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J. Clin. Med., Volume 12, Issue 13 (July-1 2023) – 384 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a leading cause of disability and mortality worldwide, and while no specific etiologic interventions have been shown to improve outcomes, noninvasive and invasive respiratory support strategies are life-saving interventions that provide patients with time to recover. However, the inappropriate management of these strategies, which neglects the unique features of respiratory, lung, and chest wall mechanics, may result in disease progression, like patient self-inflicted lung injuries during spontaneous breathing. In this review, we provide an overview of noninvasive and invasive respiratory support strategies and discuss how identifying ARDS sub-phenotypes in daily practice can help clinicians to deliver personalized respiratory support and potentially improve the patients’ outcomes. View this paper
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11 pages, 1088 KiB  
Brief Report
Inter-Rater Reliability of the Polish Version of the Alberta Infant Motor Scale in Children with Heart Disease
by Maria Ferenstein, Katarzyna Ostrzyżek-Przeździecka, Jakub S. Gąsior and Bożena Werner
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(13), 4555; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12134555 - 07 Jul 2023
Viewed by 882
Abstract
There is an urgent need for the systematic monitoring of motor and cognitive neurodevelopment and the evaluation of motor skill development in infants and children with heart disease. Familiarizing students and early graduates with the developmental care needed by these patients may help [...] Read more.
There is an urgent need for the systematic monitoring of motor and cognitive neurodevelopment and the evaluation of motor skill development in infants and children with heart disease. Familiarizing students and early graduates with the developmental care needed by these patients may help in the system-wide implementation of early motor screening in this population. The purpose of this study was to investigate the agreement between a last-year physiotherapy student and an experienced pediatric physiotherapist when applying the Polish version of the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) to a heterogenous group of children with congenital heart defects. Agreement between raters was verified based on the observation of 80 (38 females) patients with heart disease aged 1–18 months using a Bland–Altman plot with limits of agreement and an intraclass correlation coefficient. The bias between raters for the total score for four age groups (0–3 months, 4–7 months, 8–11 months and 12–18 months) was between −0.17 and 0.22 (range: −0.54–0.78), and the ICC was between 0.875 and 1.000. Thus, a reliable assessment of motor development or motor skills using the Polish version of the AIMS can be performed in pediatric patients with heart defects by clinically inexperienced last-year physiotherapy students who are familiarized with the AIMS manual. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Rehabilitation)
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14 pages, 2473 KiB  
Article
Impact of Intraoperative Fluid Balance and Norepinephrine on Postoperative Acute Kidney Injury after Cystectomy and Urinary Diversion over Two Decades: A Retrospective Observational Cohort Study
by Markus Huber, Marc A. Furrer, François Jardot, Dominique Engel, Christian M. Beilstein, Fiona C. Burkhard and Patrick Y. Wuethrich
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(13), 4554; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12134554 - 07 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 770
Abstract
The use of norepinephrine and the restriction of intraoperative hydration have gained increasing acceptance over the last few decades. Recently, there have been concerns regarding the impact of this approach on renal function. The objective of this study was to examine the influence [...] Read more.
The use of norepinephrine and the restriction of intraoperative hydration have gained increasing acceptance over the last few decades. Recently, there have been concerns regarding the impact of this approach on renal function. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of norepinephrine, intraoperative fluid administration and their interaction on acute kidney injury (AKI) after cystectomy. In our cohort of 1488 consecutive patients scheduled for cystectomies and urinary diversions, the overall incidence of AKI was 21.6% (95%—CI: 19.6% to 23.8%) and increased by an average of 0.6% (95%—CI: 0.1% to 1.1%, p = 0.025) per year since 2000. The fluid and vasopressor regimes were characterized by an annual decrease in fluid balance (−0.24 mL·kg−1·h−1, 95%—CI: −0.26 to −0.22, p < 0.001) and an annual increase in the amount of norepinephrine of 0.002 µg·kg−1·min−1 (95%—CI: 0.0016 to 0.0024, p < 0.001). The interaction between the fluid balance and norepinephrine levels resulted in a U-shaped association with the risk of AKI; however, the magnitude and shape depended on the reference categories of confounders (age and BMI). We conclude that decreased intraoperative fluid balance combined with increased norepinephrine administration was associated with an increased risk of AKI. However, other potential drivers of the observed increase in AKI incidence need to be further investigated in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Anesthesiology)
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13 pages, 1165 KiB  
Article
The Magnitude of Contralateral Suppression of Otoacoustic Emissions Is Ear- and Age-Dependent
by Hung Thai-Van, Evelyne Veuillet, Marie-Thérèse Le Normand, Maxime Damien, Charles-Alexandre Joly and Pierre Reynard
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(13), 4553; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12134553 - 07 Jul 2023
Viewed by 787
Abstract
The maturation of the uncrossed medial olivocochlear (UMOC) efferent remains poorly documented to date. The UMOC efferent system allows listeners to not only detect but also to process, recognize, and discriminate auditory stimuli. Its fibers can be explored non-invasively by recording the effect [...] Read more.
The maturation of the uncrossed medial olivocochlear (UMOC) efferent remains poorly documented to date. The UMOC efferent system allows listeners to not only detect but also to process, recognize, and discriminate auditory stimuli. Its fibers can be explored non-invasively by recording the effect of contralateral acoustic stimulation (CAS), resulting in a decrease in the amplitude of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE). The objective of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate how the effectiveness of this system varies with age in healthy subjects aged 8 years to adulthood. For this purpose, 120 right-handed native French-speaking subjects (57 females and 63 males) were divided into five age groups of 24 subjects each: 8y–10y, 10y–11y6m, 11y6m–13y, 13y–17y, and ≥18y. TEOAE amplitudes with and without CAS were recorded. The equivalent attenuation (EA) was calculated, corresponding to the change in TEOAE amplitude equivalent to the effect generated by CAS. General linear models were performed to control for the effect of ear, sex, and age on EA. No sex effect was found. A stronger EA was consistently found regardless of age group in the right ear compared to the left. In contrast to the right ear, for which, on average, EA remained constant across age groups, an increasingly weaker TEOAE suppression effect with age was found in the left ear, reinforcing the asymmetrical functioning of the UMOC efferent system in favor of the right ear in adulthood. Further studies are needed to investigate the lateralization of the UMOC efferent system and its changes over time in cases of atypical or reversed cortical asymmetries, especially in subjects with specific learning disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical and Translational Research in Auditory Processing Disorder)
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3 pages, 162 KiB  
Editorial
The Risk and Benefits of Various Innovations in Fusion and Fusionless Surgery for AIS
by Tom P. C. Schlösser and Per D. Trobisch
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(13), 4552; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12134552 - 07 Jul 2023
Viewed by 578
Abstract
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is the most common variety of the condition, constituting a three-dimensional deformity of the spine and chest that primarily affects otherwise healthy adolescents [...] Full article
14 pages, 3061 KiB  
Article
MicroRNA-27b Impairs Nrf2-Mediated Angiogenesis in the Progression of Diabetic Foot Ulcer
by Shukla Sakshi, Ravichandran Jayasuriya, Rajappan Chandra Sathish Kumar, Dhamodharan Umapathy, Athira Gopinathan, Ramachandran Balamurugan, Kumar Ganesan and Kunka Mohanram Ramkumar
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(13), 4551; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12134551 - 07 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 974
Abstract
Nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a stress-activated transcription factor regulating antioxidant genes, and a deficiency thereof, slowing lymphangiogenesis, has been reported in diabetic foot ulcer (DFU). The mode of Nrf2 regulation in DFU has been less explored. Emerging studies [...] Read more.
Nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a stress-activated transcription factor regulating antioxidant genes, and a deficiency thereof, slowing lymphangiogenesis, has been reported in diabetic foot ulcer (DFU). The mode of Nrf2 regulation in DFU has been less explored. Emerging studies on miRNA-mediated target regulation show miRNA to be the leading player in the pathogenesis of the disease. In the present study, we demonstrated the role of miR-27b in regulating Nrf2-mediated angiogenesis in DFU. A lower expression of mRNA targets, such as Nrf2, HO-1, SDF-1α, and VEGF, was observed in tissue biopsied from chronic DFU subjects, which was in line with miR-27b, signifying a positive correlation with Nrf2. Similarly, we found significantly reduced expression of miR-27b and target mRNAs Nrf2, HO-1, SDF-1α, and VEGF in endothelial cells under a hyperglycemic microenvironment (HGM). To confirm the association of miR-27b on regulating Nrf2-mediated angiogenesis, we inhibited its expression through RNA interference-mediated knockdown and observed disturbances in angiogenic signaling with reduced endothelial cell migration. In addition, to explore the role of miR-27b and angiogenesis in the activation of Nrf2, we pretreated the endothelial cells with two well-known pharmacological compounds—pterostilbene and resveratrol. We observed that activation of Nrf2 through these compounds ameliorates impaired angiogenesis on HGM-induced endothelial cells. This study suggests a positive role of miR-27b in regulating Nrf2, which seems to be decreased in DFU and improves on treatment with pterostilbene and resveratrol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Endocrinology & Metabolism)
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15 pages, 3901 KiB  
Review
Moving toward Precision Medicine in Acute Coronary Syndromes: A Multimodal Assessment of Non-Culprit Lesions
by Michele Bellino, Angelo Silverio, Luca Esposito, Francesco Paolo Cancro, Germano Junior Ferruzzi, Marco Di Maio, Antonella Rispoli, Maria Giovanna Vassallo, Francesca Maria Di Muro, Gennaro Galasso and Giuseppe De Luca
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(13), 4550; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12134550 - 07 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1404
Abstract
Patients with acute coronary syndrome and multivessel disease experience several recurrent adverse events that lead to poor outcomes. Given the complexity of treating these patients, and the extremely high risk of long-term adverse events, the assessment of non-culprit lesions becomes crucial. Recently, two [...] Read more.
Patients with acute coronary syndrome and multivessel disease experience several recurrent adverse events that lead to poor outcomes. Given the complexity of treating these patients, and the extremely high risk of long-term adverse events, the assessment of non-culprit lesions becomes crucial. Recently, two trials have shown a possible clinical benefit into treat non-culprit lesions using a fraction flow reserve (FFR)-guided approach, compared to culprit-lesion-only PCI. However, the most recent FLOW Evaluation to Guide Revascularization in Multivessel ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction (FLOWER-MI) trial did not show a benefit of the use of FFR-guided PCI compared to an angiography-guided approach. Otherwise, intracoronary imaging using optical coherence tomography (OCT), intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), or near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) could provide both quantitative and qualitative assessments of non-culprit lesions. Different studies have shown how the characterization of coronary lesions with intracoronary imaging could lead to clinical benefits in these peculiar group of patients. Moreover, non-invasive evaluations of NCLs have begun to take ground in this context, but more insights through adequately powered and designed studies are needed. The aim of this review is to outline the available techniques, both invasive and non-invasive, for the assessment of multivessel disease in patients with STEMI, and to provide a systematic guidance on the assessment and approach to these patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Complications, Diagnosis and Treatment of Angina)
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15 pages, 911 KiB  
Article
Effects of Peripheral Cooling on Upper Limb Tremor Severity and Functional Capacity in Persons with MS
by Peter Feys, Marijke Duportail, Daphne Kos, Stephan Ilsbroukx, Ilse Lamers, Paul Van Asch, Werner Helsen and Lousin Moumdjian
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(13), 4549; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12134549 - 07 Jul 2023
Viewed by 771
Abstract
Upper limb intention tremor in persons with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) affects the ability to perform activities of daily life and is difficult to treat. The study investigated the effect of peripheral upper limb cooling on tremor severity and functional performance in MS patients [...] Read more.
Upper limb intention tremor in persons with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) affects the ability to perform activities of daily life and is difficult to treat. The study investigated the effect of peripheral upper limb cooling on tremor severity and functional performance in MS patients with intention tremor. In experiment 1, 17 patients underwent two 15 min cooling conditions for the forearm (cold pack and cryomanchet) and one control condition. In experiment 2, 22 patients underwent whole arm cooling for 15 min using multiple cold packs. In both experiments, patients were tested at four time points (pre- and post-0, -25 and -50 min cooling) on unilateral tasks of the Test Evaluant les Membres supérieurs des Personnes Agées (TEMPA), Fahn’s tremor rating scale (FTRS), Nine Hole Peg Test (NHPT). In experiment 1, the mean FTRS ranged from 13.2 to 14.1 across conditions. A two-way ANOVA showed mainly time effects, showing that cooling the forearm significantly reduced the FTRS, the performance on the NHPT, and three out of four items of the TEMPA, mostly independent of the cooling modality. In experiment 2, the mean FTRS was 13.1. A repeated measures ANOVA showed that cooling the whole arm reduced the FTRS and time needed to execute two out of four items of the TEMPA. These effects occurred immediately after cooling lasting at least 25 min. Cooling the whole upper limb led to a clinically noticeable effect on tremor severity and improved functional performance, which was pronounced during the first half-hour after cooling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Application of Physical Therapy in Neurorehabilitation)
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12 pages, 287 KiB  
Article
The Decline of Physical Activity with Age in School-Aged Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Single-Center Cross-Sectional Observational Study
by Jinuk Lee, Min-Hwa Suk, Soojin Yoo and Jeong-Yi Kwon
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(13), 4548; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12134548 - 07 Jul 2023
Viewed by 995
Abstract
Maintaining physical activity is important for children with cerebral palsy (CP). This study examined whether age predicted habitual physical activity (HPA) or cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in school-aged children with CP and clarified the relationship between HPA and CRF. We utilized cross-sectional data from [...] Read more.
