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J. Clin. Med., Volume 12, Issue 19 (October-1 2023) – 319 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): F-FDG PET-CT MIP (maximum intensity projection): PET-CT with 18F-FDG was performed on a 68-year-old woman with suspected extracranial large vessel vasculitis. PET-CT was performed 60 minutes after FDG injection. The PET-CT showed significant FDG uptake in the ascending and descending thoracic aorta, abdominal aorta, and both subclavian arteries and also showed mild FDG uptake in both the carotid arteries and femoral arteries. These findings were consistent with large vessel vasculitis. View this paper
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9 pages, 1326 KiB  
Brief Report
Observational Study of Repeat Immunoadsorption (RIA) in Post-COVID ME/CFS Patients with Elevated ß2-Adrenergic Receptor Autoantibodies—An Interim Report
by Elisa Stein, Cornelia Heindrich, Kirsten Wittke, Claudia Kedor, Laura Kim, Helma Freitag, Anne Krüger, Markus Tölle and Carmen Scheibenbogen
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(19), 6428; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12196428 - 09 Oct 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2659
Abstract
There is increasing evidence for an autoimmune aetiology in post-infectious Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS). SARS-CoV-2 has now become the main trigger for ME/CFS. We have already conducted two small proof-of-concept studies on IgG depletion by immunoadsorption (IA) in post-infectious ME/CFS, which showed [...] Read more.
There is increasing evidence for an autoimmune aetiology in post-infectious Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS). SARS-CoV-2 has now become the main trigger for ME/CFS. We have already conducted two small proof-of-concept studies on IgG depletion by immunoadsorption (IA) in post-infectious ME/CFS, which showed efficacy in most patients. This observational study aims to evaluate the efficacy of IA in patients with post-COVID-19 ME/CFS. The primary objective was to assess the improvement in functional ability. Due to the urgency of finding therapies for post-COVID-Syndrome (PCS), we report here the interim results of the first ten patients, with seven responders defined by an increase of between 10 and 35 points in the Short-Form 36 Physical Function (SF36-PF) at week four after IA. The results of this observational study will provide the basis for patient selection for a randomised controlled trial (RCT), including sham apheresis, and for an RCT combining IA with B-cell depletion therapy. Trial registration number: NCT05629988. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Immunology)
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9 pages, 236 KiB  
Article
Low-Dose Rivaroxaban to Prevent Recurrences of Venous Thromboembolism in Cancer: A Real-Life Experience with a Focus on Female Patients
by Paolo Santini, Carolina Mosoni, Alessandro D’Errico, Enrica Porceddu, Andrea Lupascu, Emanuele Valeriani, Paolo Tondi, Roberto Pola and Angelo Porfidia
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(19), 6427; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12196427 - 09 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1263
Abstract
Background: The way in which to prevent recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an unmet clinical need in cancer patients. International guidelines only provide conditional recommendations and do not specify which anticoagulant and dose should be used. In the last 2 years, we have [...] Read more.
Background: The way in which to prevent recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an unmet clinical need in cancer patients. International guidelines only provide conditional recommendations and do not specify which anticoagulant and dose should be used. In the last 2 years, we have been using low-dose rivaroxaban to prevent VTE recurrences in cancer patients. The results of this real-life experience are presented in this study. Methods: All patients had cancer and had previously completed a cycle of at least six months of full-dose anticoagulation for the treatment of a VTE index event, before receiving a prescription of low-dose rivaroxaban (10 mg once daily) for secondary prevention of VTE. Effectiveness and safety of this therapeutic regimen were evaluated in terms of VTE recurrences, major bleedings (MB), and clinically relevant non-major bleedings (CRNMB). Results: The analysis included 106 cancer patients. Their median age was 60 years (IQR 50–69). Metastatic cancer was present in 87 patients (82.1%). Six patients (5.7%) had brain metastases. Over a median follow-up time of 333 days (IQR 156–484), the incidence of VTE recurrences was 3.8% (95%CI 1.0–9.4), with a recurrence rate of 4.0 per 100 person-years (95%CI 1.1–10.2). We observed no MB (0.0%) and three CRNMB (2.8%) (95%CI 0.6–8.1). Conclusions: Low-dose rivaroxaban is potentially effective and safe in cancer patients that require prevention of recurrent VTE. Large-scale studies are needed to confirm these findings. Full article
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10 pages, 461 KiB  
Article
In-Depth Analysis of Caesarean Section Rate in the Largest Secondary Care-Level Maternity Hospital in Latvia
by Laura Racene, Zane Rostoka, Liva Kise, Justina Kacerauskiene and Dace Rezeberga
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(19), 6426; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12196426 - 09 Oct 2023
Viewed by 907
Abstract
There is no surgical intervention without risk. A high rate of caesarean sections (CSs) impacts on maternal and newborn mortality and morbidity. For optimisation of the CS rate, regular monitoring is necessary. In 2015, the World Health Organization recommended the Robson classification as [...] Read more.
There is no surgical intervention without risk. A high rate of caesarean sections (CSs) impacts on maternal and newborn mortality and morbidity. For optimisation of the CS rate, regular monitoring is necessary. In 2015, the World Health Organization recommended the Robson classification as a global standard for assessing, monitoring, and comparing CS rates. We analysed all births in 2019 in the Riga Maternity Hospital—a secondary-level monodisciplinary perinatal care hospital in Latvia—according to the Robson classification, seeking to identify which groups make the biggest contribution to the overall CS rate. In total, 5835 women were included. The overall CS rate was 21.5%. In our study, the largest contributors to the overall CS rate were as follows: Group 5 (33.3%); Group 2 (20.8%); and Group 1 (15.6%). The results of our deeper analysis of individual groups (Group 1 and 5) from our study may help to develop targeted interventions for specific subgroups of the obstetric population, effectively reducing both the overall rate of CS and the number of unnecessary CSs performed. The CS rate reduction strategy should be based on decreasing CSs in Group 1 and encouraging VBAC, thus decreasing the number of women undergoing two or more CSs in future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Obstetrics & Gynecology)
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11 pages, 292 KiB  
Article
Stigmatization among Patients with Plaque Psoriasis
by Barbara Jankowiak, Elżbieta Krajewska-Kułak, Marta Jakoniuk and Dzmitry F. Khvorik
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(19), 6425; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12196425 - 09 Oct 2023
Viewed by 999
Abstract
The aim of the study was to analyze the level of stigmatization among patients with plaque psoriasis according to their demographic and clinical characteristics. The study included 122 patients who completed the 6-item and 33-item Feelings of Stigmatization Questionnaire and a sociodemographic survey. [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to analyze the level of stigmatization among patients with plaque psoriasis according to their demographic and clinical characteristics. The study included 122 patients who completed the 6-item and 33-item Feelings of Stigmatization Questionnaire and a sociodemographic survey. The analysis of the 6-item Stigmatization Scale showed a mean stigmatization score of 6.4 points. (Me = 6; s = 3.7); the mean score for the 33-item scale was 81.3 points (Me = 79.5; s = 19.9). Female patients felt stigmatized more often than males. Respondents living in the countryside had a stronger sense of stigmatization in the Sensitivity to Others’ Attitudes (p = 0.0238) and Secretiveness (p = 0.0234) domains. The presence of psoriatic lesions across the entire body was the only explanatory variable significantly determining the level of stigmatization in the Positive Attitudes domain, either through the main effect or through the interaction with the patient sex. A highly significant difference was found for the feeling of being flawed domain (p = 0.044), with a mean score of 13.4 points. The issue of stigmatization in psoriasis deserves more attention, as the analysis of this problem may provide a better insight into the effect of the disease on the patient’s condition, not merely in the context of its clinical manifestation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dermatology)
17 pages, 510 KiB  
Review
Renal Biopsy for Diagnosis in Kidney Disease: Indication, Technique, and Safety
by Peter Schnuelle
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(19), 6424; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12196424 - 09 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4705
Abstract
Renal biopsies are the gold standard for diagnosis, staging, and prognosis of underlying parenchymal kidney disease. This article provides an overview of the current indications and highlights ways to reduce bleeding complications in order to achieve optimal diagnostic yield with minimal risk to [...] Read more.
