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Membranes, Volume 6, Issue 1 (March 2016) – 20 articles

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572 KiB  
Article
Computational Investigation of the Effect of Lipid Membranes on Ion Permeation in Gramicidin A
by Jeffry Setiadi and Serdar Kuyucak
Membranes 2016, 6(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes6010020 - 18 Mar 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4870
Abstract
Membrane proteins are embedded in a lipid bilayer and interact with the lipid molecules in subtle ways. This can be studied experimentally by examining the effect of different lipid bilayers on the function of membrane proteins. Understanding the causes of the functional effects [...] Read more.
Membrane proteins are embedded in a lipid bilayer and interact with the lipid molecules in subtle ways. This can be studied experimentally by examining the effect of different lipid bilayers on the function of membrane proteins. Understanding the causes of the functional effects of lipids is difficult to dissect experimentally but more amenable to a computational approach. Here we perform molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations to study the effect of two lipid types (POPC and NODS) on the conductance of the gramicidin A (gA) channel. A larger energy barrier is found for the K+ potential of mean force in gA embedded in POPC compared to that in NODS, which is consistent with the enhanced experimental conductance of cations in gA embedded in NODS. Further analysis of the contributions to the potential energy of K+ reveals that gA and water molecules in gA make similar contributions in both bilayers but there are significant differences between the two bilayers when the lipid molecules and interfacial waters are considered. It is shown that the stronger dipole moments of the POPC head groups create a thicker layer of interfacial waters with better orientation, which ultimately is responsible for the larger energy barrier in the K+ PMF in POPC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membranes and Ion Channels)
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2643 KiB  
Article
Polishing Step Purification of High-Strength Wastewaters by Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis
by Jinxiang Zhou, Brian O. Baker, Charles T. Grimsley and Scott M. Husson
Membranes 2016, 6(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes6010019 - 10 Mar 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 6677
Abstract
This article reports findings on the use of nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) for secondary treatment of high-strength rendering facility wastewaters following an ultrafiltration step. These wastewaters present significant challenges to classical treatment technologies. Constant-pressure, direct-flow membrane filtration experiments were done to [...] Read more.
This article reports findings on the use of nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) for secondary treatment of high-strength rendering facility wastewaters following an ultrafiltration step. These wastewaters present significant challenges to classical treatment technologies. Constant-pressure, direct-flow membrane filtration experiments were done to screen for flux and effluent water permeate quality of ten commercial NF and RO membranes. All membranes tested were effective in reducing total dissolved salts (TDS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD); however, only two membranes (Koch MPF-34 and Toray 70UB) gave sufficiently stable flux values to warrant longer term cross-flow filtration studies. Cross-flow flux measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) indicated that both membranes were eventually fouled by organic and inorganic foulants; however, the Toray 70UB RO membrane yielded a capacity of 1600 L/m2 prior to cleaning. A preliminary economic analysis compared the estimated costs of energy and consumables for a dual-stage UF/RO membrane process and dissolved air floatation (DAF) and found membrane process costs could be less than about 40% of the current DAF process. Full article
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2272 KiB  
Article
Hybrid Processes Combining Photocatalysis and Ceramic Membrane Filtration for Degradation of Humic Acids in Saline Water
by Lili Song, Bo Zhu, Stephen Gray, Mikel Duke and Shobha Muthukumaran
Membranes 2016, 6(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes6010018 - 01 Mar 2016
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 7578
Abstract
This study explored the combined effects of photocatalysis with ceramic membrane filtration for the removal of humic acid in the presence of salt; to simulate saline wastewater conditions. The effects of operating parameters, such as salinity and TiO2 concentration on permeate fluxes, [...] Read more.
This study explored the combined effects of photocatalysis with ceramic membrane filtration for the removal of humic acid in the presence of salt; to simulate saline wastewater conditions. The effects of operating parameters, such as salinity and TiO2 concentration on permeate fluxes, total organic carbon (TOC), and UV absorbance removal, were investigated. The interaction between the humic acids and TiO2 photocatalyst played an important role in the observed flux change during ceramic membrane filtration. The results for this hybrid system showed that the TOC removal was more than 70% for both without NaCl and with the 500 ppm NaCl concentration, and 62% and 66% for 1000 and 2000 ppm NaCl concentrations. The reduction in UV absorbance was more complete in the absence of NaCl compared to the presence of NaCl. The operation of the integrated photoreactor-ceramic membrane filter over five repeat cycles is described. It can be concluded that the overall removal performance of the hybrid system was influenced by the presence of salts, as salt leads to agglomeration of TiO2 particles by suppressing the stabilising effects of electrostatic repulsion and thereby reduces the effective surface contact between the pollutant and the photocatalyst. Full article
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8549 KiB  
Review
Hybrid and Mixed Matrix Membranes for Separations from Fermentations
by Christopher John Davey, David Leak and Darrell Alec Patterson
Membranes 2016, 6(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes6010017 - 29 Feb 2016
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 11815
Abstract
Fermentations provide an alternative to fossil fuels for accessing a number of biofuel and chemical products from a variety of renewable and waste substrates. The recovery of these dilute fermentation products from the broth, however, can be incredibly energy intensive as a distillation [...] Read more.