Maintaining physical activity is important for children with cerebral palsy (CP). This study examined whether age predicted habitual physical activity (HPA) or cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in school-aged children with CP and clarified the relationship between HPA and CRF. We utilized cross-sectional data from 39 children with CP (18 girls and 21 boys; mean age 7.44 years; mean body weight 24.76 kg; mean body mass index 15.97 kg/m2; hemiplegic or diplegic CP). The participants wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph) for five days to measure HPA, physical activity energy expenditure (kcal/kg/d), sedentary physical activity (%SPA), light physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (%MVPA), and activity counts (counts/min). Participants underwent cardiopulmonary exercise tests on a treadmill using a modified Naughton protocol. Linear regression and correlation analyses were performed. p-value (two-tailed) < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Age was positively associated with SPA. MVPA negatively correlated with resting heart rate (HR), and activity counts were negatively correlated with resting HR. In conclusion, our study found strong evidence of a negative association between HPA and age in school-aged children with CP. It highlights the importance of creating and improving recreational opportunities that promote physical activity in all children with CP, regardless of whether they are considered therapeutic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Rehabilitation)
13 pages, 644 KiB  
Article
The 10 “Cardinal Sins” in the Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment of Endometriosis: A Bayesian Approach
by Philippe R. Koninckx, Anastasia Ussia, Stephan Gordts, Jörg Keckstein, Ertan Saridogan, Mario Malzoni, Assia Stepanian, Antonio Setubal, Leila Adamyan and Arnaud Wattiez
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(13), 4547; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12134547 - 07 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3159
Abstract
Evidence-based data for endometriosis management are limited. Experiments are excluded without adequate animal models. Data are limited to symptomatic women and occasional observations. Hormonal medical therapy cannot be blinded if recognised by the patient. Randomised controlled trials are not realistic for surgery, since [...] Read more.
Evidence-based data for endometriosis management are limited. Experiments are excluded without adequate animal models. Data are limited to symptomatic women and occasional observations. Hormonal medical therapy cannot be blinded if recognised by the patient. Randomised controlled trials are not realistic for surgery, since endometriosis is a variable disease with low numbers. Each diagnosis and treatment is an experiment with an outcome, and experience is the means by which Bayesian updating, according to the past, takes place. If the experiences of many are similar, this holds more value than an opinion. The combined experience of a group of endometriosis surgeons was used to discuss problems in managing endometriosis. Considering endometriosis as several genetically/epigenetically different diseases is important for medical therapy. Imaging cannot exclude endometriosis, and diagnostic accuracy is limited for superficial lesions, deep lesions, and cystic corpora lutea. Surgery should not be avoided for emotional reasons. Shifting infertility treatment to IVF without considering fertility surgery is questionable. The concept of complete excision should be reconsidered. Surgeons should introduce quality control, and teaching should move to explain why this occurs. The perception of information has a personal bias. These are the major problems involved in managing endometriosis, as identified by the combined experience of the authors, who are endometriosis surgeons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Obstetrics & Gynecology)
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11 pages, 556 KiB  
Systematic Review
Nerve Injuries after Glenohumeral Dislocation, a Systematic Review of Incidence and Risk Factors
by Alejandro Lorente, Gonzalo Mariscal, Carlos Barrios and Rafael Lorente
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(13), 4546; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12134546 - 07 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1529
Abstract
Glenohumeral dislocation is a common shoulder injury that can result in nerve injury. However, the full impact of these injuries on patient function and recovery remains unclear. This systematic review aimed to determine (1) the incidence, (2) risk factors, and (3) functional outcomes [...] Read more.
Glenohumeral dislocation is a common shoulder injury that can result in nerve injury. However, the full impact of these injuries on patient function and recovery remains unclear. This systematic review aimed to determine (1) the incidence, (2) risk factors, and (3) functional outcomes following nerve injuries after glenohumeral dislocation. The study followed PRISMA guidelines and used the PICO strategy. PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and Cochrane Collaboration Library databases were searched for studies. Two reviewers independently assessed the study eligibility, and data extraction was conducted by two authors. The quality of included studies was assessed using the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies (MINORS) criteria. Thirteen studies comprising 17,087 patients were included. The incidence of nerve injury ranged from 0.4% to 65.5%, with the axillary nerve being most commonly affected. The time to reduction did not significantly affect the incidence of nerve injury. The mechanism of injury, the affected side, associated injuries, and recovery time were found to be potential risk factors for nerve injury. Motor recovery was incomplete in many patients, and sensory recovery was less complete. By synthesizing the available evidence, this systematic review underscores the importance of considering nerve injury in the management of patients with glenohumeral dislocations. Future research can build on these findings to develop targeted prevention and treatment approaches that optimize patient outcomes. Full article
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32 pages, 2911 KiB  
Article
Underdiagnosed CKD in Geriatric Trauma Patients and Potent Prevention of Renal Impairment from Polypharmacy Risks through Individual Pharmacotherapy Management (IPM-III)
by Ursula Wolf, Hassan Ghadir, Luise Drewas and Rüdiger Neef
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(13), 4545; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12134545 - 07 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1276
Abstract
The aging global patient population with multimorbidity and concomitant polypharmacy is at increased risk for acute and chronic kidney disease, particularly with severe additional disease states or invasive surgical procedures. Because from the expertise of more than 58,600 self-reviewed medications, adverse drug reactions, [...] Read more.
The aging global patient population with multimorbidity and concomitant polypharmacy is at increased risk for acute and chronic kidney disease, particularly with severe additional disease states or invasive surgical procedures. Because from the expertise of more than 58,600 self-reviewed medications, adverse drug reactions, drug interactions, inadequate dosing, and contraindications all proved to cause or exacerbate the worsening of renal function, we analyzed the association of an electronic patient record- and Summaries of Product Characteristics (SmPCs)-based comprehensive individual pharmacotherapy management (IPM) in the setting of 14 daily interdisciplinary patient visits with the outcome: further renal impairment with reduction of eGFR ≥ 20 mL/min (redGFR) in hospitalized trauma patients ≥ 70 years of age. The retrospective clinical study of 404 trauma patients comparing the historical control group (CG) before IPM with the IPM intervention group (IG) revealed a group-match in terms of potential confounders such as age, sex, BMI, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and injury patterns. Preexisting chronic kidney disease (CKD) > stage 2 diagnosed as eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 on hospital admission was 42% in the CG versus 50% in the IG, although in each group only less than 50% of this was coded as an ICD diagnosis in the patients’ discharge letters (19% in CG and 21% in IG). IPM revealed an absolute risk reduction in redGFR of 5.5% (11 of 199 CG patients) to 0% in the IPM visit IG, a relative risk reduction of 100%, NNT 18, indicating high efficacy of IPM and benefit in improving outcomes. There even remained an additive superimposed significant association that included patients in the IPM group before/beyond the 14 daily IPM interventions, with a relative redGFR risk reduction of 0.55 (55%) to 2.5% (5 of 204 patients), OR 0.48 [95% CI 0.438–0.538] (p < 0.001). Bacteriuria, loop diuretics, allopurinol, eGFR ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, and CKD 3b were significantly associated with redGFR; of the latter, 10.5% developed redGFR. Further multivariable regression analysis adjusting for these and established risk factors revealed an additive, superimposed IPM effect on redGFR with an OR 0.238 [95% CI 0.06–0.91], relative risk reduction of 76.2%, regression coefficient −1.437 including patients not yet visited in the IPM period. As consequences of the IPM procedure, the IG differed from the CG by a significant reduction of NSAIDs (p < 0.001), HCT (p = 0.028) and Würzburger pain drip (p < 0.001), and significantly increased prescription rate of antibiotics (p = 0.004). In conclusion, (1) more than 50% of CKD in geriatric patients was not pre-recognized and underdiagnosed, and (2) the electronic patient records-based IPM interdisciplinary networking strategy was associated with effective prevention of further periinterventional renal impairment and requires obligatory implementation in all elderly patients to urgently improve patient and drug safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Management on Chronic Kidney Disease)
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12 pages, 1163 KiB  
Article
Predictive Value of the C-Reactive Protein to Albumin Ratio in 30-Day Mortality after Hip Fracture in Elderly Population: A Retrospective Observational Cohort Study
by Giorgio Cacciola, Fabio Mancino, Lukas A. Holzer, Federico De Meo, Ivan De Martino, Antongiulio Bruschetta, Salvatore Risitano, Luigi Sabatini and Pietro Cavaliere
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(13), 4544; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12134544 - 07 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 803
Abstract
Background: C-reactive protein (CRP) to Albumin ratio (CAR) has been used in multiple clinical settings to predict early mortality. However, there is a lack of evidence on the predictive role of CAR in 30-day mortality after a hip fracture. The purpose of this [...] Read more.