Renal biopsies are the gold standard for diagnosis, staging, and prognosis of underlying parenchymal kidney disease. This article provides an overview of the current indications and highlights ways to reduce bleeding complications in order to achieve optimal diagnostic yield with minimal risk to the patient. Novel indications have emerged from the increasing use of new molecularly targeted oncologic therapies in recent years, which often induce immune-mediated renal disease. On the other hand, the detection of specific antibodies against target antigens on podocytes in the sera of patients with new-onset nephrotic syndrome has now relativized the indication for biopsy in membranous nephropathy. The use of semi-automatic spring-loaded biopsy devices and real-time ultrasound considerably declined the complication rate and is the current standard. Percutaneous renal biopsies are overall a safe procedure if contraindications are considered. A coagulation disorder needs to be excluded beforehand, and an elevated blood pressure must be reduced to the normotensive range with medications. A laparoscopic approach or a radiology interventional procedure through the internal jugular vein may be considered for obtaining a kidney tissue sample if there is an urgent indication and a bleeding tendency cannot be adequately corrected. Major bleeding after a percutaneous renal biopsy can usually be managed with selective arterial embolization of the injured renal vessel. The use of a 16-gauge needle is the most reasonable compromise between diagnostic benefit and risk of complication. In the routine diagnostic, the biopsy specimen is examined with light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. Combination with modern molecular pathology techniques will contribute to more precise insights into the development and progression of kidney disease, which will likely refine future treatments in nephrology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nephrology & Urology)
12 pages, 2933 KiB  
Article
Comparative Analysis of Surgical Approaches for Distal Biceps Tendon Rupture: Single-Incision Technique versus Double-Incision Technique
by Bogdan Hogea, Jenel-Marian Patrascu, Jr., Simona-Alina Abu-Awwad, Madalina-Ianca Suba, Andrei Bolovan, Anca Gabriela Stoianov and Ahmed Abu-Awwad
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(19), 6423; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12196423 - 09 Oct 2023
Viewed by 983
Abstract
Background: This study aimed to compare the outcomes of the single-incision technique with a distal biceps repair system versus the modified double-incision technique, specifically the Morrey-modified approach, Krackow sutures, and drill holes, for the management of acute and chronic distal biceps tendon rupture. [...] Read more.
Background: This study aimed to compare the outcomes of the single-incision technique with a distal biceps repair system versus the modified double-incision technique, specifically the Morrey-modified approach, Krackow sutures, and drill holes, for the management of acute and chronic distal biceps tendon rupture. The study was conducted at the Orthopedic-Traumatology Clinic II of SCJUPBT Timisoara, Romania, between 2014 and 2022. Methods: A total of sixty-nine patients with acute distal biceps tendon rupture and five patients with chronic distal tendon rupture were included in the study. Forty-eight cases underwent the single-incision technique with the distal biceps repair system, while twenty-four patients were treated with the modified double-incision technique. Results: Both surgical techniques demonstrated favorable outcomes in terms of successful tendon repair and functional restoration. However, the single-incision technique exhibited slightly superior results in terms of patient satisfaction, range of motion, and postoperative rehabilitation. The modified double-incision technique showed comparable outcomes but had a higher incidence of complications, particularly related to wound healing. Conclusion: The single-incision technique with the distal biceps repair system and the modified double-incision technique, including the Morrey-modified approach, Krackow sutures, and drill holes, are effective surgical approaches for the management of distal biceps tendon rupture. The single-incision technique yielded better functional outcomes and patient satisfaction, while the modified double-incision technique had a higher risk of complications. Further research with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up periods is necessary to validate these findings and determine the most appropriate surgical approach for distal biceps tendon rupture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Orthopedics)
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19 pages, 502 KiB  
Review
Perioperative Factors Affecting the Healing of Rectovaginal Fistula
by Małgorzata Satora, Klaudia Żak, Karolina Frankowska, Marcin Misiek, Rafał Tarkowski and Marcin Bobiński
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(19), 6421; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12196421 - 09 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1031
Abstract
Rectovaginal fistula is rare, but a severe complication in gynecology, which despite the effort of clinicians is still not treated successfully in many cases. According to statistics, the healing rates of surgery in patients with RVF range from 20 to 100%. The treatment [...] Read more.
Rectovaginal fistula is rare, but a severe complication in gynecology, which despite the effort of clinicians is still not treated successfully in many cases. According to statistics, the healing rates of surgery in patients with RVF range from 20 to 100%. The treatment effectiveness depends on the etiology of fistula, the age of the patients, the presence of comorbidities, the type of surgery and many other factors. Considering the low efficiency of treatment and the high risk of recurrence, the question of possible methods to improve the results occurs. In our review, we analyzed both modifiable and non-modifiable factors which may influence the treatment, healing rate and future fate of the patients. Taking into account all analyzed risk factors, including age, comorbidities, smoking status, microbiology, medications, stoma and stool features, we are aware that rectovaginal fistula’s treatment must be individualized and holistic. In cases of poorly healing RVF, the drainage of feces, the use of antibiotic prophylaxis or the implementation of estrogen therapy may be useful. Moreover, microbiome research in women with RVF and towards estrogen therapy should be performed in order to create treatment algorithms in women with fistulae. Those interventions, in our opinion, may significantly improve the outcome of the patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Urogynecology: Part II)
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11 pages, 1579 KiB  
Article
PNI as a Potential Add-On Biomarker to Improve the IMDC Intermediate Prognostic Score
by İbrahim Vedat Bayoğlu, Javid Hüseynov, Alper Topal, Nadiye Sever, Nargiz Majidova, Abdussamet Çelebi, Alper Yaşar, Rukiye Arıkan, Selver Işık, Muhammet Bekir Hacıoğlu, Özlem Ercelep, Murat Sarı, Bülent Erdoğan, İlhan Hacıbekiroğlu, Sernaz Topaloğlu, Osman Köstek and İrfan Çiçin
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(19), 6420; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12196420 - 09 Oct 2023
Viewed by 746
Abstract
Introduction: This study aimed to assess the role of the adjusted PNI-IMDC risk scoring system in stratifying the intermediate group of metastatic RCC patients who received TKIS in the first-line setting. Methods: A total of 185 patients were included. The adjusted PNI and [...] Read more.
