1%), GT1a (n = 6, 26.1%) and GT3 (n = 5, 21.7%). The SVR was assessed at 12 weeks after the end of treatment and was 100% for both girls and boys. The conducted study showed a very good tolerance of the treatment in the entire analyzed group and confirmed a very high efficacy and safety for 8-week treatment with GLE/PIB in children over three years of age. It seems that our study is the first on the real-world use of an 8-week GLE/PIB pangenotypic therapy in a group of children aged 3–12 years and the first in Europe for adolescents aged 12–17. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastroenterology & Hepatopancreatobiliary Medicine)
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11 pages, 1590 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Potential of the Corpus Callosum Area as a Predictive Marker for Impaired Information Processing in Multiple Sclerosis
by Shun Akaike, Tomoko Okamoto, Ryoji Kurosawa, Nozomi Onodera, Youwei Lin, Wakiro Sato, Takashi Yamamura and Yuji Takahashi
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(21), 6948; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12216948 - 06 Nov 2023
Viewed by 931
Abstract
Early cognitive impairment (CI) detection is crucial in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, it can progress silently regardless of relapse activity and reach an advanced stage. We aimed to determine whether the corpus callosum area (CCA) is a sensitive and feasible marker for CI [...] Read more.
Early cognitive impairment (CI) detection is crucial in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, it can progress silently regardless of relapse activity and reach an advanced stage. We aimed to determine whether the corpus callosum area (CCA) is a sensitive and feasible marker for CI in MS compared to other neuroimaging markers. We assessed cognitive function in 77 MS patients using the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, Paced Auditory Serial Additions Task, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV, and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised. The neuroimaging markers included manually measured CCA, two diffusion tensor imaging markers, and nine volumetric measurements. Apart from volumes of the hippocampus and cerebellum, ten markers showed a significant correlation with all neuropsychological tests and significant differences between the groups. The normalized CCA demonstrated a moderate-to-strong correlation with all neuropsychological tests and successfully differentiated between the CI and cognitively normal groups with 80% sensitivity and 83% specificity. The marker had a large area under the curve and a high Youden index (0.82 and 0.63, respectively) and comparability with established cognitive markers. Therefore, the normalized CCA may serve as a reliable marker for CI in MS and can be easily implemented in clinical practice, providing a supportive diagnostic tool for CI in MS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Advances in Multiple Sclerosis 2.0)
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3 pages, 202 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Felsenstein M. et al. Perineural Invasion in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC): A Saboteur of Curative Intended Therapies? J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11, 2367
by Matthäus Felsenstein, Flora Lindhammer, Mathilde Feist, Karl Herbert Hillebrandt, Lea Timmermann, Christian Benzing, Brigitta Globke, Dario Zocholl, Mengwen Hu, Uli Fehrenbach, Bruno Valentin Sinn, Uwe Pelzer, Igor Maximillian Sauer, Johann Pratschke and Thomas Malinka
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(21), 6947; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12216947 - 06 Nov 2023
Viewed by 503
Abstract
In the original publication [...] Full article
15 pages, 1928 KiB  
Article
The Significance of Preoperative Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR), Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Ratio (PLR), and Systemic Inflammatory Index (SII) in Predicting Severity and Adverse Outcomes in Acute Calculous Cholecystitis
by Dragos Serban, Paul Lorin Stoica, Ana Maria Dascalu, Dan Georgian Bratu, Bogdan Mihai Cristea, Catalin Alius, Ion Motofei, Corneliu Tudor, Laura Carina Tribus, Crenguta Serboiu, Mihail Silviu Tudosie, Denisa Tanasescu, Geta Vancea and Daniel Ovidiu Costea
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(21), 6946; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12216946 - 06 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1302
Abstract
The prediction of severity in acute calculous cholecystitis (AC) is important in therapeutic management to ensure an early recovery and prevent adverse postoperative events. We analyzed the value of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and systemic inflammatory index (SII) to predict [...] Read more.
The prediction of severity in acute calculous cholecystitis (AC) is important in therapeutic management to ensure an early recovery and prevent adverse postoperative events. We analyzed the value of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and systemic inflammatory index (SII) to predict advanced inflammation, the risk for conversion, and postoperative complications in AC. Advanced AC was considered the cases with empyema, gangrene, perforation of the gallbladder, abscesses, or difficulties in achieving the critical view of safety. A 3-year retrospective was performed on 235 patients admitted in emergency care for AC. The NLR was superior to the PLR and SII in predicting advanced inflammation and risk for conversion. The best predictive value was found to be at an NLR “cut-off” value of >4.19, with a sensitivity of 85.5% and a specificity of 66.9% (AUC = 0.824). The NLR, SII, and TG 13/18 correlate well with postoperative complications of Clavien–Dindo grade IV (p < 0.001 for all variables) and sepsis. For predicting early postoperative sepsis, TG 13/18 grading >2 and NLR > 8.54 show the best predicting power (AUC = 0.931; AUC = 0.888, respectively), although not significantly higher than that of the PLR and SII. The NLR is a useful biomarker in assessing the severity of inflammation in AC. The SII and PLR may be useful in the prediction of systemic inflammatory response. Full article
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13 pages, 6380 KiB  
Article
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Consequence of Patient-Intrinsic or -Extrinsic Factors?
by Evgenia Emmanouilidou, Despoina Kosmara, Efrosini Papadaki, Vasileios Mastorodemos, Pantelis Constantoulakis, Argyro Repa, Georgia Christopoulou, Christina Kalpadakis, Nestor Avgoustidis, Konstantinos Thomas, Dimitrios Boumpas, Prodromos Sidiropoulos and George Bertsias
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(21), 6945; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12216945 - 06 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1370
Abstract
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a severe demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by reactivation of the polyomavirus JC (JCV) typically in immunocompromised individuals. The risk of PML among rheumatic diseases may be higher for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), without, [...] Read more.