Background: C-reactive protein (CRP) to Albumin ratio (CAR) has been used in multiple clinical settings to predict early mortality. However, there is a lack of evidence on the predictive role of CAR in 30-day mortality after a hip fracture. The purpose of this study was to establish a potential association between CAR and 30-day mortality and to assess if the CAR Receiving Operating Characteristics curve (ROC) can be a reliable predictor of early mortality. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 676 patients (>65 years) treated for hip fracture between 2006 and 2018. All hip fractures were included. Treatment strategies included closed reduction and internal fixation, open reduction and internal fixation, hemiarthroplasty, or total joint arthroplasty. Statistical analysis included T-test, Pearson correlation for CAR and other markers, ROC curves and area under the curve, Youden Model, and Odds Ratio. Results: The 30-day mortality rate analysis showed that higher preoperative levels of CAR were associated with higher early mortality. When analyzing the area under the ROC curve (AUROC) for 30-day mortality, the reported value was 0.816. The point of the ROC curve corresponding to 14.72 was considered a cut-off with a specificity of 87% and a sensibility of 40.8%. When analyzing values higher than 14.72, the 30-day mortality rate was 17.9%, whilst, for values lower than 14.72, the 30-day mortality rate was 1.8%. Conclusions: Patients older than 65 years affected by a hip fracture with increased preoperative levels of CAR are associated with higher 30-day mortality. Despite a moderate sensibility, considering the low cost and the predictivity of CAR, it should be considered a standard predictive marker. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hip Surgery: Clinical Treatment and Management)
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11 pages, 681 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Outcomes of Transvenous Lead Extraction: A Comparison in Patients with or without Infection from the Italian Region with the Oldest Population
by Luca Barca, Giuseppe Mascia, Paolo Di Donna, Paolo Sartori, Daniele Bianco, Roberta Della Bona, Stefano Benenati, Andrea Carlo Merlo, Antonia Luisa Buongiorno, Niki Kaufman, Antonio Vena, Matteo Bassetti and Italo Porto
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(13), 4543; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12134543 - 07 Jul 2023
Viewed by 665
Abstract
Background: The gold standard for the treatment of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs)-related infection and lead malfunction is transvenous lead extraction (TLE). To date, the risk of mortality directly related to TLE procedures is relatively low, but data on post-procedural and long-term mortality [...] Read more.
Background: The gold standard for the treatment of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs)-related infection and lead malfunction is transvenous lead extraction (TLE). To date, the risk of mortality directly related to TLE procedures is relatively low, but data on post-procedural and long-term mortality are limited, even more in the aging population. Methods: Consecutive patients with CIEDs who underwent TLE were retrospectively studied. The primary outcome was the endpoint of death, considering independent predictors of long-term clinical outcomes in the TLE aging population comparing patients with and without infection. Results: One hundred nineteen patients (male 77%; median age 76 years) were included in the analysis. Eighty-two patients (69%) documented infection, and thirty-seven (31%) were extracted for a different reason. Infected patients were older (80 vs. 68 years, p-value > 0.001) with more implanted catheters (p-value < 0.001). At the last follow-up (FU) available (median FU 4.1 years), mortality reached 37% of the patient population, showing a statistically significant difference between infected versus non-infected groups. At univariable analysis, age at TLE, atrial fibrillation, and anemia remained significant correlates of mortality; at multivariable analysis, only patients with anemia and atrial fibrillation have a 2.3-fold (HR 2.34; CI 1.16–4.75) and a 2.5-fold (HR 2.46; CI 1.33–4.54) increased rate of death, respectively. Conclusion: Our long-term data showed that aging patients who underwent TLE for CIED-related infection exhibit a high mortality risk during a long-term follow-up, potentially leading to a rapid and effective procedural approach in this patient population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cardiac Electrophysiology and Pacing)
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10 pages, 1401 KiB  
Article
Nerve Torsion as a Pattern of Parsonage–Turner Syndrome: Literature Review and Two Representative Cases
by Davide Glorioso, Rita Palestini, Cristina Cuccagna, Liverana Lauretti and Luca Padua
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(13), 4542; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12134542 - 07 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 906
Abstract
(1) Background: Parsonage–Turner Syndrome (PTS) is a rare peripheral nerve disease characterized by different degrees of nerve impairment. The recent development of nerve ultrasound has enabled the use of new data in the diagnosis of the disease. The aim of this study is [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Parsonage–Turner Syndrome (PTS) is a rare peripheral nerve disease characterized by different degrees of nerve impairment. The recent development of nerve ultrasound has enabled the use of new data in the diagnosis of the disease. The aim of this study is to conduct a literature review about the ultrasound evaluation of PTS and present two clinical cases that are characteristic of the disease. (2) Methods: A review of the literature from the last 10 years on the topic containing data regarding nerve ultrasound was performed. In addition, two cases of patients on whom nerve ultrasound was performed at the first evaluation and at follow-up after the indicated treatment were described. (3) Results: The results of our review show that although it is defined as plexopathy, PTS is most often a form of multifocal neuropathy. We also report the most frequently used ultrasound classification and possible prognostic correlations and report our experience with the description of two paradigmatic clinical cases. (4) Conclusions: Further studies are needed to understand the true prognostic power of each degree of nerve impairment and the possible implications in clinical practice regarding treatment indications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Neurology)
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10 pages, 665 KiB  
Article
Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography and Abdominal Aortic Calcification Screening among High-Risk Living Kidney Donors
by Keren Skalsky, Arthur Shiyovich, Nir Hochwald, Amos Levi, Lutof Zreik, Shlomit Tamir, Gideon Shafir, Anat Briger, Ruth Rahamimov, Ran Kornowski and Ashraf Hamdan
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(13), 4541; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12134541 - 07 Jul 2023
Viewed by 857
Abstract
Background: A unique scanning protocol combining coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) with routine abdominal CTA is being used at the Rabin Medical Center as a method of screening high-risk candidates for living kidney donation. We aim to evaluate the potential impact of coronary [...] Read more.