Introduction: This study aimed to assess the role of the adjusted PNI-IMDC risk scoring system in stratifying the intermediate group of metastatic RCC patients who received TKIS in the first-line setting. Methods: A total of 185 patients were included. The adjusted PNI and IMDC model was used to divide the intermediate group into two groups: intermediate PNI-high and intermediate PNI-low groups. The statistical data were analyzed using Kaplan–Meier and Cox regression analysis. Results: The results showed that the adjusted PNI-IMDC risk score, classic IMDC, and PNI had similar prognostic values. Adjusted PNI-IMDC risk score might be used for a more homogeneous differentiation of the classic intermediate group. On the other hand, multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of nephrectomy, adjusted favorable/intermediate (PNI-high) group, ECOG performance score, and presence of bone metastasis were independent predictors of OS. Conclusions: Pre-treatment PNI, as a valuable and potential add-on biomarker to the adjusted PNI-IMDC classification model, can be helpful for establishing an improved prognostic model for intermediate group mRCC patients treated with first-line TKISs. Further validation studies are needed to clarify these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oncology)
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22 pages, 4756 KiB  
Review
Lung Involvement in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Shared Pathways and Unwanted Connections
by Carolina Aliai Micol Cavalli, Roberto Gabbiadini, Arianna Dal Buono, Alessandro Quadarella, Alessandro De Marco, Alessandro Repici, Cristina Bezzio, Edoardo Simonetta, Stefano Aliberti and Alessandro Armuzzi
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(19), 6419; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12196419 - 09 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1871
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic, relapsing inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, frequently associated with extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs) that can severely affect IBD patients’ quality of life, sometimes even becoming life-threatening. Respiratory diseases have always been considered a rare and subsequently neglected [...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic, relapsing inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, frequently associated with extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs) that can severely affect IBD patients’ quality of life, sometimes even becoming life-threatening. Respiratory diseases have always been considered a rare and subsequently neglected extraintestinal manifestations of IBD. However, increasing evidence has demonstrated that respiratory involvement is frequent in IBD patients, even in the absence of respiratory symptoms. Airway inflammation is the most common milieu of IBD-related involvement, with bronchiectasis being the most common manifestation. Furthermore, significant differences in prevalence and types of involvement are present between Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. The same embryological origin of respiratory and gastrointestinal tissue, in addition to exposure to common antigens and cytokine networks, may all play a potential role in the respiratory involvement. Furthermore, other causes such as drug-related toxicity and infections must always be considered. This article aims at reviewing the current evidence on the association between IBD and respiratory diseases. The purpose is to raise awareness of respiratory manifestation among IBD specialists and emphasize the need for identifying respiratory diseases in early stages to promptly treat these conditions, avoid worsening morbidity, and prevent lung damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastroenterology & Hepatopancreatobiliary Medicine)
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11 pages, 2837 KiB  
Article
Effect of Diameter and Type of Suture on Knot and Loop Security
by Armando Romeo, Christiane Fujimoto, Isabella Cipullo, Mauricio Giarola, Chiara Benedetto, William Kondo, Bedayah Amro, Anastasia Ussia, Arnaud Wattiez and Philippe R. Koninckx
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(19), 6418; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12196418 - 09 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 762
Abstract
The loop and knot securities of two polyfilament and two monofilament sutures of four diameters (3.0, 2.0, 0, 1) were evaluated with a tensiometer for four four-throw knots, known to be secure with a 2.0 polyfilament suture. Loop security of Monocryl 1 is [...] Read more.
The loop and knot securities of two polyfilament and two monofilament sutures of four diameters (3.0, 2.0, 0, 1) were evaluated with a tensiometer for four four-throw knots, known to be secure with a 2.0 polyfilament suture. Loop security of Monocryl 1 is low, being 14.7 ± 3.0 Newton (N) for a three-throw half-knot (H3) and 15.4 ± 2.4 N and 28.3 ± 10 N for two (SSs) and four (SSsSsSs) symmetrical sliding half-hitches. This is lower than 18, 24, and 46 N for similar knots with Vicryl. Polyfilament sutures have excellent knot security for all four diameters. Occasionally, some slide open with slightly lower knot security, especially for larger diameters, although this is not clinically problematic. Knot security of monofilament sutures was unpredictable for all four knots, especially for larger diameters, resulting in many clinically insecure knots. A secure monofilament knot requires a six-throw knot with two symmetrical sliding half-hitches or two symmetrical half-knots secured with four asymmetric blocking half-hitches. In conclusion, with polyfilament sutures, four- or five-throw half-knot or half-hitch sequences result in secure knots. For monofilament sutures, loop and knot security is much less, half-knot combinations should be avoided, and secure knots require six-throw knots with four asymmetric blocking half-hitches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Obstetrics & Gynecology)
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11 pages, 1306 KiB  
Article
Bronchiectasis-COPD Overlap Syndrome: Role of Peripheral Eosinophil Count and Inhaled Corticosteroid Treatment
by Grace Oscullo, Jose Daniel Gómez-Olivas, Marina Ingles, Sergio Mompean, Rosalia Martinez-Perez, Guillermo Suarez-Cuartin, David la Rosa-Carrillo and Miguel Angel Martinez-Garcia
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(19), 6417; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12196417 - 09 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 939
Abstract
Both chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis are highly prevalent diseases. In both cases, inhaled corticosteroids (ICs) are associated with a decrease in exacerbations in patients with a high peripheral blood eosinophil count (BEC), but it is still not known what occurs in [...] Read more.
Both chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis are highly prevalent diseases. In both cases, inhaled corticosteroids (ICs) are associated with a decrease in exacerbations in patients with a high peripheral blood eosinophil count (BEC), but it is still not known what occurs in bronchiectasis-COPD overlap syndrome (BCOS). The present study aimed to assess the effect of ICs on various outcomes in patients with BCOS, according to BEC values. We undertook a post-hoc analysis of a cohort of 201 GOLD II-IV COPD patients with a long-term follow-up (median 74 [IQR: 40–106] months). All participants underwent computerized tomography and 115 (57.2%) had confirmed BCOS. A standardized clinical protocol was followed and two sputum samples were collected at each medical visit (every 3–6 months), whenever possible. During follow-up, there were 68 deaths (59.1%), and the mean rate of exacerbations and hospitalizations per year was 1.42 (1.2) and 0.57 (0.83), respectively. A total of 44.3% of the patients presented at least one pneumonic episode per year. The mean value of eosinophils was 402 (112) eosinophils/µL, with 27 (23.5%), 63 (54.8%), and 25 patients (21.7%) presenting, respectively, less than 100, 101–300, and more than 300 eosinophils/µL. A total of 84 patients (73.1%) took ICs. The higher the BEC, the higher the annual rate of exacerbations and hospitalizations. Patients with less than 100 eosinophils/µL presented more infectious events (incident exacerbations, pneumonic episodes, and chronic bronchial infection via pathogenic bacteria). Only those patients with eosinophilia (>300 eosinophils/µL) treated with ICs decreased the number (1.77 (1.2) vs. 1.08 (0.6), p < 0.001) and the severity (0.67 (0.8) vs. 0.35 (0.5), p = 0.011) of exacerbations, without any changes in the other infectious outcomes or mortality. In conclusion, ICs treatment in patients with BCOS with increased BEC decreased the number and severity of incident exacerbations without any negative influence on other infectious outcomes (incidence of pneumonia or chronic bronchial infection). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pulmonology)
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16 pages, 2230 KiB  
Review
Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Feasibility in Assessing Carotid Plaque Vulnerability—Narrative Review
by Ewa Kopyto, Marcin Czeczelewski, Eryk Mikos, Karol Stępniak, Maja Kopyto, Małgorzata Matuszek, Karolina Nieoczym, Adam Czarnecki, Maryla Kuczyńska, Mateusz Cheda, Anna Drelich-Zbroja and Tomasz Jargiełło
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(19), 6416; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12196416 - 09 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1244
Abstract
The risk assessment for carotid atherosclerotic lesions involves not only determining the degree of stenosis but also plaque morphology and its composition. Recently, carotid contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has gained importance for evaluating vulnerable plaques. This review explores CEUS’s utility in detecting carotid plaque [...] Read more.