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a severe demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by reactivation of the polyomavirus JC (JCV) typically in immunocompromised individuals. The risk of PML among rheumatic diseases may be higher for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), without, however, a clear association with the type and intensity of background therapy. We present the development and outcome of PML in a 32-year-old female lupus patient under mild immunosuppressive treatment, yet with marked B-cell lymphopenia in the peripheral blood and bone marrow (<1% of total lymphocytes). Despite treatment with the immune checkpoint inhibitor pembrolizumab, the patient showed progressive neurological and brain imaging deterioration and eventually died 15 months after PML diagnosis. To unveil possible underlying genetic liabilities, whole exome sequencing was performed which identified deleterious variants in GATA2 and CDH7 genes, which both have been linked to defective T- and/or B-lymphocyte production. These findings reiterate the possible role of disease-/patient-intrinsic factors, rather than that of drug-induced immunosuppression, in driving immune dysregulation and susceptibility to PML in certain patients with SLE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Aspects and Unmet Needs in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus)
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25 pages, 3030 KiB  
Systematic Review
Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Spain: A Systematic Review
by Jennifer Sacramento-Pacheco, María Begoña Sánchez-Gómez, Juan Gómez-Salgado, María Mercedes Novo-Muñoz and Gonzalo Duarte-Clíments
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(21), 6944; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12216944 - 06 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1315
Abstract
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in Spain, according to data from the National Institute of Statistics, with the lack of control of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) being the main contributing factor. The CVRFs of greatest clinical interest are high blood [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in Spain, according to data from the National Institute of Statistics, with the lack of control of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) being the main contributing factor. The CVRFs of greatest clinical interest are high blood pressure (HBP), smoking, diabetes mellitus (DM2), overweight, obesity, hypercholesterolaemia, and sedentary lifestyle. The main objective of this review was to compare the prevalence of the different CVRFs according to population-based studies carried out in Spain. For this, a systematic review based on publications assessing CVRFs in the adult population and estimating their national prevalence was conducted. Pubmed and Dialnet databases were consulted, and the selected articles were analysed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme Español (CASPe) tool for cohort studies and the Berra et al. tool for cross-sectional studies. A total of 33 studies were obtained from the autonomous regions of Andalusia, the Canary Islands, Castilla-Leon, Castilla-La Mancha, Catalonia, Extremadura, the Balearic Islands, Madrid, Murcia, and Navarra. In all the population-based studies, there was a greater representation of women in the sample. The most prevalent CVRFs differed across the studies according to the autonomous region targeted, with dyslipidaemia, sedentary lifestyle, high blood pressure, hypercholesterolaemia, overweight, and obesity standing out. Numerous differences exist between the studies included in this review, such as the age range, the CVRFs analysed and their prevalence, and remarkable aspects such as the over-representation of the female sex in all cases. It can be concluded that, based on the presented results, the prevalence of CVRFs in Spain varies according to the autonomous region, the sex of the individual, and the studied age range. Full article
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12 pages, 1576 KiB  
Article
The Prognostic Value of Arterial Stiffness According to Socioeconomic Status
by Woo-Hyun Lim, Hack-Lyoung Kim, Hyun Sung Joh, Jae-Bin Seo, Sang-Hyun Kim, Joo-Hee Zo and Myung-A Kim
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(21), 6943; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12216943 - 06 Nov 2023
Viewed by 688
Abstract
Background: Individuals of low socioeconomic status (SES) often exhibit increased cardiovascular risk factors and a worse prognosis. We conducted this study to ascertain whether brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a straightforward and reliable measure of arterial stiffness, can hold prognostic value for people [...] Read more.
Background: Individuals of low socioeconomic status (SES) often exhibit increased cardiovascular risk factors and a worse prognosis. We conducted this study to ascertain whether brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a straightforward and reliable measure of arterial stiffness, can hold prognostic value for people with low SES. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed a total of 1266 subjects (mean age 64.6 ± 11.6 years; 47.2% female) without documented cardiovascular disease who had undergone baPWV measurement. The subjects included 633 National Health Insurance Beneficiaries (NHIB) and 633 Medical Aid Beneficiaries (MAB), matched for major clinical features through a 1:1 propensity score matching method. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), such as death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal ischemic stroke, coronary revascularization, and heart failure necessitating admission, were assessed during the clinical follow-up. Results: During a median follow-up period of 4.2 years (interquartile range, 2.2–5.7 years), there were 77 MACE cases (6.1%). In multivariable Cox regression analyses, baPWV was identified as a significant predictor of MACE in both groups, regardless of the use of three different baPWV criteria (median value, Asian consensus recommendation, and cut-off value obtained by receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve analysis). In both groups, the baPWV value obtained using ROC curve analysis emerged as the best predictor of MACE. This predictive value was stronger in the NHIB group (hazard ratio, 5.80; 95% confidence interval, 2.30–14.65; p < 0.001) than in the MAB group (hazard ratio, 3.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.57–6.92; p = 0.002). Conclusions: baPWV was associated with future MACE incidence in both NHIB and MAB groups. Since baPWV is simple and cost-effective to measure, it could be efficiently used as a risk stratification tool for individuals with low SES. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiology)
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12 pages, 1306 KiB  
Article
Animal Bite Injuries to the Face: A Retrospective Evaluation of 111 Cases
by Michael Maurer, Cornelius Schlipköter, Maximilian Gottsauner, Waltraud Waiss, Johannes K. Meier, Mathias Fiedler, Johannes G. Schuderer, Juergen Taxis, Torsten E. Reichert and Tobias Ettl
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(21), 6942; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12216942 - 06 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1046
Abstract
The treatment of bite wounds to the face is discussed controversially in relation to surgery and antibiotics. The aim of this study is a retrospective evaluation of 111 cases of animal bite injuries to the face that presented to our unit of oral [...] Read more.