Background: A unique scanning protocol combining coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) with routine abdominal CTA is being used at the Rabin Medical Center as a method of screening high-risk candidates for living kidney donation. We aim to evaluate the potential impact of coronary CTA on the decision regarding eligibility for kidney donation and its correlation with abdominal aortic calcification (AAC). Methods: CCTA and abdominal CTA results of potential living kidney donors evaluated for donation between September 2020 and November 2021 were retrieved. A retrospective analysis of the abdominal CTA was used to calculate the AAC. Patients’ demographic, clinical, and imaging data were collected from the electronic files, as well as the final decision regarding eligibility for donation. Results: A total of 62 potential kidney donors were evaluated for donation using the combined scan. The mean age was 53.8 years, with male predominance (59.7%). Significant coronary artery stenosis (≥70% luminal stenosis) was present in two patients (3.2%), whereas five patients (8%) had moderate stenosis (50–69%). Thirteen patients (21%) were disqualified from donation due to moderate-to-significant coronary artery disease or abdominal atherosclerosis. The correlation between the coronary artery calcium score and the AAC was found to be positive, with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.88 (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The use of coronary CTA in the evaluation of potential kidney donors may has a potential impact on the decision regarding eligibility for donation. A high correlation between the coronary artery calcium score and the AAC was found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiovascular Medicine)
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10 pages, 1160 KiB  
Article
Lymphatic Complications Following Sentinel Node Biopsy or Pelvic Lymphadenectomy for Endometrial Cancer
by Shinichi Terada, Tomohito Tanaka, Hikaru Murakami, Hiromitsu Tsuchihashi, Akihiko Toji, Atsushi Daimon, Shunsuke Miyamoto, Ruri Nishie, Shoko Ueda, Sousuke Hashida, Natsuko Morita, Hiroshi Maruoka, Hiromi Konishi, Yuhei Kogata, Kohei Taniguchi, Kazumasa Komura and Masahide Ohmichi
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(13), 4540; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12134540 - 07 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 969
Abstract
Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) is performed worldwide in patients with endometrial cancer (EC). The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the occurrence rate of lymphatic complications between SNB and pelvic lymphadenectomy (LND) for EC. The medical records of women who [...] Read more.
Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) is performed worldwide in patients with endometrial cancer (EC). The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the occurrence rate of lymphatic complications between SNB and pelvic lymphadenectomy (LND) for EC. The medical records of women who underwent SNB or pelvic LND for EC between September 2012 and April 2022 were assessed. A total of 388 patients were enrolled in the current study. Among them, 201 patients underwent SNB and 187 patients underwent pelvic LND. The occurrence rates of lower-extremity lymphedema (LEL) and pelvic lymphocele (PL) were compared between the patients who underwent SNB and those who underwent pelvic LND. The SNB group had a significantly lower occurrence rate of lower-extremity LEL than the pelvic LND group (2.0% vs. 21.3%, p < 0.01). There were no patients who had PL in the SNB group; however, 4 (2.1%) patients in the pelvic LND group had PL. The occurrence rates of lower-extremity LEL and PL were significantly lower in patients who underwent SNB than those who underwent pelvic LND. SNB for EC has a lower risk of lymphatic complications compared to systemic LND. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Obstetrics & Gynecology)
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14 pages, 261 KiB  
Case Report
A Case Study of Hypnosis Enhanced Cognitive Therapy for Pain in a Ventilator Dependent Patient during Inpatient Rehabilitation for Spinal Cord Injury
by Amy J. Starosta, Katherine S. Wright, Charles H. Bombardier, Faran Kahlia, Jason Barber, Michelle C. Accardi-Ravid, Shelley A. Wiechman, Deborah A. Crane and Mark P. Jensen
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(13), 4539; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12134539 - 07 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1407
Abstract
Early, acute pain following spinal cord injury (SCI) is common, can negatively impact SCI rehabilitation, and is frequently not responsive to biomedical treatment. Nonpharmacological interventions show promise in reducing pain for individuals with SCI. However, most psychological interventions rely heavily on verbal interaction [...] Read more.
Early, acute pain following spinal cord injury (SCI) is common, can negatively impact SCI rehabilitation, and is frequently not responsive to biomedical treatment. Nonpharmacological interventions show promise in reducing pain for individuals with SCI. However, most psychological interventions rely heavily on verbal interaction between the individual being treated and the clinician, making them inaccessible for individuals with impaired verbal output due to mechanical ventilation. This case study aims to describe the adaptation and implementation of hypnotic cognitive therapy (HYP-CT) intervention for early SCI pain in the context of mechanical ventilation dependence and weaning. The participant was a 54-year-old male with C2 AIS A SCI requiring mechanical ventilation. Four sessions of HYP-CT were provided during inpatient rehabilitation with assessment prior to intervention, after the intervention sessions, and prior to discharge. The participant reported immediate reductions in pain intensity following each intervention session. Overall, he reported increases in self-efficacy and pain acceptance. He did not report any negative treatment effects and thought the intervention provided support during mechanical ventilation weaning. During treatment, he discontinued opioid pain medications and reported actively using intervention strategies. Our results support the potential for early, hypnotic cognitive therapy for individuals with SCI experiencing pain or distress while dependent on mechanical ventilation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spinal Cord Injuries: Advances in Rehabilitation)
18 pages, 4160 KiB  
Article
Potential Role of VHL, PTEN, and BAP1 Mutations in Renal Tumors
by Krisztián Szegedi, Zsuzsanna Szabó, Judit Kállai, József Király, Erzsébet Szabó, Zsuzsanna Bereczky, Éva Juhász, Balázs Dezső, Csaba Szász, Barbara Zsebik, Tibor Flaskó and Gábor Halmos
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(13), 4538; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12134538 - 07 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1245
Abstract
The genetic profiling of renal tumors has revealed genomic regions commonly affected by structural changes and a general genetic heterogeneity. The VHL, PTEN, and BAP1 genes are often mutated in renal tumors. The frequency and clinical relevance of these mutations in renal tumors [...] Read more.
The genetic profiling of renal tumors has revealed genomic regions commonly affected by structural changes and a general genetic heterogeneity. The VHL, PTEN, and BAP1 genes are often mutated in renal tumors. The frequency and clinical relevance of these mutations in renal tumors are still being researched. In our study, we investigated VHL, PTEN, and BAP1 genes and the sequencing of 24 samples of patients with renal tumors, revealing that VHL was mutated at a noticeable frequency (25%). Six of the investigated samples showed mutations, and one genetic polymorphism (rs779805) was detected in both heterozygote and homozygote forms. PTEN gene mutation was observed in only one sample, and one specimen showed genetic polymorphism. In the case of the BAP1 gene, all of the samples were wild types. Interestingly, VHL mutation was detected in two female patients diagnosed with AML and in one with oncocytoma. We assume that VHL or PTEN mutations may contribute to the development of human renal cancer. However, the overall mutation rate was low in all specimens investigated, and the development and prognosis of the disease were not exclusively associated with these types of genetic alterations. Full article
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24 pages, 989 KiB  
Review
Advances in PET/CT Imaging for Breast Cancer
by Dorine de Jong, Elise Desperito, Karine A. Al Feghali, Laurent Dercle, Romain-David Seban, Jeeban P. Das, Hong Ma, Abin Sajan, Brian Braumuller, Conor Prendergast, Connie Liou, Aileen Deng, Tina Roa, Randy Yeh, Antoine Girard, Mary M. Salvatore and Kathleen M. Capaccione
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(13), 4537; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12134537 - 07 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2119
Abstract
One out of eight women will be affected by breast cancer during her lifetime. Imaging plays a key role in breast cancer detection and management, providing physicians with information about tumor location, heterogeneity, and dissemination. In this review, we describe the latest advances [...] Read more.