The risk assessment for carotid atherosclerotic lesions involves not only determining the degree of stenosis but also plaque morphology and its composition. Recently, carotid contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has gained importance for evaluating vulnerable plaques. This review explores CEUS’s utility in detecting carotid plaque surface irregularities and ulcerations as well as intraplaque neovascularization and its alignment with histology. Initial indications suggest that CEUS might have the potential to anticipate cerebrovascular incidents. Nevertheless, there is a need for extensive, multicenter prospective studies that explore the relationships between CEUS observations and patient clinical outcomes in cases of carotid atherosclerotic disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ischemic Stroke, with Latest on Diagnosis to Treatment and Recovery)
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10 pages, 851 KiB  
Article
Bleeding Complications in COVID-19 Critically Ill ARDS Patients Receiving VV-ECMO Therapy
by Armin Niklas Flinspach, Dorothée Bobyk, Kai Zacharowski, Vanessa Neef and Florian Jürgen Raimann
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(19), 6415; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12196415 - 09 Oct 2023
Viewed by 900
Abstract
Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) therapy is rapidly expanding worldwide, yet this therapy has a serious risk of bleeding. Whether coagulation-activating viral infections such as COVID-19 may have an impact on the risk of bleeding is largely unknown. This study conducted a monocentric [...] Read more.
Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) therapy is rapidly expanding worldwide, yet this therapy has a serious risk of bleeding. Whether coagulation-activating viral infections such as COVID-19 may have an impact on the risk of bleeding is largely unknown. This study conducted a monocentric investigation of severely affected COVID-19 patients receiving VV-ECMO therapy with regard to the occurrence and possible influences of minor and major bleeding and transfusion requirements. Among the 114 included study patients, we were able to assess more than 74,000 h of VV-ECMO therapy. In these, 103 major bleeding events and 2283 minor bleeding events were detected. In total, 1396 red blood concentrates (RBCs) were administered. A statistically significant correlation with the applied anticoagulation or demographic data of the patients was not observed. Contrary to the frequently observed thromboembolic complications among COVID-19 patients, patients with VV-ECMO therapy, even under low-dose anticoagulation, show a distinct bleeding profile, especially of minor bleeding, with a substantial need for blood transfusions. COVID-19 patients show a tendency to have frequent bleeding and require repeated RBC transfusions during VV-ECMO. This fact might not be solely explained by the mechanical alteration of ECMO or anticoagulation. Full article
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14 pages, 1671 KiB  
Case Report
Positive Outcomes Following Cervical Acceleration-Deceleration (CAD) Injury Using Chiropractic BioPhysics® Methods: A Pre-Auto Injury and Post-Auto Injury Case Series
by Tim C. Norton, Paul A. Oakley, Jason W. Haas and Deed E. Harrison
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(19), 6414; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12196414 - 09 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2382
Abstract
This series illustrates how rear-end impact motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) alter the cervical spine’s alignment and demonstrates therapeutic use of cervical extension traction to improve lordotic alignment and other outcomes. This is a retrospective reporting of 7 adult patients (4 males and 3 [...] Read more.
This series illustrates how rear-end impact motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) alter the cervical spine’s alignment and demonstrates therapeutic use of cervical extension traction to improve lordotic alignment and other outcomes. This is a retrospective reporting of 7 adult patients (4 males and 3 females, 28–42 years) treated for cervical hypolordosis. These subjects received Chiropractic BioPhysics® (CBP®) rehabilitation and then were involved in a rear-end MVC. All cases had radiographic assessment that quantified the buckling of the cervical spine, presumably resulting directly from the CAD trauma. After an average of 3 years and 9 months (range: 1–7.6 years) following their initial program of care, the 7 patients sought care for a second time after the MVC. At this time, compared with their previously recorded post-treatment spine radiographs, there was an average 18.7° (range: 7.6–35.4°) reduction in cervical lordosis, a 9.2 mm (range: 3.6–19.8 mm) increase in anterior head translation (AHT), an 11.3° (range: 0.2–19.9°) decrease in the atlas plane line (APL), as well as a 35.7% (range: 22–52%) average neck disability index score (NDI) measured after the MVC. After the crash, a second round of CBP rehabilitation was administered, resulting in an average 15.1° improvement in cervical lordosis, 10.9 mm reduction in AHT, 10.4° increase in APL, and a 23.7% drop in NDI after an average of 35 treatments over 9 weeks. Treatment was universally successful, as an average 80% re-establishment of the lordosis toward its pre-injury state was found. There were no adverse events reported. This case series demonstrates that motor vehicle collisions may alter the alignment of the cervical spine. Rehabilitation of the cervical curve using extension traction improved the patients’ initial pre-crash alignments toward their pre-injury alignments and was likely responsible for improvement in the patients’ conditions. Clinical trials are needed to confirm these findings. Full article
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13 pages, 10608 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Clinical Factors on Treatment Outcome and a Recurrence of Surgically Removed Protruded Subungual Osteochondroma and Subungual Exostosis
by Mikołaj Dąbrowski, Damian Rusek, Aleksandra Dańczak-Pazdrowska and Anna Litowińska
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(19), 6413; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12196413 - 09 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1443
Abstract
Background: Subungual exostosis (SE) and subungual osteochondroma (SO) are benign solitary lesions that grow from the distal phalanx. The mass itself is typically painless, but pressure on the nail plate can result in pain and deformity of the involved digit. Tumors can be [...] Read more.
Background: Subungual exostosis (SE) and subungual osteochondroma (SO) are benign solitary lesions that grow from the distal phalanx. The mass itself is typically painless, but pressure on the nail plate can result in pain and deformity of the involved digit. Tumors can be correctly diagnosed based on clinical, histological and radiographic appearance alone. Surgical resection of SE/SO is typically curative, with a small risk of recurrence. Methods: The study was retrospective and observational, involving 74 patients with subungual SE/SO. The surgical procedure consisted of the removal of the tumor from the dorsal approach under digital anesthesia. The procedure was assessed using a questionnaire and photo documentation after a minimum of 6 months after surgery. Results: A total of 85% of respondents were satisfied with the procedure. Nearly 80% of patients rated the cosmetic effect as good or very good. Young age and pain intensity after surgery showed statistically significant associations with worse satisfaction. Age < 18 was associated with recurrence. Conclusions: Worse satisfaction is strongly associated with recurrence. Gender, duration of symptoms, pain before surgery and tumor size and destruction of the nail plate had no significant effect on recurrence. The technique using burr appeared to be a more effective treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Updates in the Orthopedic Management of Foot Disorders)
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12 pages, 1051 KiB  
Review
Coronary Artery Disease: A Key Issue in Type 2 Myocardial Infarction: Systematic Review and Recent Findings
by Hermann Yao, Marianne Zeller, Roland N’Guetta, Yves Cottin and Alain Putot
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(19), 6412; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12196412 - 09 Oct 2023
Viewed by 931
Abstract
Underlying coronary artery disease (CAD) is increasingly considered to be a key issue in the pathophysiology of type 2 myocardial infarction (T2MI). In T2MI, which is attributable to a mismatch between oxygen supply/demand, CAD is common and appears to be more severe than [...] Read more.