Fermentations provide an alternative to fossil fuels for accessing a number of biofuel and chemical products from a variety of renewable and waste substrates. The recovery of these dilute fermentation products from the broth, however, can be incredibly energy intensive as a distillation process is generally involved and creates a barrier to commercialization. Membrane processes can provide a low energy aid/alternative for recovering these dilute fermentation products and reduce production costs. For these types of separations many current polymeric and inorganic membranes suffer from poor selectivity and high cost respectively. This paper reviews work in the production of novel mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) for fermentative separations and those applicable to these separations. These membranes combine a trade-off of low-cost and processability of polymer membranes with the high selectivity of inorganic membranes. Work within the fields of nanofiltration, reverse osmosis and pervaporation has been discussed. The review shows that MMMs are currently providing some of the most high-performing membranes for these separations, with three areas for improvement identified: Further characterization and optimization of inorganic phase(s), Greater understanding of the compatibility between the polymer and inorganic phase(s), Improved methods for homogeneously dispersing the inorganic phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Developments in Hybrid and Mixed Matrix Membranes)
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1881 KiB  
Article
Detailed Investigation of Separation Performance of a MMM for Removal of Higher Hydrocarbons under Varying Operating Conditions
by Heike Mushardt, Marcus Müller, Sergey Shishatskiy, Jan Wind and Torsten Brinkmann
Membranes 2016, 6(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes6010016 - 25 Feb 2016
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 6298
Abstract
Mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) are promising candidates to improve the competitiveness of membrane technology against energy-intensive conventional technologies. In this work, MMM composed of poly(octylmethylsiloxane) (POMS) and activated carbon (AC) were investigated with respect to separation of higher hydrocarbons (C3+) from permanent [...] Read more.
Mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) are promising candidates to improve the competitiveness of membrane technology against energy-intensive conventional technologies. In this work, MMM composed of poly(octylmethylsiloxane) (POMS) and activated carbon (AC) were investigated with respect to separation of higher hydrocarbons (C3+) from permanent gas streams. Membranes were prepared as thin film composite membranes on a technical scale and characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and permeation measurements with binary mixtures of n-C4H10/CH4 under varying operating conditions (feed and permeate pressure, temperature, feed gas composition) to study the influence on separation performance. SEM showed good contact and absence of defects. Lower permeances but higher selectivities were found for MMM compared to pure POMS membrane. Best results were obtained at high average fugacity and activity of n-C4H10 with the highest selectivity estimated to be 36.4 at n-C4H10 permeance of 12 mN3/(m2·h·bar). Results were complemented by permeation of a multi-component mixture resembling a natural gas application, demonstrating the superior performance of MMM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Developments in Hybrid and Mixed Matrix Membranes)
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1863 KiB  
Article
Cholesterol Promotes Interaction of the Protein CLIC1 with Phospholipid Monolayers at the Air–Water Interface
by Khondker R. Hossain, Heba Al Khamici, Stephen A. Holt and Stella M. Valenzuela
Membranes 2016, 6(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes6010015 - 11 Feb 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5871
Abstract
CLIC1 is a Chloride Intracellular Ion Channel protein that exists either in a soluble state in the cytoplasm or as a membrane bound protein. Members of the CLIC family are largely soluble proteins that possess the intriguing property of spontaneous insertion into phospholipid [...] Read more.