One out of eight women will be affected by breast cancer during her lifetime. Imaging plays a key role in breast cancer detection and management, providing physicians with information about tumor location, heterogeneity, and dissemination. In this review, we describe the latest advances in PET/CT imaging of breast cancer, including novel applications of 18F-FDG PET/CT and the development and testing of new agents for primary and metastatic breast tumor imaging and therapy. Ultimately, these radiopharmaceuticals may guide personalized approaches to optimize treatment based on the patient’s specific tumor profile, and may become a new standard of care. In addition, they may enhance the assessment of treatment efficacy and lead to improved outcomes for patients with a breast cancer diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nuclear Medicine & Radiology)
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14 pages, 2641 KiB  
Article
Prediction of Posterior-to-Anterior Corneal Curvature Radii Ratio in Myopic Patients after LASIK, SMILE, and PRK Using Multivariate Regression Analysis
by David S. Cha, Majid Moshirfar, Michael S. Herron, Jordan M. Santos and Phillip C. Hoopes
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(13), 4536; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12134536 - 07 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1257
Abstract
The ratio of posterior-to-anterior curvature radii of the cornea (P/A ratio) is an important element in determining corneal refractive power. P/A ratio has been well studied in patients prior to undergoing refractive surgery, but its postoperative value remains less so. We aimed to [...] Read more.
The ratio of posterior-to-anterior curvature radii of the cornea (P/A ratio) is an important element in determining corneal refractive power. P/A ratio has been well studied in patients prior to undergoing refractive surgery, but its postoperative value remains less so. We aimed to examine the value of preoperative characteristics of refractive surgery patients in predicting the 1-year postoperative P/A ratio in LASIK, PRK, and SMILE using both linear and multivariate regression analyses. This was a retrospective study that included patients with manifest refraction spherical equivalents (MRSE) from −7.71D to −0.25D. In total, 164 eyes underwent LASIK, 183 underwent PRK, and 46 underwent SMILE. All patients had preoperative and 1-year postoperative front sagittal and back sagittal keratometry measurements at 4, 5, and 6 mm around the corneal vertex. Postoperative P/A after LASIK, PRK, and SMILE was found to be significantly correlated with MRSE and preoperative P/A. Stepwise variable selection in multivariate regression revealed that spherical equivalent was the most significant predictor of postoperative P/A. When coupled with other preoperative characteristics, including P/A, age, asphericity, and keratometry, the multivariate regressions were able to produce models with high predictive value in LASIK (adjusted R2: 0.957), PRK (adjusted R2: 0.934), and SMILE (adjusted R2: 0.894). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ophthalmology)
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13 pages, 2654 KiB  
Review
Clinical Network Systems Biology: Traversing the Cancer Multiverse
by Isa Mambetsariev, Jeremy Fricke, Stephen B. Gruber, Tingting Tan, Razmig Babikian, Pauline Kim, Priya Vishnubhotla, Jianjun Chen, Prakash Kulkarni and Ravi Salgia
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(13), 4535; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12134535 - 07 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2031
Abstract
In recent decades, cancer biology and medicine have ushered in a new age of precision medicine through high-throughput approaches that led to the development of novel targeted therapies and immunotherapies for different cancers. The availability of multifaceted high-throughput omics data has revealed that [...] Read more.
In recent decades, cancer biology and medicine have ushered in a new age of precision medicine through high-throughput approaches that led to the development of novel targeted therapies and immunotherapies for different cancers. The availability of multifaceted high-throughput omics data has revealed that cancer, beyond its genomic heterogeneity, is a complex system of microenvironments, sub-clonal tumor populations, and a variety of other cell types that impinge on the genetic and non-genetic mechanisms underlying the disease. Thus, a systems approach to cancer biology has become instrumental in identifying the key components of tumor initiation, progression, and the eventual emergence of drug resistance. Through the union of clinical medicine and basic sciences, there has been a revolution in the development and approval of cancer therapeutic drug options including tyrosine kinase inhibitors, antibody–drug conjugates, and immunotherapy. This ‘Team Medicine’ approach within the cancer systems biology framework can be further improved upon through the development of high-throughput clinical trial models that utilize machine learning models, rapid sample processing to grow patient tumor cell cultures, test multiple therapeutic options and assign appropriate therapy to individual patients quickly and efficiently. The integration of systems biology into the clinical network would allow for rapid advances in personalized medicine that are often hindered by a lack of drug development and drug testing. Full article
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11 pages, 2217 KiB  
Systematic Review
Rhythm vs. Rate Control in Patients with Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation after Cardiac Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Muneeb Ahmed, Emilie P. Belley-Coté, Yuan Qiu, Peter Belesiotis, Brendan Tao, Alex Wolf, Hargun Kaur, Alex Ibrahim, Jorge A. Wong, Michael K. Wang, Jeff S. Healey, David Conen, Philip James Devereaux, Richard P. Whitlock and William F. Mcintyre
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(13), 4534; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12134534 - 07 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1522
Abstract
Background: Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is the most common complication after cardiac surgery; it is associated with morbidity and mortality. We undertook this review to compare the effects of rhythm vs. rate control in this population. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase and CENTRAL [...] Read more.
Background: Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is the most common complication after cardiac surgery; it is associated with morbidity and mortality. We undertook this review to compare the effects of rhythm vs. rate control in this population. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase and CENTRAL to March 2023. We included randomized trials and observational studies comparing rhythm to rate control in cardiac surgery patients with POAF. We used a random-effects model to meta-analyze data and rated the quality of evidence using GRADE. Results: From 8,110 citations, we identified 8 randomized trials (990 patients). Drug regimens used for rhythm control included amiodarone in four trials, other class III anti-arrhythmics in one trial, class I anti-arrhythmics in four trials and either a class I or III anti-arrhythmic in one trial. Rhythm control compared to rate control did not result in a significant difference in length of stay (mean difference −0.8 days; 95% CI −3.0 to +1.4, I2 = 97%), AF recurrence within 1 week (130 events; risk ratio [RR] 1.1; 95%CI 0.6–1.9, I2 = 54%), AF recurrence up to 1 month (37 events; RR 0.9; 95%CI 0.5–1.8, I2 = 0%), AF recurrence up to 3 months (10 events; RR 1.0; 95%CI 0.3–3.4, I2 = 0%) or mortality (25 events; RR 1.6; 95%CI 0.7–3.5, I2 = 0%). Effect measures from seven observational studies (1428 patients) did not differ appreciably from those in randomized trials. Conclusions: Although atrial fibrillation is common after cardiac surgery, limited low-quality data guide its management. Limited available evidence suggests no clear advantage to either rhythm or rate control. A large-scale randomized trial is needed to inform this important clinical question. Full article
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20 pages, 1597 KiB  
Article
Intraspinal and Intracranial Neurotuberculosis, Clinical and Imaging Characteristics and Outcomes in Hospitalized Patients: A Cohort Study (2000–2022)
by Ana Luisa Corona-Nakamura, Martha Judith Arias-Merino, María Guadalupe Miranda-Novales, David Nava-Jiménez, Juan Antonio Delgado-Vázquez, Rafael Bustos-Mora, Aldo Guadalupe Cisneros-Aréchiga, José Francisco Aguayo-Villaseñor, Martha Rocio Hernández-Preciado and Mario Alberto Mireles-Ramírez
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(13), 4533; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12134533 - 06 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1050
Abstract
Neurotuberculosis (neuroTB) is a devastating disease, and is difficult to diagnose. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical and imaging characteristics, and outcomes of a retrospective cohort (2000–2022) of hospitalized patients diagnosed with intraspinal and intracranial neuroTB. This work was [...] Read more.