Underlying coronary artery disease (CAD) is increasingly considered to be a key issue in the pathophysiology of type 2 myocardial infarction (T2MI). In T2MI, which is attributable to a mismatch between oxygen supply/demand, CAD is common and appears to be more severe than in type 1 myocardial infarction (T1MI). Little is known about the heterogeneous mechanisms that cause supply/demand imbalance and non-coronary triggers leading to myocardial ischemia or about how they are potentially modulated by the presence and severity of CAD. CAD seems to be underrecognized and undertreated in T2MI, even though previous studies have demonstrated both the short and long-term prognostic value of CAD in T2MI. In this literature review, we attempt to address the prevalence and severity of CAD, challenges in the discrimination between T2MI and T1MI in the presence of CAD, and the prognostic value of CAD among patients with T2MI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiology)
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13 pages, 1907 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Peripheral Nerve Damage in a Rodent Model
by Mehmet Burak Yalçın, Ejder Saylav Bora, Mümin Alper Erdoğan, Adem Çakır and Oytun Erbaş
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(19), 6411; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12196411 - 09 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1123
Abstract
Peripheral nerve damage is a significant clinical problem with limited therapeutic options. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) have emerged as a promising therapeutic approach due to their regenerative potential. However, the underlying mechanisms by which ADSCs promote peripheral nerve regeneration remain unclear. In [...] Read more.
Peripheral nerve damage is a significant clinical problem with limited therapeutic options. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) have emerged as a promising therapeutic approach due to their regenerative potential. However, the underlying mechanisms by which ADSCs promote peripheral nerve regeneration remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of syndecan-1 and heat shock protein 70 (HSP-70) in mediating the regenerative effects of ADSCs on peripheral nerves. ADSCs were characterized and isolated from the adipose tissue of rats. In vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate the ability of ADSCs to secrete syndecan-1 and HSP-70 in response to stress conditions. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of ADSCs, rats with sciatic nerve injuries were treated with ADSCs and assessed for functional recovery, nerve regeneration, and changes in syndecan-1 and HSP-70 levels. Regeneration was evaluated with Electromyography (EMG) histology. The results showed that ADSCs could secrete syndecan-1 and HSP-70 in response to stress conditions. Furthermore, ADSC treatment significantly improved functional recovery and nerve regeneration and increased syndecan-1 and HSP-70 levels in the injured nerve. On the other hand, ADSCs make improvements histologically through the influence of Nerve growth factor (NGF), Malondialdehyde (MDA), and EMG. Full article
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10 pages, 515 KiB  
Article
Efficiency and Impact of Hypnoanalgesia for Cardiac Catheterisation in Paediatric Population
by Pierre-Alexandre Fontanges, Julien Haudiquet, Julien De Jonkheere, Alexandre Delarue, Olivia Domanski, Thameur Rakza, Sebastien Hascoet, Said Bichali, Jean Benoit Baudelet, Francois Godart and Ali Houeijeh
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(19), 6410; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12196410 - 09 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 788
Abstract
Hypnoanalgesia is a promising non-pharmacologic adjunct technique in paediatric interventions. Its safety, efficiency, and impacts on paediatric cardiac catheterisation (CC) are unknown. Methods: In a prospective study, patients aged <16 years who underwent CC under hypnoanalgesia from January to December 2021 were included. [...] Read more.
Hypnoanalgesia is a promising non-pharmacologic adjunct technique in paediatric interventions. Its safety, efficiency, and impacts on paediatric cardiac catheterisation (CC) are unknown. Methods: In a prospective study, patients aged <16 years who underwent CC under hypnoanalgesia from January to December 2021 were included. Pain and anxiety were assessed using the analgesia nociception index (ANI) and the visual analogue scale (VAS). Results: Sixteen patients were included; the mean age was 10.5 years, and the mean weight was 37 kg. Catheterisations were interventional in 10 patients (62.5%). Hypnoanalgesia indications were general anaesthesia (GA) contraindication in four patients (25.0%), the need for accurate pressure measurements in three patients (18.7%), and interventionist/patient preferences in nine (56.3%). CC was accomplished in 15 patients (93.7%), even in complicated cases. In one case, pulmonary artery pressures were normalised compared to previous catheterisation under local anaesthesia alone. The VAS score was under 5/10 for all patients. The ANI remained above 50 (no painful zone) for all but one patient. There was no significant decrease in the ANI during the intervention compared to the baseline (p = 0.62). No complications were reported. Conclusion: Paediatric CC is feasible and safe under hypnoanalgesia, even in complicated cases. Hypnoanalgesia was efficient in managing pain and stress, and it ensures more reliable pressure measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiology)
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9 pages, 761 KiB  
Communication
Substance P and Neurokinin-1 Receptor System in Thyroid Cancer: Potential Targets for New Molecular Therapies
by Inmaculada Isorna, Miguel Ángel González-Moles, Miguel Muñoz and Francisco Esteban
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(19), 6409; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12196409 - 09 Oct 2023
Viewed by 952
Abstract
In recent years, numerous approaches have been developed to comprehend the molecular alterations underlying thyroid cancer (TC) oncogenesis and explore novel therapeutic strategies for TC. It is now well established that the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) is overexpressed in cancer cells and that NK-1R [...] Read more.
In recent years, numerous approaches have been developed to comprehend the molecular alterations underlying thyroid cancer (TC) oncogenesis and explore novel therapeutic strategies for TC. It is now well established that the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) is overexpressed in cancer cells and that NK-1R is essential for the viability of cancer cells. The binding of substance P (SP) to NK-1R in neoplastic cells plays a pivotal role in cancer progression by promoting neoplastic cell growth, protecting tumor cells from apoptosis, triggering invasion and metastasis through the enhanced migration of cancer cells, and stimulating endothelial cell proliferation for tumor angiogenesis. Remarkably, all types of human TC (papillary, follicular, medullary, anaplastic), as well as metastatic lesions, exhibit the overexpression of SP and NK-1R compared to the normal thyroid gland. TC cells synthesize and release SP, which exerts its multiple functions through autocrine, paracrine, intracrine, and neuroendocrine processes, including the regulation of tumor burden. Consequently, the secretion of SP from TC results in increased SP levels in plasma, which are significantly higher in TC patients compared to controls. Additionally, NK-1R antagonists have demonstrated a dose-dependent antitumor action. They impair cancer cell proliferation on one side and induce apoptosis of tumor cells on the other side. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that NK-1R antagonists inhibit neoplastic cell migration, thereby impairing both invasiveness and metastatic abilities, as well as angiogenesis. Given the consistent overexpression of NK-1R in all types of TC, targeting this receptor represents a promising therapeutic approach for TC. Therefore, NK-1R antagonists, such as the drug aprepitant, may represent novel drugs for TC treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Strategies in the Treatment of Thyroid Carcinoma)
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9 pages, 549 KiB  
Article
Criterion-Referenced Standards of Handgrip Strength for Identifying the Presence of Hypertension in Croatian Older Adults
by Peter Sagat
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(19), 6408; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12196408 - 08 Oct 2023
Viewed by 848
Abstract
Background: It is well known that muscular fitness has been associated with hypertension. However, it is less known which cut-off values of muscular fitness may predict the presence of hypertension. The main purpose of this study was to establish criterion-referenced standards of muscular [...] Read more.