The treatment of bite wounds to the face is discussed controversially in relation to surgery and antibiotics. The aim of this study is a retrospective evaluation of 111 cases of animal bite injuries to the face that presented to our unit of oral and maxillofacial surgery over a 13-year period. Children under 10 years of age were predominantly involved. A total of 94.5% of the assessed injuries were caused by dogs. Wound infections occurred in 8.1%. Lackmann type II was the most common type of injury (36.9%). The perioral area was affected most frequently (40.5%). Primary wound closure was carried out in 74.8% of the cases. In 91.9% of the cases, antibiotic prophylaxis was prescribed. The most often administered type of antibiotic was amoxicillin with clavulanic acid (62.1%). Patients without antibiotics showed an increased infection rate without significance. Wound infections occurred significantly more frequently in wounds to the cheeks (p = 0.003) and when local flap reconstruction was necessary (p = 0.048). Compared to the other surgical treatment options, primary closure showed the lowest infection rates (4.8%, p = 0.029). We recommend antibiotic prophylaxis using amoxicillin with clavulanic acid and wound drains for wounds of Lackmann class II or higher. Primary closure seems to be the treatment of choice whenever possible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Craniofacial and Reconstructive Plastic Surgery)
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14 pages, 4933 KiB  
Article
Comparison of the Clinical Effectiveness of Correcting Different Types of Astigmatism with Small Incision Lenticule Extraction
by Estera Igras, Barbara Czarnota-Nowakowska and Rónán O’Caoimh
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(21), 6941; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12216941 - 06 Nov 2023
Viewed by 721
Abstract
Few studies have reported the differential outcomes of Small Incision Lenticule Extraction (SMILE) on myopic astigmatism. Given this, we examined the effectiveness of SMILE for up to one year, comparing with-the-rule (WTR), against-the-rule (ATR), and oblique astigmatism, conducting a retrospective review of patients [...] Read more.
Few studies have reported the differential outcomes of Small Incision Lenticule Extraction (SMILE) on myopic astigmatism. Given this, we examined the effectiveness of SMILE for up to one year, comparing with-the-rule (WTR), against-the-rule (ATR), and oblique astigmatism, conducting a retrospective review of patients who underwent correction of myopic astigmatism using the 500-kHz VisuMax femtosecond laser (Carl Zeiss Meditec) at two refractive clinics in Poland between 2016–2017. Patients were aged ≥21 with stable refractive errors between −0.5 and −10.0 diopter (D) with astigmatism up to 5D. The mean age of the 209 patients (355 eyes) available was 32 years; 58.4% were female. Of these, 247 had WTR, 62 oblique, and 46 ATR astigmatism. The mean pre-operative spherical equivalent (SE) was −5.4 ± 2.57D and the cylinder −1.7 ± 1.0D. The mean SE for WTR reduced from −5.60 ± 2.37D to −0.31 ± 0.67D at 2 months and −0.38 ± 0.70D at 12 months; the mean cylinder improved from −1.90 ± 1.10D to −0.31 ± 0.39D and −0.36 ± 0.43D, respectively. Eyes with oblique astigmatism also improved from a mean SE of −5.8 ± 3.4 D to −0.82 ± 1.50D and −0.69 ± 1.15D and a cylinder of −1.4 ± 0.73D to −0.17 ± 0.33D at 2 months and −0.1 ± 0.32D at 12. For ATR, the mean SE improved from −4.0 ± 1.8D to −0.08 ± 0.22D and −0.04 ± 0.12D; and the mean cylinder from −1.25 ± 0.53 to −0.02 ± 0.09D −0.08 ± 0.21D at 2 and 12 months, respectively. There were statistically significant improvements in SE, manifest sphere and cylinder refraction, and UDVA and CDVA scores for each cylinder type at 2 months with ATR cylinders having better outcomes. Although missing data limited interpretation at one year, differences were maintained. The magnitude of error calculations suggests that WTR was more prone to under-correction, particularly for high astigmatism (>1.5D). SMILE for myopic astigmatism reliably corrects SE, irrespective of the subtype of astigmatism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Refractive Surgery—Where Are We Now?)
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9 pages, 241 KiB  
Article
Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection in the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract and the Need for Rescue Surgery—A Multicenter Analysis
by Philipp Pimingstorfer, Matthias Biebl, Matus Gregus, Franz Kurz, Rainer Schoefl, Andreas Shamiyeh, Georg O. Spaun, Alexander Ziachehabi and Reinhold Fuegger
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(21), 6940; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12216940 - 06 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 708
Abstract
Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has become the standard treatment for early malignant lesions in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Its clinical results have been reported to be as good as surgery. The outcomes of rescue surgery after non-curative ESD have been reported to [...] Read more.
Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has become the standard treatment for early malignant lesions in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Its clinical results have been reported to be as good as surgery. The outcomes of rescue surgery after non-curative ESD have been reported to be as good as first-line surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of ESD in the upper GI tract and the outcomes of rescue surgery after non-curative ESD performed in Linz, Austria, between 2009 and January 2023. A total of 193 ESDs were included and divided into 104 esophageal ESD and 89 gastric ESD procedures. The criteria for curative ESD were in line with established guidelines’ recommendations. For esophageal lesions, the mean lesion size was 40.3 mm and the rate of curative ESD was 56.7%. In the non-curative ESD, the rate of technical failure as the reason for non-curative ESD was 13.3% and the oncological failure rate was 86.7%. Only 48.7% of indicated rescue surgeries were performed. The main reason for not performing surgery was interdisciplinary consensus due to comorbidity. Perioperative complications Dindo–Clavien ≥ 3 occurred in 22.2% of cases with an in-hospital mortality rate of 0. In gastric lesions, the mean size was 39 mm and the rate of curative ESD was 69.7%. The rate of technical failure as a reason for non-curative ESD was 25.9% and the oncological failure rate was 74.1% for non-curative ESD. Rescue surgery was performed in 48.2% of indicated cases. The perioperative rate for major complications was 0. The outcome of ESD in the upper GI tract is in line with the published literature, and non-curative ESD does not worsen surgical outcomes. The available follow-up data are in line with the international published literature, showing a low rate of residual malignancy in surgical resection specimens. Therefore, the indication of rescue surgery for oncological failure remains challenging. Furthermore, the learning curve of ESD has shown a trend towards improving outcomes over time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Minimally Invasive Gastrointestinal Surgery)
13 pages, 2741 KiB  
Article
Attitudes of Asian and Polish Adolescents towards the Use of Ecological Innovations in CPR Training
by Filip Jaskiewicz and Dariusz Timler
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(21), 6939; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12216939 - 05 Nov 2023
Viewed by 923
Abstract
Background: The potential use of manikins made of environmentally friendly materials (biodegradable or easily recycled) could be a milestone in promoting cardiac arrest awareness and mass resuscitation training without the threat of generating large amounts of unprocessable waste. The main aim of the [...] Read more.
Background: The potential use of manikins made of environmentally friendly materials (biodegradable or easily recycled) could be a milestone in promoting cardiac arrest awareness and mass resuscitation training without the threat of generating large amounts of unprocessable waste. The main aim of the study was to compare the attitude of young adults from Asia and Poland towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation training forms and to evaluate the innovative concept of an ecological resuscitation manikin; Methods: This was a survey-based study conducted during two events in Thailand and Poland in 2023; Results: A total of 226 questionnaires were included in the final analysis. Asian respondents were significantly more likely to choose traditional training than Polish participants (78% vs. 58%, respectively). A manikin that is mainly biodegradable was the most common choice across the entire study group. Young Asians were significantly more likely to choose a traditional stationary course, while Polish respondents were highly significantly more likely to opt for hybrid training (online with practical training provided at the student’s home). Conclusions: In the total study group, young people from Poland and parts of Asia are most likely to participate in traditional on-site instructor-led training, but a comparison across groups showed a significant tendency for young Poles to choose a hybrid training option, i.e., a combination of online and hands-on training. Despite some differences, both study groups showed a strong interest in pro-environmental behavior and the use of more ecofriendly solutions than previously used in resuscitation training. Full article
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15 pages, 2561 KiB  
Article
How Does Age Affect Injury Characteristics in Young Elite Footballers?—A Prospective Cohort Study of a German Youth Academy
by Johannes Weishorn, Ayham Jaber, Raphael Trefzer, Severin Zietzschmann, Ralph Kern, Jan Spielmann, Tobias Renkawitz and Yannic Bangert
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(21), 6938; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12216938 - 05 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 980
Abstract
Background: Little is known about age-related changes in injury characteristics and burden, and existing data are inconsistent, highlighting the need for new studies on this topic. This study aimed to describe age-related injury risk, severity and burden in a German elite youth football [...] Read more.
Background: Little is known about age-related changes in injury characteristics and burden, and existing data are inconsistent, highlighting the need for new studies on this topic. This study aimed to describe age-related injury risk, severity and burden in a German elite youth football academy. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted in the 2012/2013 season, reporting 109 time-loss injuries among 138 young athletes playing at an elite football academy in Germany. For the most severe injuries, the injury burden in the different age groups was considered separately. Results: Athletes missed a total of 2536 days of exposure, resulting in an overall incidence of 2.6 per 1000 h (1.7–3.0; 95% CI) and a burden of 60.6 days lost per 1000 h (40.8–80.3; 95% CI). The incidence and burden of joint sprains and muscle injuries were higher in the older age groups. Physeal injuries peaked in the U14 age group during the pubertal growth spurt. Bone injuries and contusions showed no age trend. Conclusion: Injury characteristics vary with age. The overall incidence, severity and burden of injuries increased with the age of the athletes. To ensure the optimal development of young athletes, it is important to be aware of the differences in injury susceptibility between age groups in order to implement tailored prevention programmes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art: Joint Disease and Sport Medicine)
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12 pages, 4246 KiB  
Case Report
Fracture of the Lumbar Spine Associated with Ureteral Injury Mimicking Spondylodiscitis Followed by Cervical Spine Fracture in Patient with Ankylosing Hyperostosis
by Michał Woźnica, Szymon Kaczor, Łukasz A. Poniatowski, Mikołaj Raźniak and Mirosław Ząbek
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(21), 6937; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12216937 - 05 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1169
Abstract
The purpose of this case report is to describe the case of a patient with ankylosing spinal hyperostosis (ASH) and lumbar spine fracture complicated by ureteral injury mimicking spondylodiscitis with osteomyelitis features and retroperitoneal abscess formation followed by the cervical spine fracture. A [...] Read more.