Neurotuberculosis (neuroTB) is a devastating disease, and is difficult to diagnose. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical and imaging characteristics, and outcomes of a retrospective cohort (2000–2022) of hospitalized patients diagnosed with intraspinal and intracranial neuroTB. This work was designed through clinical, laboratory and imaging findings. Variables included: demographic data, history of tuberculosis, neurological complications, comorbidities and outcomes. Morbi-mortality risk factors were identified by univariate analysis. The cohort included: 103 patients with intraspinal and 82 with intracranial neuroTB. During the study period, in-hospital mortality of 3% for intraspinal and 29.6% for intracranial neuroTB was estimated. Motor deficit was found in all patients with intraspinal neuroTB. Risk factors for the unfavorable outcome of patients with intraspinal neuroTB were: age ≥ 40 years, diabetes mellitus (DM), diagnostic delay, kyphosis and spondylodiscitis ≥ 3 levels of involvement. Among the patients with intracranial neuroTB, 79/82 (96.3%) had meningitis and 22 patients had HIV infection (10 of them died). Risk factors for mortality from intracranial neuroTB were: HIV infection, hydrocephalus, stroke, lymphopenia and disseminated and gastrointestinal TB. Patients with intraspinal neuroTB had a significant number of destroyed vertebrae that determined their neurological deficit status. The mortality burden in intracranial neuroTB was conditioned by HIV infection and renal transplantation patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Aspects of Infectious Diseases)
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3 pages, 192 KiB  
Editorial
The Role of Transoral Robotic Surgery in the Era of Hypoglossal Nerve Stimulation
by Luigi Marco Stringa, Claudio Vicini and Giovanni Cammaroto
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(13), 4532; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12134532 - 06 Jul 2023
Viewed by 636
Abstract
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a sleep-related breathing disorder characterized by repeated collapses of the upper airway walls, leading to a complete or partial reduction of airflow [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Otolaryngology)
13 pages, 1478 KiB  
Article
Endoscopic Transmural Therapy of Pancreatic Fistulas in an Interdisciplinary Setting—A Retrospective Data Analysis
by Clara Meierhofer, Reinhold Fuegger, Georg O. Spaun, Helwig Valentin Wundsam, Patrick Kirchweger, Matthias Biebl and Rainer Schoefl
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(13), 4531; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12134531 - 06 Jul 2023
Viewed by 3434
Abstract
Pancreatic fistulas belong to the most feared complications after surgery on or near the pancreas, abdominal trauma, or severe pancreatitis. The majority occur in the setting of operative interventions and are called postoperative pancreatic fistulas (POPF). They can lead to various complications, including [...] Read more.
Pancreatic fistulas belong to the most feared complications after surgery on or near the pancreas, abdominal trauma, or severe pancreatitis. The majority occur in the setting of operative interventions and are called postoperative pancreatic fistulas (POPF). They can lead to various complications, including abscesses, delayed gastric emptying or hemorrhages with a significant impact on morbidity and mortality. Several risk factors have been identified, including smoking, high BMI, male gender, and age. Prophylactic measures and treatment options have been explored but with limited success. This study aimed to analyze the incidence and management of pancreatic fistulas treated in a tertiary referral center, particularly focusing on an endoscopic approach. The data of 60 patients with clinically relevant pancreatic fistulas were analyzed between 2018 and 2021. Different treatment approaches, including conservative management, percutaneous drainage, transpapillary stenting, and endoscopic transmural drainage, were evaluated. An endoscopic transmural approach using lumen-apposing metal stents (LAMS) was used in almost half of this cohort showing promising results, with a high rate of fistula closure in refractory cases and a mean time until closure of 2.7 months. The findings suggest that an endoscopic approach, particularly using LAMS, can be effective in the management of pancreatic fistulas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Minimally Invasive Gastrointestinal Surgery)
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14 pages, 728 KiB  
Article
Association of ADP-Induced Whole-Blood Platelet Aggregation with Serum Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease When Receiving Maintenance Ticagrelor-Based Dual Antiplatelet Therapy
by Bernadeta Chyrchel, Olga Kruszelnicka, Ewa Wieczorek-Surdacka and Andrzej Surdacki
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(13), 4530; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12134530 - 06 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 998
Abstract
The degree of platelet inhibition in patients undergoing dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) affects cardiovascular outcomes after acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and/or percutaneous coronary intervention. Our aim was to search for correlates of residual ex vivo platelet reactivity and circulating soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin), an [...] Read more.
The degree of platelet inhibition in patients undergoing dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) affects cardiovascular outcomes after acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and/or percutaneous coronary intervention. Our aim was to search for correlates of residual ex vivo platelet reactivity and circulating soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin), an index of in vivo platelet activation, in patients being treated by DAPT with ticagrelor. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregability (by multiple electrode aggregometry) and plasma sP-selectin were estimated in 62 stable post-ACS subjects (46 men and 16 women; mean age: 64 ± 10 years; 30 with type 2 diabetes (T2DM)) undergoing maintenance DAPT with ticagrelor and aspirin. These patients did not exhibit heart failure or other relevant coexistent diseases except for properly controlled T2DM, mild renal insufficiency, and hypertension. We also assessed this in 64 subjects on clopidogrel-based DAPT matched for age, sex, and T2DM status. ADP-induced platelet aggregation was below the optimal levels (190–460 arbitrary units (AU) * min) in most patients receiving ticagrelor-based DAPT, especially in those with below-median (<1.9 mmol/L) serum concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) (128 ± 61 vs. 167 ± 73 AU * min for below-median and above-median LDL-c, respectively, p = 0.025). In contrast, platelet reactivity did not differ by LDL-c on clopidogrel-based DAPT (246 ± 101 vs. 268 ± 108 AU * min for below-median and above-median LDL-c, respectively, p > 0.4). Plasma sP-selectin was found to be unrelated to serum LDL-c when receiving DAPT with ticagrelor (p > 0.4) or clopidogrel (p > 0.8). In conclusion, our preliminary observational study suggests the association of lower residual ex vivo platelet aggregability with better LDL-c control in patients undergoing ticagrelor-based maintenance DAPT, which does not appear to be reflected by plasma sP-selectin. Whether the serum LDL-c level should be considered among the factors affecting the degree of platelet inhibition for those treated with ticagrelor-based DAPT needs to be investigated in larger studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Platelets and the Antiplatelet Drugs: From Bench to Bedside and Back)
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4 pages, 200 KiB  
Editorial
Bone Regeneration: Overview and Future Trends
by Nicola De Angelis, Francesco Bagnasco and Andrea Amaroli
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(13), 4529; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12134529 - 06 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 824
Abstract
It has been calculated that 8 [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dentistry, Oral Surgery and Oral Medicine)
11 pages, 483 KiB  
Article
Group-Based Trajectory Modelling of Changes in Mobility over Six Years in Type 2 Diabetes: The Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase II
by David G. Bruce, Wendy A. Davis and Timothy M. E. Davis
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(13), 4528; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12134528 - 06 Jul 2023
Viewed by 892
Abstract
To investigate temporal changes in mobility in community-based people with type 2 diabetes, Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase II (FDS2) data were analysed. The baseline assessment included the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, which was repeated biennially for up to six years. Group-based [...] Read more.