Background: It is well known that muscular fitness has been associated with hypertension. However, it is less known which cut-off values of muscular fitness may predict the presence of hypertension. The main purpose of this study was to establish criterion-referenced standards of muscular fitness to define the presence of hypertension in Croatian older adults. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited men and women over 60 years of age. Muscular fitness was assessed by handgrip strength and normalized by height squared. Hypertension was defined as having systolic blood pressure ≥130 mm/Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥80 mm/Hg. Results: In older men, the optimal cut-point of muscular fitness in defining hypertension was 15.4 kg/m2. The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.85 (96% CI 0.77 to 0.92, p < 0.001). In older women, the optimal cut-point was 11.8 kg/m2, with an AUC of 0.84 (95% CI 0.80 to 0.89, p < 0.001). Men and women with cut-points of < 15.4 kg/m2 and < 11.8 kg/m2 were 11.8 (OR = 11.8, 95% CI 4.3 to 32.4, p < 0.001) and 10.6 (OR = 10.6, 95% CI 5.7 to 19.7, p < 0.001) times more likely to be diagnosed with hypertension. Conclusions: Our newly developed cut-points of muscular fitness assessed by the handgrip strength and normalized by height squared have satisfactory predictive validity properties in detecting men and women aged 60-81 years with hypertension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sports Medicine)
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11 pages, 857 KiB  
Article
Impact of Internet Addiction, Social Media Use and Online Pornography on the Male Sexual Function in Times of the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Anna Pawlikowska-Gorzelańczyk, Daniel Fichte, Julia Rozmus, Piotr Roder, Remigiusz Flakus, Ewa Szuster, Kinga Brawańska, Małgorzata Biernikiewicz, Małgorzata Sobieszczańska, Agnieszka Rusiecka and Dariusz Kałka
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(19), 6407; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12196407 - 08 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1641
Abstract
Over recent decades, the use of the Internet has dramatically increased, both for professional purposes and entertainment. We investigated the link between social media use, video games, dating apps, and pornography on men’s sexual health, which makes life easier, but also carries potential [...] Read more.
Over recent decades, the use of the Internet has dramatically increased, both for professional purposes and entertainment. We investigated the link between social media use, video games, dating apps, and pornography on men’s sexual health, which makes life easier, but also carries potential threats. Online surveys including The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale questionnaires were spread to young, sexually active men. We asked about demographics, sexual activity, and the use of social media, video games, dating apps, and pornography. We enrolled 702 men aged 18 to 60 years (mean 24.06 ± 5.70). In general, 1.6% of men were exposed to social media addiction. Social media addiction had a negative impact on IIEF scores, while pornography in general had no impact on men’s sexual health. However, more extensive use of pornography was correlated with lower IIEF scores. A negative impact of dating apps use on the IIEF score was also found but the correlation was weak (p = 0.049). No correlation was found between playing games and IIEF. We conclude that social media addiction negatively affected men’s sexual functioning during the COVID-19 pandemic. The development of strategies for the safe use of the Internet and dissemination of this knowledge through social media campaigns can help young people to recognize the first symptoms of social media addiction. Full article
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9 pages, 262 KiB  
Article
Outcomes of Laparotomic Myomectomy during Pregnancy for Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids: A Prospective Cohort Study
by Evgeniya Leonidovna Babunashvili, Danil Yurievich Son, Svetlana Nikolaevna Buyanova, Natalya Alekseevna Schukina, Alexander Anatolyevich Popov, Marina Alexandrovna Chechneva, Timur Alekseevich Glebov, Antonio D’Amato, Joe Haydamous, Vito Chiantera, Antonio Simone Laganà and Andrea Etrusco
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(19), 6406; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12196406 - 08 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1153
Abstract
Background: The incidence of pregnant women with uterine fibroids is increasing. As they are reactive to hormonal stimuli, in some cases, uterine fibroids tend to grow during pregnancy and potentially generate symptoms with different levels of severity, causing maternal–fetal complications. In very [...] Read more.
Background: The incidence of pregnant women with uterine fibroids is increasing. As they are reactive to hormonal stimuli, in some cases, uterine fibroids tend to grow during pregnancy and potentially generate symptoms with different levels of severity, causing maternal–fetal complications. In very select cases, when other treatment strategies fail to manage symptoms and there is a substantial risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, a surgical approach during pregnancy may be considered. Methods: From 2016 to 2021, the data from 28 pregnant women with symptomatic uterine fibroids who underwent laparotomic myomectomy during pregnancy were prospectively collected, and operative and maternal–fetal outcomes were analyzed (ClinicalTrial ID: NCT06009562). Results: The procedure was carried out between 14 and 16 weeks of pregnancy. Four (14.3%) patients had intraoperative complications (miscarriages) and nine (32.1%) had postoperative complications (threatened preterm birth). Overall, 24 (85.7%) women delivered at full term (mean: 38.2 gestational weeks), more than half (n = 13; 54.2%) by vaginal delivery, with normal fetal weights and 1 and 5 min Apgar scores. Conclusions: Laparotomic myomectomy during pregnancy can be considered in selected cases for uterine fibroids with severe symptoms when other treatment options have failed and there is high risk of adverse maternal–fetal outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Management of Pregnancy-Related Complications)
11 pages, 873 KiB  
Review
Lysinuric Protein Intolerance and Its Nutritional and Multisystemic Challenges in Pregnancy: A Case Report and Literature Review
by Adriana Pané, Camila Milad, Marta Santana-Domínguez, Núria Baños, Cristina Borras-Novell, Gerard Espinosa, Laura Magnano, Meritxell Nomdedeu, Pedro Juan Moreno-Lozano, Frederic Cofan, Mercè Placeres, Rosa Maria Fernández, Judit García-Villoria, Glòria Garrabou, Irene Vinagre, Laura M. Tanner, Cristina Montserrat-Carbonell and Maria de Talló Forga-Visa
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(19), 6405; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12196405 - 08 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1342
Abstract
Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is a rare inborn error of metabolism (IEM), classified as an inherited aminoaciduria, caused by mutations in the SLC7A7 gene, leading to a defective cationic amino acid transport. The metabolic adaptations to the demands of pregnancy and delivery cause [...] Read more.
Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is a rare inborn error of metabolism (IEM), classified as an inherited aminoaciduria, caused by mutations in the SLC7A7 gene, leading to a defective cationic amino acid transport. The metabolic adaptations to the demands of pregnancy and delivery cause significant physiological stress, so those patients affected by IEM are at greater risk of decompensation. A 28-year-old woman with LPI had experienced 3 early miscarriages. While pregnancy was finally achieved, diverse nutritional and medical challenges emerged (food aversion, intrauterine growth restriction, bleeding risk, and preeclampsia suspicion), which put both the mother and the fetus at risk. Moreover, the patient requested a natural childbirth (epidural-free, delayed cord clamping). Although the existence of multiple safety concerns rejected this approach at first, the application of novel strategies made a successful delivery possible. This case reinforces that the woman’s wish for a non-medicated, low-intervention natural birth should not be automatically discouraged because of an underlying complex metabolic condition. Achieving a successful pregnancy is conceivable thanks to the cooperation of interdisciplinary teams, but it is still important to consider the risks beforehand in order to be prepared for possible additional complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Rare Diseases)
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12 pages, 1058 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Fluid Replacement with Sterofundin ISO® vs. Deltajonin® in Infants Undergoing Craniofacial Surgery—A Retrospective Study
by Benjamin Tan, Isabel Schütte, Michael Engel, Thomas Bruckner, Markus A. Weigand and Cornelius J. Busch
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(19), 6404; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12196404 - 08 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1066
Abstract
In recent decades, infusion solutions such as NaCl 0.9% and lactate Ringer’s solution have been replaced in clinical practice. Since 2017, the national guidelines for perioperative infusion therapy in children recommend balanced isotonic solutions to maintain fluid balance. The composition of balanced infusion [...] Read more.
In recent decades, infusion solutions such as NaCl 0.9% and lactate Ringer’s solution have been replaced in clinical practice. Since 2017, the national guidelines for perioperative infusion therapy in children recommend balanced isotonic solutions to maintain fluid balance. The composition of balanced infusion solutions varies with respect to their electrolyte content. Hyperchloremia may be mistaken for hypovolemia and may interfere with volume therapy in pediatric patients. Sterofundin ISO® balanced solution contains 127 mmol/L chloride and may cause hyperchloremic acidosis if administered in large volumes. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Sterofundin ISO® (SF) therapy with the balanced isochloremic solution Deltajonin® (DJ) (106 mmol/L chloride) on the acid–base status in infants undergoing craniofacial surgery. Methods: This retrospective, non-blinded study included 100 infants undergoing craniectomy due to isolated nonsyndromic sagittal craniosynostosis. The first 50 infants received Sterofundin ISO®. Due to changes in national guidelines, the infusion was changed to the isoionic Deltajonin® in an additional 50 infants in 2017. Pre- and postoperative values of chloride, pH, base excess, bicarbonate, and albumin and phosphate were determined, and the strong-ion difference, strong-ion gap, anion gap, and weak acids were calculated. Results: Both groups were comparable in terms of their age, sex, underlying disease, preoperative electrolytes (except K at 3.9 ± 0.3 mmol/L (SF) vs. 4.1 ± 0.3 mmol/L (DJ) and lactate 8.7 ± 2.1 (SF) vs. 9.6 ± 2.6 mmol/L (DJ)). In the Sterofundin ISO® group, hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis was observed in 19 patients, whereas only 2 infants in the Deltajonin® group had hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. The postoperative chloride level was 111 ± 2.7 mmol/L (SF) vs. 108 ± 2.4 mmol/L (DJ). The difference in anion gap was 12.5 ± 3.0 mmol/L (SF) vs. 14.6 ± 2.8 mmol/L (DJ), and the difference in SIDa (apparent strong-ion difference) was 30.9 mmol/L (SF) vs. 33.8 mmol/L (DJ). Conclusions: Hyperchloremic acidosis can be induced by the volume replacement with high-chloride-concentration crystalloids such as Sterofundin ISO®. This can be detected using the Stewart model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Updates and Challenges in Maxillo-Facial Surgery)
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11 pages, 1366 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Incidence and Prognosis of Myocardial Injury in Patients with COVID-19-Related Respiratory Failure and Other Pulmonary Infections: A Contemporary Cohort Study
by Manoela Astolfi Vivan, Vania Naomi Hirakata, Maria Antônia Torres Arteche, Débora Marques de Araujo, Sandra C. Fuchs and Flávio D. Fuchs
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(19), 6403; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12196403 - 08 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 805
Abstract
Myocardial injury (MI) is frequent in critically ill patients with COVID-19, but its pathogenesis remains unclear. We hypothesized that MI is not solely due to viral infection by SARS-CoV-2 but rather due to the common pathophysiological mechanisms associated with severe pulmonary infections and [...] Read more.
Myocardial injury (MI) is frequent in critically ill patients with COVID-19, but its pathogenesis remains unclear. We hypothesized that MI is not solely due to viral infection by SARS-CoV-2 but rather due to the common pathophysiological mechanisms associated with severe pulmonary infections and respiratory failure. This contemporary cohort study was designed to compare the incidence of MI in patients with acute respiratory failure caused by COVID-19 to patients with other pulmonary infections. In addition, we aimed to investigate whether MI was a distinct risk factor for in-hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19 compared to those with non-COVID-19 infections. This study included 1444 patients with COVID-19 (55.5% men; age 58 (46;68) years) and 182 patients with other pulmonary infections (46.9% men; age 62 (44;73) years). The incidence of MI at ICU admission was lower in COVID-19 patients (36.4%) compared to non-COVID-19 patients (56%), and this difference persisted after adjusting for age, sex, coronary artery disease, heart failure, SOFA score, lactate, and C-reactive protein (RR 0.84 (95% CI, 0.71–0.99)). MI at ICU admission was associated with a 59% increase in mortality (RR 1.59 (1.36–1.86); p < 0.001), and there was no significant difference in the mortality between patients with COVID-19 and those with other pulmonary infections (p = 0.271). We concluded that MI is less frequent in patients with critical COVID-19 pneumonia and respiratory failure compared to those with other types of pneumonia. The occurrence of MI is a significant risk factor for in-hospital mortality, regardless of the etiology of the pulmonary infection. Full article
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10 pages, 532 KiB  
Article
Prognostic Performance of Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III, and Simplified Acute Physiology Score II Scores in Patients with Suspected Infection According to Intensive Care Unit Type
by Sung-Yeon Hwang, In-Kyu Kim, Daun Jeong, Jong-Eun Park, Gun-Tak Lee, Junsang Yoo, Kihwan Choi, Tae-Gun Shin and Kyuseok Kim
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(19), 6402; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12196402 - 08 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1066
Abstract
We investigated the prognostic performance of scoring systems by the intensive care unit (ICU) type. This was a retrospective observational study using data from the Marketplace for Medical Information in the Intensive Care IV database. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. We obtained [...] Read more.
We investigated the prognostic performance of scoring systems by the intensive care unit (ICU) type. This was a retrospective observational study using data from the Marketplace for Medical Information in the Intensive Care IV database. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. We obtained Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) III, and Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II scores in each ICU type. Prognostic performance was evaluated with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and was compared among ICU types. A total of 29,618 patients were analyzed, and the in-hospital mortality was 12.4%. The overall prognostic performance of APACHE III was significantly higher than those of SOFA and SAPS II (0.807, [95% confidence interval, 0.799–0.814], 0.785 [0.773–0.797], and 0.795 [0.787–0.811], respectively). The prognostic performance of SOFA, APACHE III, and SAPS II scores was significantly different between ICU types. The AUROC ranges of SOFA, APACHE III, and SAPS II were 0.723–0.826, 0.728–0.860, and 0.759–0.819, respectively. The neurosurgical and surgical ICUs had lower prognostic performance than other ICU types. The prognostic performance of scoring systems in patients with suspected infection is significantly different according to ICU type. APACHE III systems have the highest prediction performance. ICU type may be a significant factor in the prognostication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Intensive Care)
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11 pages, 1040 KiB  
Article
Usage of Inhalative Sedative for Sedation and Treatment of Patient with Severe Brain Injury in Germany, a Nationwide Survey
by Svea Roxana Roggenbuck, André Worm, Martin Juenemann, Christian Claudi, Omar Alhaj Omar, Marlene Tschernatsch, Hagen B. Huttner and Patrick Schramm
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(19), 6401; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12196401 - 08 Oct 2023
Viewed by 742
Abstract
Brain injured patients often need deep sedation to prevent or treat increased intracranial pressure. The mainly used IV sedatives have side effects and/or high context-sensitive half-lives, limiting their use. Inhalative sedatives have comparatively minor side effects and a brief context-sensitive half-life. Despite the [...] Read more.