The purpose of this case report is to describe the case of a patient with ankylosing spinal hyperostosis (ASH) and lumbar spine fracture complicated by ureteral injury mimicking spondylodiscitis with osteomyelitis features and retroperitoneal abscess formation followed by the cervical spine fracture. A consecutive analysis and summary of the medical history, radiological documentation, operative procedure, complications, and outcomes were performed. A 59-year-old man presented with abdominal pain three weeks after sustaining a low-energy fall. The performed CT scans demonstrated a three-column fracture at the L3/L4 level and features of ASH. Additionally, MRI scans demonstrated hyperintense fluid collection within L3/L4 intervertebral space communicating with both psoas major muscles, mimicking spondylodiscitis with osteomyelitis features and retroperitoneal abscess formation. An in situ instrumented lumbar fusion at the L2-L3-L5-S1 levels with implantation vertebral body replacement implant at the L3/L4 level was performed. Postoperative CT imaging revealed evidence of post-traumatic right ureteral injury. Following urological treatment covering nephrectomy and ureter ligation, the patient was maintained at a 2-year follow-up. After this period, the patient presented again with tetraparesis after sustaining a low-energy fall. The performed CT scans demonstrated a three-column fracture at the C5/C6 level. The combined anterior and posterior osteosynthesis at the C4-C5-C6-C7 levels was performed. This case report presents the rare clinical constellation regarding the lumbar spine fracture complicated by ureteral injury followed by a cervical spine fracture regarding the same patient. The potential injury of retroperitoneal structures, including the ureter after hyperextensive lumbar spine fracture, should be considered in ASH patients. In this case, one should be aware of the atypical clinical presentation regarding the observed spondylodiscitis- and osteomyelitis-like features. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Neurology)
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23 pages, 378 KiB  
Systematic Review
Subgingival Use of Air-Polishing Powders: Status of Knowledge: A Systematic Review
by Dorin Nicolae Gheorghe, Francesco Bennardo, Margarita Silaghi, Dora-Maria Popescu, George-Alexandru Maftei, Marilena Bătăiosu and Petra Surlin
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(21), 6936; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12216936 - 05 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2173
Abstract
Effective subgingival biofilm removal is crucial for achieving positive and stable outcomes in periodontal therapy, forming an indispensable part of any periodontal treatment approach. The development of air-polishing tools has emerged as a promising alternative to hand and ultrasonic scalers for dental biofilm [...] Read more.
Effective subgingival biofilm removal is crucial for achieving positive and stable outcomes in periodontal therapy, forming an indispensable part of any periodontal treatment approach. The development of air-polishing tools has emerged as a promising alternative to hand and ultrasonic scalers for dental biofilm removal. The objective of this systematic review was to assess existing literature regarding the subgingival use of various types of air-polishing powders, as an effective method of subgingival biofilm control. For this, 55 articles on this subjected were sourced from searched databases and subjected to an evaluation process of their contained information, which was subsequently structured and compiled into this manuscript. The existing literature acknowledges that good subgingival biofilm control is essential for the success of periodontal therapy, including through subgingival air-polishing, as an adjunctive procedure. This approach has the potential to enhance patient comfort during and after subgingival mechanical plaque removal, thereby mitigating damage to periodontal structures. Consequently, it may lead to improved healing capabilities within the periodontal tissues and the formation of a more stable reparative gingival junctional epithelium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stomatognathic Diseases: State of the Art and Future Perspectives)
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27 pages, 1650 KiB  
Review
Immunosuppressive Agents—Effects on the Cardiovascular System and Selected Metabolic Aspects: A Review
by Bianka Opałka, Michał Żołnierczuk and Marta Grabowska
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(21), 6935; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12216935 - 05 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1791
Abstract
The widespread use of immunosuppressive drugs makes it possible to reduce inflammation in autoimmune diseases, as well as prevent transplant rejection in organ recipients. Despite their key action in blocking the body’s immune response, these drugs have many side effects. These actions primarily [...] Read more.
The widespread use of immunosuppressive drugs makes it possible to reduce inflammation in autoimmune diseases, as well as prevent transplant rejection in organ recipients. Despite their key action in blocking the body’s immune response, these drugs have many side effects. These actions primarily affect the cardiovascular system, and the incidence of complications in patients using immunosuppressive drugs is significant, being associated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular incidents such as myocardial infarction and stroke. This paper analyzes the mechanisms of action of commonly used immunosuppressive drugs and their impact on the cardiovascular system. The adverse effect of immunosuppressive drugs is associated with toxicity within the cardiovascular system, which may be a problem in the clinical management of patients after transplantation. Immunosuppressants act on the cardiovascular system in a variety of ways, including fibrosis and myocardial remodeling, endothelium disfunction, hypertension, atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia or hyperglycaemia, metabolic syndrome, and hyperuricemia. The use of multidrug protocols makes it possible to develop regimens that can reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events. A better understanding of their mechanism of action and the range of complications could enable physicians to select the appropriate therapy for a given patient, as well as to reduce complications and prolong life. Full article
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10 pages, 652 KiB  
Article
Reducing the Risk of Birth Defects Associated with Maternal Influenza: Insights from a Hungarian Case—Control Study
by Ákos Mátrai, Brigitta Teutsch, Boglárka Pethő, András D. Kaposi, Péter Hegyi and Nándor Ács
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(21), 6934; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12216934 - 05 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1075
Abstract
Influenza viruses can cause several complications during pregnancy. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of influenza on the development of congenital abnormalities (CAs) by analyzing the database of the Hungarian Case–Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities (HCCSCA). In our multicenter, case–control, population-based study, [...] Read more.