CLIC1 is a Chloride Intracellular Ion Channel protein that exists either in a soluble state in the cytoplasm or as a membrane bound protein. Members of the CLIC family are largely soluble proteins that possess the intriguing property of spontaneous insertion into phospholipid bilayers to form integral membrane ion channels. The regulatory role of cholesterol in the ion-channel activity of CLIC1 in tethered lipid bilayers was previously assessed using impedance spectroscopy. Here we extend this investigation by evaluating the influence of cholesterol on the spontaneous membrane insertion of CLIC1 into Langmuir film monolayers prepared using 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine alone or in combination with cholesterol. The spontaneous membrane insertion of CLIC1 was shown to be dependent on the presence of cholesterol in the membrane. Furthermore, pre-incubation of CLIC1 with cholesterol prior to its addition to the Langmuir film, showed no membrane insertion even in monolayers containing cholesterol, suggesting the formation of a CLIC1-cholesterol pre-complex. Our results therefore suggest that CLIC1 membrane interaction involves CLIC1 binding to cholesterol located in the membrane for its initial docking followed by insertion. Subsequent structural rearrangements of the protein would likely also be required along with oligomerisation to form functional ion channels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membranes and Ion Channels)
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2313 KiB  
Article
Influence of Global and Local Membrane Curvature on Mechanosensitive Ion Channels: A Finite Element Approach
by Omid Bavi, Charles D. Cox, Manouchehr Vossoughi, Reza Naghdabadi, Yousef Jamali and Boris Martinac
Membranes 2016, 6(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes6010014 - 05 Feb 2016
Cited by 52 | Viewed by 9872
Abstract
Mechanosensitive (MS) channels are ubiquitous molecular force sensors that respond to a number of different mechanical stimuli including tensile, compressive and shear stress. MS channels are also proposed to be molecular curvature sensors gating in response to bending in their local environment. One [...] Read more.
Mechanosensitive (MS) channels are ubiquitous molecular force sensors that respond to a number of different mechanical stimuli including tensile, compressive and shear stress. MS channels are also proposed to be molecular curvature sensors gating in response to bending in their local environment. One of the main mechanisms to functionally study these channels is the patch clamp technique. However, the patch of membrane surveyed using this methodology is far from physiological. Here we use continuum mechanics to probe the question of how curvature, in a standard patch clamp experiment, at different length scales (global and local) affects a model MS channel. Firstly, to increase the accuracy of the Laplace’s equation in tension estimation in a patch membrane and to be able to more precisely describe the transient phenomena happening during patch clamping, we propose a modified Laplace’s equation. Most importantly, we unambiguously show that the global curvature of a patch, which is visible under the microscope during patch clamp experiments, is of negligible energetic consequence for activation of an MS channel in a model membrane. However, the local curvature (RL < 50) and the direction of bending are able to cause considerable changes in the stress distribution through the thickness of the membrane. Not only does local bending, in the order of physiologically relevant curvatures, cause a substantial change in the pressure profile but it also significantly modifies the stress distribution in response to force application. Understanding these stress variations in regions of high local bending is essential for a complete understanding of the effects of curvature on MS channels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membranes and Ion Channels)
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689 KiB  
Review
Aspects of Mathematical Modelling of Pressure Retarded Osmosis
by Yuri G. Anissimov
Membranes 2016, 6(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes6010013 - 03 Feb 2016
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 6735
Abstract
In power generating terms, a pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) energy generating plant, on a river entering a sea or ocean, is equivalent to a hydroelectric dam with a height of about 60 meters. Therefore, PRO can add significantly to existing renewable power generation [...] Read more.
In power generating terms, a pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) energy generating plant, on a river entering a sea or ocean, is equivalent to a hydroelectric dam with a height of about 60 meters. Therefore, PRO can add significantly to existing renewable power generation capacity if economical constrains of the method are resolved. PRO energy generation relies on a semipermeable membrane that is permeable to water and impermeable to salt. Mathematical modelling plays an important part in understanding flows of water and salt near and across semipermeable membranes and helps to optimize PRO energy generation. Therefore, the modelling can help realizing PRO energy generation potential. In this work, a few aspects of mathematical modelling of the PRO process are reviewed and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forward Osmosis/Pressure Retarded Osmosis)
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2047 KiB  
Article
Proton Conductivity of Nafion/Ex-Situ Sulfonic Acid-Modified Stöber Silica Nanocomposite Membranes As a Function of Temperature, Silica Particles Size and Surface Modification
by Beatrice Muriithi and Douglas A. Loy
Membranes 2016, 6(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes6010012 - 28 Jan 2016
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 7969
Abstract
The introduction of sulfonic acid modified silica in Nafion nanocomposite membranes is a good method of improving the Nafion performance at high temperature and low relative humidity. Sulfonic acid-modified silica is bifunctional, with silica phase expected to offer an improvement in membranes hydration [...] Read more.