To investigate temporal changes in mobility in community-based people with type 2 diabetes, Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase II (FDS2) data were analysed. The baseline assessment included the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, which was repeated biennially for up to six years. Group-based trajectory modelling (GBTM) identified TUG trajectory groups in participants with ≥2 tests. Independent associates of group membership were assessed using multinomial regression. Of 1551 potential FDS2 participants, 1116 (72.0%; age 64.9 ± 11.0 years, 45.6% female) were included in the modelling. The best-fitting GBTM model identified two groups with linear, minimally changing trajectories (76.2% and 19.4% of participants; baseline TUG times 8 ± 2 and 12 ± 3 s, respectively), and a third (4.5%; baseline TUG 17 ± 5 s) with a TUG that increased over time then fell at Year 6, reflecting participant attrition. Both slower groups were older, more likely to be female, obese, and had greater diabetes-associated complications and comorbidities. Almost one-quarter of the FDS2 cohort had clinically relevant mobility impairment that persisted or worsened over six years, was multifactorial in origin, and was associated with excess late withdrawals and deaths. The TUG may have important clinical utility in assessing mobility and its consequences in adults with type 2 diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Endocrinology & Metabolism)
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29 pages, 2292 KiB  
Review
A JAK Inhibitor for Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis: The Baricitinib Experience
by Peter C. Taylor, Cedric Laedermann, Rieke Alten, Eugen Feist, Ernest Choy, Ewa Haladyj, Inmaculada De La Torre, Pascal Richette, Axel Finckh and Yoshiya Tanaka
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(13), 4527; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12134527 - 06 Jul 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4920
Abstract
Baricitinib, an oral selective Janus kinase (JAK)1/JAK2 inhibitor, is approved as monotherapy or in combination with methotrexate for treating adults with moderate-to-severe active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and provides improvements in clinical signs, symptoms and patient-reported outcomes. Currently, baricitinib is approved for treating RA [...] Read more.
Baricitinib, an oral selective Janus kinase (JAK)1/JAK2 inhibitor, is approved as monotherapy or in combination with methotrexate for treating adults with moderate-to-severe active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and provides improvements in clinical signs, symptoms and patient-reported outcomes. Currently, baricitinib is approved for treating RA in more than 75 countries. In several pivotal Phase II and III RA trials (RA-BALANCE, RA-BEGIN, RA-BEAM, RA-BUILD, RA-BEACON, RA-BEYOND), up to seven years of baricitinib treatment was well tolerated and provided rapid and sustained efficacy, which was confirmed in real-world settings. Safety signals for another JAK inhibitor, tofacitinib, have emerged, as observed in the post-marketing Phase IIIb/IV trial Oral Rheumatoid Arthritis Trial (ORAL) Surveillance; safety signals were subsequently highlighted in a retrospective study of baricitinib and consequently new recommendations and warnings and precautions for all JAK inhibitors have been issued. Ongoing studies to further characterise and clarify the benefit:risk of JAK inhibitors include registries and controlled trials. This capstone review summarises clinical and real-world data outlining the benefit:risk profile of baricitinib, confirming that the improved disease activity and physical function of patients with RA treated with this JAK inhibitor observed in clinical trials is translated into effectiveness in clinical practice, with a low rate of discontinuations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rheumatoid Arthritis: Current Treatment and Future Options)
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10 pages, 1230 KiB  
Article
Effects of Fremanezumab on Psychiatric Comorbidities in Difficult-to-Treat Patients with Chronic Migraine: Post Hoc Analysis of a Prospective, Multicenter, Real-World Greek Registry
by Michail Vikelis, Emmanouil V. Dermitzakis, Georgia Xiromerisiou, Dimitrios Rallis, Panagiotis Soldatos, Pantelis Litsardopoulos, Dimitrios Rikos and Andreas A. Argyriou
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(13), 4526; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12134526 - 06 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1320
Abstract
Objective: this post hoc analysis aimed to evaluate the efficacy of fremanezumab in difficult-to-treat chronic migraine (CM) patients with and without psychiatric comorbidities (PCs), mainly anxiety and/or depression. Methods: We assessed data from CM patients with and without PCs who failed at least [...] Read more.
Objective: this post hoc analysis aimed to evaluate the efficacy of fremanezumab in difficult-to-treat chronic migraine (CM) patients with and without psychiatric comorbidities (PCs), mainly anxiety and/or depression. Methods: We assessed data from CM patients with and without PCs who failed at least 3 preventives and eventually received at least 3 consecutive monthly doses of fremanezumab 225 mg. Outcomes included the crude response (≥50% reduction in monthly headache days (MHDs)) rates to fremanezumab from the baseline to the last clinical follow-up. The changes in MHDs; MHDs of moderate/greater severity; monthly days with intake of abortive medication; and the proportion of patients’ changing status from with PCs to decreased/without PCs were also compared. Disability and quality of life (QOL) outcomes were also assessed. Results: Of 107 patients enrolled, 65 (60.7%) had baseline PCs. The percentage of patients with (n = 38/65; 58.5%) and without (n = 28/42; 66.6%) PCs that achieved a ≥50% reduction in MHDs with fremanezumab was comparable (p = 0.41), whereas MHDs were significantly reduced (difference vs. baseline) in both patients with PCs (mean −8.9 (standard error: 6.8); p < 0.001) and without PCs (−9.8 (7.5); p < 0.001). Both groups experienced significant improvements in all other efficacy, disability, and QOL outcomes at comparable rates, including in MHD reduction. A significant proportion of fremanezumab-treated patients with baseline PCs de-escalated in corresponding severities or even reverted to no PCs (28/65; 43.1%) post-fremanezumab. Conclusions: fremanezumab appears to be effective as a preventive treatment in difficult-to-treat CM patients with and without PCs while also being beneficial in reducing the severity of comorbid anxiety and/or depression. Full article
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