Influenza viruses can cause several complications during pregnancy. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of influenza on the development of congenital abnormalities (CAs) by analyzing the database of the Hungarian Case–Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities (HCCSCA). In our multicenter, case–control, population-based study, we processed clinician-reported outcomes and diagnoses collected in the HCCSCA. The case group included newborns with different non-chromosomal birth defects, while the controls were newborns without CAs. Maternal influenza, as a risk factor for CAs, was analyzed by using a logistic regression model and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Our results showed that maternal influenza in the first trimester was associated with increased odds of developing non-chromosomal CAs (OR: 1.41, CI: 1.28–1.55). There were increased odds of neural tube defects (OR: 2.22, CI: 1.78–2.76), orofacial clefts (OR: 2.28, CI: 1.87–2.78), and congenital heart defects (OR: 1.28, CI: 1.10–1.49) after influenza infection. In all cases, we found a protective effect of folic acid supplementation in the first trimester. In summary, the odds of non-chromosomal birth defects are higher after maternal influenza in the first trimester, and folic acid or pregnancy vitamin supplementation and antipyretic therapy may reduce the effect of maternal influenza during the first trimester. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Obstetrics & Gynecology)
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10 pages, 580 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Impairments, Activity Limitations, Balance, and Quality of Life between Patients with and without Meniscus Repair or Partial Meniscectomy Post-ACL Reconstruction
by Faya Ali Asiri, Abdullah Hassan Assiri, Abdulrhman Abdullh Alqhtani, Mohammed Hassan Alqahtani, Dhuha Saeed Motlag, Jaya Shanker Tedla, Ravi Shankar Reddy and Saad Ali Alwadai
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(21), 6933; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12216933 - 05 Nov 2023
Viewed by 823
Abstract
(1) Background: The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a crucial ligament in the knee joint. This study compares the differences in knee range of motion (ROM), knee proprioception error, balance, function, and quality of life (QOL) among participants with and without meniscus repair [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a crucial ligament in the knee joint. This study compares the differences in knee range of motion (ROM), knee proprioception error, balance, function, and quality of life (QOL) among participants with and without meniscus repair or partial meniscectomy nine months post ACL reconstruction. (2) Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 57 male participants were selected through convenience sampling from a tertiary care hospital. Knee flexion and extension ROM were assessed using a digital goniometer; a digital inclinometer was used to assess knee proprioception error; the Y balance test was used to evaluate balance; the lower extremity functional scale (LEFS) was used to assess activity; and QOL was assessed using the ACLQOL questionnaire. (3) Results: There were no significant differences in outcomes except balance. The YB composite score had a moderate negative correlation with knee proprioception error with an R-value of −0.372 **. (4) Conclusions: Nine to 12 months post ACL reconstruction, the isolated ACL reconstruction participants had better lower-quarter single-leg balance than those who underwent ACL reconstruction and meniscal repair or partial meniscectomy. The remaining parameters, like knee ROM, knee proprioception error, LEFS score, and ACLQOL scores, were similar between these two groups. Full article
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10 pages, 1132 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Suitability of the Plantaris Tendon for Sports Trauma Reconstruction and a Predictive Model of Tendon Length Based on Height and Leg Length
by JeongHyun Park, Kwang-Rak Park, Hyung-Wook Kwon, Yu-Jin Choi, Mijeong Lee, Digud Kim, Sung Wook Choi and Jaeho Cho
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(21), 6932; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12216932 - 05 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 968
Abstract
This study evaluates the suitability of the plantaris tendon (PT) as a tendon graft donor for sports trauma reconstruction and proposes a predictive model for estimating PT length by using an individual’s height and leg length. Anatomical dissection of 50 cadavers (32 males [...] Read more.
This study evaluates the suitability of the plantaris tendon (PT) as a tendon graft donor for sports trauma reconstruction and proposes a predictive model for estimating PT length by using an individual’s height and leg length. Anatomical dissection of 50 cadavers (32 males and 18 females) yielded precise measurements of PT length and width while also recording height and leg length. Among the lower limbs, 89% were suitable for at least one recommended graft suitability criterion. In addition, PT length exhibited robust positive correlations with height and leg length. Predictive equations were established for estimating the PT length based on leg length and height with consistency across sexes and sides: PT length = 0.605 + 0.396 × leg length (r = 0.721) and PT length = 1.480 + 0.193 × height (r = 0.626). This study underscores the grafting potential of the PT, providing a predictive tool that can aid surgeons in addressing tendon graft challenges within sports trauma scenarios. Full article
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9 pages, 668 KiB  
Article
Immune Mediators Profiles in the Aqueous Humor of Patients with Simple Diabetic Retinopathy
by Naoyuki Yamakawa, Hiroyuki Komatsu, Yoshihiko Usui, Kinya Tsubota, Yoshihiro Wakabayashi and Hiroshi Goto
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(21), 6931; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12216931 - 05 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1236
Abstract
Various immune mediators identified to date are associated with the development of advanced forms of diabetic retinopathy (DR), such as proliferative DR and diabetic macular edema, although the exact pathophysiological mechanisms of early stages of DR such as simple DR remain unclear. We [...] Read more.