The introduction of sulfonic acid modified silica in Nafion nanocomposite membranes is a good method of improving the Nafion performance at high temperature and low relative humidity. Sulfonic acid-modified silica is bifunctional, with silica phase expected to offer an improvement in membranes hydration while sulfonic groups enhance proton conductivity. However, as discussed in this paper, this may not always be the case. Proton conductivity enhancement of Nafion nanocomposite membranes is very dependent on silica particle size, sometimes depending on experimental conditions, and by surface modification. In this study, Sulfonated Preconcentrated Nafion Stober Silica composites (SPNSS) were prepared by modification of Stober silica particles with mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane, dispersing the particles into a preconcentrated solution of Nafion, then casting the membranes. The mercapto groups were oxidized to sulfonic acids by heating the membranes in 10 wt % hydrogen peroxide for 1 h. At 80 °C and 100% relative humidity, a 20%–30% enhancement of proton conductivity was only observed when sulfonic acid modified particle less than 50 nm in diameter were used. At 120 °C, and 100% humidity, proton conductivity increased by 22%–42% with sulfonated particles with small particles showing the greatest enhancement. At 120 °C and 50% humidity, the sulfonated particles are less efficient at keeping the membranes hydrated, and the composites underperform Nafion and silica-Nafion nanocomposite membranes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Developments in Hybrid and Mixed Matrix Membranes)
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5544 KiB  
Article
Ling’s Adsorption Theory as a Mechanism of Membrane Potential Generation Observed in Both Living and Nonliving Systems
by Hirohisa Tamagawa, Makoto Funatani and Kota Ikeda
Membranes 2016, 6(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes6010011 - 26 Jan 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 7534
Abstract
The potential between two electrolytic solutions separated by a membrane impermeable to ions was measured and the generation mechanism of potential measured was investigated. From the physiological point of view, a nonzero membrane potential or action potential cannot be observed across the impermeable [...] Read more.
The potential between two electrolytic solutions separated by a membrane impermeable to ions was measured and the generation mechanism of potential measured was investigated. From the physiological point of view, a nonzero membrane potential or action potential cannot be observed across the impermeable membrane. However, a nonzero membrane potential including action potential-like potential was clearly observed. Those observations gave rise to a doubt concerning the validity of currently accepted generation mechanism of membrane potential and action potential of cell. As an alternative theory, we found that the long-forgotten Ling’s adsorption theory was the most plausible theory. Ling’s adsorption theory suggests that the membrane potential and action potential of a living cell is due to the adsorption of mobile ions onto the adsorption site of cell, and this theory is applicable even to nonliving (or non-biological) system as well as living system. Through this paper, the authors emphasize that it is necessary to reconsider the validity of current membrane theory and also would like to urge the readers to pay keen attention to the Ling’s adsorption theory which has for long years been forgotten in the history of physiology. Full article
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154 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Membranes in 2015
by Membranes Editorial Office
Membranes 2016, 6(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes6010010 - 25 Jan 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3063
Abstract
The editors of Membranes would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2015. [...] Full article
1896 KiB  
Article
Clarification of Orange Press Liquors by PVDF Hollow Fiber Membranes
by Silvia Simone, Carmela Conidi, Claudia Ursino, Alfredo Cassano and Alberto Figoli
Membranes 2016, 6(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes6010009 - 20 Jan 2016
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 6049
Abstract
Press liquors are typical by-products of the citrus juice processing characterized by a high content of organic compounds and associated problems of environmental impact, which imply high treatment costs. However, these wastes contain a great number of health promoting substances, including fibers, carotenoids [...] Read more.
Press liquors are typical by-products of the citrus juice processing characterized by a high content of organic compounds and associated problems of environmental impact, which imply high treatment costs. However, these wastes contain a great number of health promoting substances, including fibers, carotenoids and phenolic compounds (mainly flavonoids), whose recovery against waste-destruction technologies is very attractive for new business opportunities. In this work, the clarification of orange press liquor by using microfiltration (MF) membranes is studied as a preliminary step to obtain a permeate stream enriched in antioxidant compounds which can be further processed to produce extracts of nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical interest. MF poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) hollow fibers were prepared by the dry/wet spinning technique. A series of fibers was produced from the same polymeric dope, in order to investigate the effect of selected spinning parameters, i.e., bore fluid composition and flowrate, on their properties. The morphology of the produced fibers was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Fibers were further characterized for their mechanical properties, porosity, bubble point, pore size distribution and pure water permeability (PWP). Some of the produced fibers exhibited high permeability (pure water permeability ~530 L/m2·h·bar), coupled to good mechanical resistance and pore size in the range of MF membranes. These fibers were selected and used for the clarification of press liquor from orange peel processing. In optimized operating conditions, the selected fibers produced steady-state fluxes of about 41 L/m2·h with rejections towards polyphenols and total antioxidant activity of 4.1% and 1.4%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membranes for Environmental Applications)
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1929 KiB  
Article
Lamina Associated Polypeptide 1 (LAP1) Interactome and Its Functional Features
by Joana B. Serrano, Odete A. B. Da Cruz e Silva and Sandra Rebelo
Membranes 2016, 6(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes6010008 - 15 Jan 2016
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 7693
Abstract
Lamina-associated polypeptide 1 (LAP1) is a type II transmembrane protein of the inner nuclear membrane encoded by the human gene TOR1AIP1. LAP1 is involved in maintaining the nuclear envelope structure and appears be involved in the positioning of lamins and chromatin. To [...] Read more.