Brain injured patients often need deep sedation to prevent or treat increased intracranial pressure. The mainly used IV sedatives have side effects and/or high context-sensitive half-lives, limiting their use. Inhalative sedatives have comparatively minor side effects and a brief context-sensitive half-life. Despite the theoretical advantages, evidence in this patient group is lacking. A Germany-wide survey with 21 questions was conducted to find out how widespread the use of inhaled sedation is. An invitation for the survey was sent to 226 leaders of intensive care units (ICU) treating patients with brain injury as listed by the German Society for Neurointensive Care. Eighty-nine participants answered the questionnaire, but not all items were responded to, which resulted in different absolute counts. Most of them (88%) were university or high-level hospital ICU leaders and (67%) were leaders of specialized neuro-ICUs. Of these, 53/81 (65%) use inhalative sedation, and of the remaining 28, 17 reported interest in using this kind of sedation. Isoflurane is used by 43/53 (81%), sevoflurane by 15/53 (28%), and desflurane by 2. Hypotension and mydriasis are the most common reported side effects (25%). The presented survey showed that inhalative sedatives were used in a significant number of intensive care units in Germany to treat severely brain-injured patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurocritical Care: New Insights and Challenges)
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19 pages, 335 KiB  
Article
The Reliability and Validity of the Polish Version of the Schema Mode Inventory (SMI)
by Anna Grażka, Klara Królewiak, Klaudia Sójta and Dominik Strzelecki
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(19), 6400; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12196400 - 08 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 656
Abstract
(1) Background: Schema therapy and working with schema modes is increasingly popular. Since there is no validated tool to measure schema modes in Poland, in this study, we present an assessment of the psychometric properties of the Polish version the Short Schema Mode [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Schema therapy and working with schema modes is increasingly popular. Since there is no validated tool to measure schema modes in Poland, in this study, we present an assessment of the psychometric properties of the Polish version the Short Schema Mode Inventory (SMI) adaptation. (2) Methods: First, the original version of the scale was translated. Subsequently, a validity and reliability study was conducted on a sample of 240 patients and 400 non-patients. In particular, the factor structure of the inventory was checked, internal reliability and intercorrelations between subscales were tested, differences between the clinical and non-clinical groups in terms of the severity of each factor were examined, and construct validity was assessed by comparing the association of results with external variables. (3) Results: The results did not conclusively confirm the 14-factor structure postulated in the original scale. Nevertheless, the relatively best fit indices were obtained for such a model. The internal reliability for the 14 subscales ranged from 0.74 to 0.95 (McDonald’s omega). Correlations between subscales demonstrated values from 0.03 to 0.72. The existence of differences between the clinical and non-clinical groups and the construct validity were confirmed. (4) Conclusions: The psychometric evaluation performed is mostly similar to the results obtained for other adaptations, and the results justify the inventory being used for research and clinical purposes when knowledge of its limitations is included. Full article
11 pages, 279 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Effect of Preoperative Stereopsis on Visual Outcomes in Hyperopic Presbyopes Treated with PresbyOND® Laser Blended Vision Micro-Monovision
by Julia Hernández-Lucena, Federico Alonso-Aliste, Jonatan Amián-Cordero and José-María Sánchez-González
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(19), 6399; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12196399 - 07 Oct 2023
Viewed by 823
Abstract
We investigated the effects of Laser Blended Vision (LBV) on binocular summation and stereopsis in the treatment of presbyopia and hyperopia. Using a unidirectional, retrospective longitudinal design, data from 318 patients who underwent the Zeiss PresbyOND® LBV surgical procedure at Tecnolaser Clinic [...] Read more.
We investigated the effects of Laser Blended Vision (LBV) on binocular summation and stereopsis in the treatment of presbyopia and hyperopia. Using a unidirectional, retrospective longitudinal design, data from 318 patients who underwent the Zeiss PresbyOND® LBV surgical procedure at Tecnolaser Clinic Vision Ophthalmology Center in Seville, Spain, were analyzed. The findings indicate that stereopsis quality significantly influenced short-term post-operative visual outcomes in measures like Uncorrected Distance and Near Visual Acuity (UDVA and UNVA). However, the impact of stereopsis on visual outcomes appeared to diminish over time, becoming statistically insignificant at the 12-month post-operative mark. The study suggests that while stereopsis is a crucial factor in the short term, its influence on visual outcomes tends to wane in the long-term postoperative period. Future studies are essential to elucidate the enduring clinical ramifications of these observations. Full article
12 pages, 1781 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Latent Tuberculosis Infection on Ovarian Reserve and Pregnancy Outcomes among Infertile Women Undergoing Intrauterine Insemination: A Retrospective Cohort Study with Propensity Score Matching
by Yifan Chu, Ying Chen, Wen Yao, Luyao Wang, Bo Zhang, Lei Jin and Jing Yue
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(19), 6398; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12196398 - 07 Oct 2023
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Abstract
Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) widely exists in patients with unexplained infertility, and whether LTBI would affect the ovarian reserve and pregnancy outcome of infertile women undergoing intrauterine insemination (IUI) is still unknown. A single-center, retrospective, cohort study was designed that included infertile women [...] Read more.
Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) widely exists in patients with unexplained infertility, and whether LTBI would affect the ovarian reserve and pregnancy outcome of infertile women undergoing intrauterine insemination (IUI) is still unknown. A single-center, retrospective, cohort study was designed that included infertile women undergoing IUI at the Department of Reproductive Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology in Wuhan, China, from January 2018 to December 2020. The primary outcomes of this study were ovarian reserve and live birth rate. Secondary outcomes included pregnancy outcomes and maternal and neonatal complications. As a result, 3066 IUI cycles were eventually enrolled in this study. Of these women, 9.6% (295/3066) had LTBI evidence. After propensity score matching (PSM), there was no significant difference in the baseline between the LTBI and non-LTBI groups. The data showed that women who had LTBI had trends toward lower biochemical pregnancy rates (12.9% vs. 17.7%, p-value 0.068), lower clinical pregnancy rates (10.8% vs. 15.1%, p-value 0.082) and lower live birth rates (8.1% vs. 12.1%, p-value 0.076), with no significant differences. There were also no significant differences in ovarian reserve and other secondary outcomes between the two groups. In conclusion, there were no significant differences in ovarian reserve, perinatal or neonatal complications between women with and without LTBI. Women with LTBI tended to have worse pregnancy outcomes after receiving IUI, but the difference was not significant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Clinical Reproductive Medicine)
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