Various immune mediators identified to date are associated with the development of advanced forms of diabetic retinopathy (DR), such as proliferative DR and diabetic macular edema, although the exact pathophysiological mechanisms of early stages of DR such as simple DR remain unclear. We determined the immune mediator profile in the aqueous humor of eyes with simple DR. Fifteen eyes of fifteen patients with simple DR were studied. Twenty-two eyes of twenty-two patients with cataracts and no DR served as controls. Undiluted aqueous humor samples were collected, and a cytometric bead array was used to determine the aqueous humor concentrations of 32 immune mediators comprising 13 interleukins (IL), interferon-γ, interferon-γ-inducible protein-10 (IP-10), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, MIP-1β, regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), monokine induced by interferon-γ, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), Fas ligand, granzyme A, granzyme B, interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant (ITAC), fractalkine, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiogenin, tumor necrosis factor-α, and CD40 ligand. Among the 32 immune mediators, 10 immune mediators, including bFGF, CD40 ligand, fractalkine, G-CSF, IL-6, IL-8, MIP-α, MIP-1β, and VEGF, showed significantly higher aqueous humor concentrations and the Fas ligand had significantly lower concentration (p < 0.05) in eyes with simple DR compared with control eyes. Of these 10 cytokines with significant concentration alteration, protein–protein interaction analysis revealed that 8 established an intricate interaction network. Various immune mediators may contribute to the pathogenesis of simple DR. Attention should be given to the concentrations of immune mediators in ocular fluids even in simple DR. Large-scale studies are warranted to assess whether altered aqueous humor concentrations of these 10 immune mediators are associated with an increased risk of progression to advanced stages of DR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Challenges in the Management of Vitreoretinal Conditions)
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12 pages, 1612 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Assessment of Treatment Timing for Rapid Maxillary Expansion and Facemask Therapy Followed by Fixed Appliances: A Multicenter Retro-Prospective Study
by Valentina Rutili, Bernardo Quiroga Souki, Michele Nieri, Ana Luiza Farnese Morais Carlos, Chiara Pavoni, Paola Cozza, James A. McNamara, Jr., Veronica Giuntini and Lorenzo Franchi
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(21), 6930; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12216930 - 05 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 872
Abstract
Background: to determine the role of treatment timing in the long-term effects produced by rapid maxillary expansion and facemask therapy (RME/FM) in Class III patients. Methods: This study compared two sample groups treated with RME/FM followed by fixed appliances: the early prepubertal group [...] Read more.
Background: to determine the role of treatment timing in the long-term effects produced by rapid maxillary expansion and facemask therapy (RME/FM) in Class III patients. Methods: This study compared two sample groups treated with RME/FM followed by fixed appliances: the early prepubertal group (EPG) (17 patients; mean age before treatment (T0), 5.8 ± 0.7 years; range, 4.3–6.9 years) and the late prepubertal group (LPG) (17 patients; mean age at T0, 10.1 ± 0.8 years; range, 9.0–11.1 years). Lateral cephalograms for the two groups were examined before treatment (T0) and at a long-term observation (T1) (EPG, 19.8 ± 1.0 years; LPG, 21.0 ± 2.1 years). Independent sample t-tests were performed to compare the two groups at T0 and T1. Results: No statistically significant differences were found for any of the cephalometric variables at T0, except for the total mandibular length, overjet, and inclination of the maxillary incisors to the palatal plane, which were greater in the LPG. At T1, no statistically significant differences were detected for any of the cephalometric variables. Conclusions: There were no significant long-term differences when treating Class III patients with RME/FM, either during an early prepubertal phase (≤7 years of age) or during a late prepubertal phase (≥9 years of age). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthodontics: Current Clinical Status and Future Challenges)
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11 pages, 288 KiB  
Review
Treatment of Patients with Mild to Moderate Ulcerative Colitis: A Middle East Expert Consensus
by Sameer Al Awadhi, Mohamed Alboraie, Emad Aldin Albaba, Abdulelah Almutairdi, Monther Alsaad, Nahla Azzam, Husam Barakat, Ferdinando D’Amico, Silvio Danese, Mohamed El Kady, Hossam Ghoneim, Waseem Hamoudi, Ahmad Jazzar, Mahmoud Mosli, Hany Shehab and Awni Abu Sneineh
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(21), 6929; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12216929 - 04 Nov 2023
Viewed by 2343
Abstract
The prevalence of ulcerative colitis (UC) in the Middle East is increasing, impacting the economic and healthcare burden. The management of patients with mild to moderate UC is still a challenge as several factors can affect optimal care, including drug choice, induction and [...] Read more.
The prevalence of ulcerative colitis (UC) in the Middle East is increasing, impacting the economic and healthcare burden. The management of patients with mild to moderate UC is still a challenge as several factors can affect optimal care, including drug choice, induction and maintenance dose, treatment optimization and de-escalation, therapy duration, monitoring, and safety profile. We conducted an expert consensus to standardize the management of patients with mild to moderate UC. Sixteen experts in inflammatory bowel diseases, through a well-established and accepted Delphi methodology, voted and approved eight statements in order to provide practical guidance to clinicians in the Middle East. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastroenterology & Hepatopancreatobiliary Medicine)
11 pages, 595 KiB  
Article
Impact of Excessive Increase in Systolic Blood Pressure after Exercise on Clinical Outcomes in Patients with ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction
by Takahiro Yamashita, Kenichi Sakakura, Hiroyuki Jinnouchi, Yousuke Taniguchi, Takunori Tsukui, Masashi Hatori, Yusuke Tamanaha, Taku Kasahara, Yusuke Watanabe, Kei Yamamoto, Masaru Seguchi and Hideo Fujita
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(21), 6928; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12216928 - 04 Nov 2023
Viewed by 817
Abstract
Objective: Although the clinical outcomes for patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) have improved significantly, some patients still experience poor clinical outcomes. The available risk classifications focus on the short-term outcomes, and it remains important to find high-risk features among patients with STEMI. [...] Read more.
Objective: Although the clinical outcomes for patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) have improved significantly, some patients still experience poor clinical outcomes. The available risk classifications focus on the short-term outcomes, and it remains important to find high-risk features among patients with STEMI. In Japan, the 200 m walk electrocardiogram (ECG) test is widely performed before discharge. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between the excessive increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP) following a 200 m walk and the long-term clinical outcomes in patients with STEMI. Methods: We included 680 patients with STEMI and divided those into an excessive increase in SBP group (n = 144) and a non-excessive increase in SBP group (n = 536) according to the SBP increase after a 200 m walk ECG test. We defined an excessive increase in SBP as SBP ≥ 20 mmHg either just after or 3 min after a 200 m walk ECG test. The primary endpoint consisted of major cardiovascular events (MACE), defined as the composite of all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, readmission for heart failure, and ischemia-driven target vessel revascularization. Results: The median follow-up duration was 831 days. MACE was more frequently observed in the excessive increase in SBP group (24.3%) than in the non-excessive increase in SBP group (15.1%). Multivariate Cox hazard analysis revealed that the excessive increase in SBP was significantly associated with MACE (HR 1.509, 95% CI: 1.005–2.267, p = 0.047) after controlling for multiple confounding factors. Conclusion: An excessive increase in SBP after the 200 m walk ECG test was significantly associated with MACE in patients with STEMI. The 200 m walk ECG test is simple and low-cost, but may help to identify high-risk patients with STEMI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiovascular Medicine)
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18 pages, 1852 KiB  
Review
A PRoliferation-Inducing Ligand (APRIL) in the Pathogenesis of Immunoglobulin A Nephropathy: A Review of the Evidence
by Mohit Mathur, Tak Mao Chan, Kook-Hwan Oh, Laura Kooienga, Min Zhuo, Cibele S. Pinto and Bobby Chacko
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(21), 6927; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12216927 - 04 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2586
Abstract
A PRoliferation-Inducing Ligand (APRIL), the thirteenth member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, plays a key role in the regulation of activated B cells, the survival of long-lived plasma cells, and immunoglobulin (Ig) isotype class switching. Several lines of evidence have implicated APRIL [...] Read more.
A PRoliferation-Inducing Ligand (APRIL), the thirteenth member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, plays a key role in the regulation of activated B cells, the survival of long-lived plasma cells, and immunoglobulin (Ig) isotype class switching. Several lines of evidence have implicated APRIL in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Globally, IgAN is the most common primary glomerulonephritis, and it can progress to end-stage kidney disease; yet, disease-modifying treatments for this condition have historically been lacking. The preliminary data in ongoing clinical trials indicate that APRIL inhibition can reduce proteinuria and slow the rate of kidney disease progression by acting at an upstream level in IgAN pathogenesis. In this review, we examine what is known about the physiologic roles of APRIL and evaluate the experimental and epidemiological evidence describing how these normal biologic processes are thought to be subverted in IgAN. The weight of the preclinical, clinical, and genetic data supporting a key role for APRIL in IgAN has galvanized pharmacologic research, and several anti-APRIL drug candidates have now entered clinical development for IgAN. Herein, we present an overview of the clinical results to date. Finally, we explore where more research and evidence are needed to transform potential therapies into clinical benefits for patients with IgAN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IgA Nephropathy: Recent Advances and Prospects)
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22 pages, 1257 KiB  
Article
Cognitive Underperformance in a Mixed Neuropsychiatric Sample at Diagnostic Evaluation of Adult ADHD
by Hui Dong, Janneke Koerts, Gerdina H. M. Pijnenborg, Norbert Scherbaum, Bernhard W. Müller and Anselm B. M. Fuermaier
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(21), 6926; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12216926 - 04 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1037
Abstract
(1) Background: The clinical assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood is known to show non-trivial base rates of noncredible performance and requires thorough validity assessment. (2) Objectives: The present study estimated base rates of noncredible performance in clinical evaluations of adult ADHD [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The clinical assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood is known to show non-trivial base rates of noncredible performance and requires thorough validity assessment. (2) Objectives: The present study estimated base rates of noncredible performance in clinical evaluations of adult ADHD on one or more of 17 embedded validity indicators (EVIs). This study further examines the effect of the order of test administration on EVI failure rates, the association between cognitive underperformance and symptom overreporting, and the prediction of cognitive underperformance by clinical information. (3) Methods: A mixed neuropsychiatric sample (N = 464, ADHD = 227) completed a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment battery on the Vienna Test System (VTS; CFADHD). Test performance allows the computation of 17 embedded performance validity indicators (PVTs) derived from eight different neuropsychological tests. Further, all participants completed several self- and other-report symptom rating scales assessing depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning. The Conners’ Adult ADHD Rating Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory-II were administered to derive embedded symptom validity measures (SVTs). (4) Results and conclusion: Noncredible performance occurs in a sizeable proportion of about 10% up to 30% of individuals throughout the entire battery. Tests for attention and concentration appear to be the most adequate and sensitive for detecting underperformance. Cognitive underperformance represents a coherent construct and seems dissociable from symptom overreporting. These results emphasize the importance of performing multiple PVTs, at different time points, and promote more accurate calculation of the positive and negative predictive values of a given validity measure for noncredible performance during clinical assessments. Future studies should further examine whether and how the present results stand in other clinical populations, by implementing rigorous reference standards of noncredible performance, characterizing those failing PVT assessments, and differentiating between underlying motivations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mental Health)
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