Lamina-associated polypeptide 1 (LAP1) is a type II transmembrane protein of the inner nuclear membrane encoded by the human gene TOR1AIP1. LAP1 is involved in maintaining the nuclear envelope structure and appears be involved in the positioning of lamins and chromatin. To date, LAP1’s precise function has not been fully elucidated but analysis of its interacting proteins will permit unraveling putative associations to specific cellular pathways and cellular processes. By assessing public databases it was possible to identify the LAP1 interactome, and this was curated. In total, 41 interactions were identified. Several functionally relevant proteins, such as TRF2, TERF2IP, RIF1, ATM, MAD2L1 and MAD2L1BP were identified and these support the putative functions proposed for LAP1. Furthermore, by making use of the Ingenuity Pathways Analysis tool and submitting the LAP1 interactors, the top two canonical pathways were “Telomerase signalling” and “Telomere Extension by Telomerase” and the top functions “Cell Morphology”, “Cellular Assembly and Organization” and “DNA Replication, Recombination, and Repair”. Once again, putative LAP1 functions are reinforced but novel functions are emerging. Full article
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1376 KiB  
Article
Treatment of the Bleaching Effluent from Sulfite Pulp Production by Ceramic Membrane Filtration
by Mehrdad Ebrahimi, Nadine Busse, Steffen Kerker, Oliver Schmitz, Markus Hilpert and Peter Czermak
Membranes 2016, 6(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes6010007 - 31 Dec 2015
Cited by 43 | Viewed by 9467
Abstract
Pulp and paper waste water is one of the major sources of industrial water pollution. This study tested the suitability of ceramic tubular membrane technology as an alternative to conventional waste water treatment in the pulp and paper industry. In this context, in [...] Read more.
Pulp and paper waste water is one of the major sources of industrial water pollution. This study tested the suitability of ceramic tubular membrane technology as an alternative to conventional waste water treatment in the pulp and paper industry. In this context, in series batch and semi-batch membrane processes comprising microfiltration, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration, ceramic membranes were developed to reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and remove residual lignin from the effluent flow during sulfite pulp production. A comparison of the ceramic membranes in terms of separation efficiency and performance revealed that the two-stage process configuration with microfiltration followed by ultrafiltration was most suitable for the efficient treatment of the alkaline bleaching effluent tested herein, reducing the COD concentration and residual lignin levels by more than 35% and 70%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membranes for Environmental Applications)
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17231 KiB  
Article
Analytical and Finite Element Modeling of Nanomembranes for Miniaturized, Continuous Hemodialysis
by Tucker Burgin, Dean Johnson, Henry Chung, Alfred Clark and James McGrath
Membranes 2016, 6(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes6010006 - 31 Dec 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 6106
Abstract
Hemodialysis involves large, periodic treatment doses using large-area membranes. If the permeability of dialysis membranes could be increased, it would reduce the necessary dialyzer size and could enable a wearable device that administers a continuous, low dose treatment of chronic kidney disease. This [...] Read more.
Hemodialysis involves large, periodic treatment doses using large-area membranes. If the permeability of dialysis membranes could be increased, it would reduce the necessary dialyzer size and could enable a wearable device that administers a continuous, low dose treatment of chronic kidney disease. This paper explores the application of ultrathin silicon membranes to this purpose, by way of analytical and finite element models of diffusive and convective transport of plasma solutes during hemodialysis, which we show to be predictive of experimental results. A proof-of-concept miniature nanomembrane dialyzer design is then proposed and analytically predicted to clear uremic toxins at near-ideal levels, as measured by several markers of dialysis adequacy. This work suggests the feasibility of miniature nanomembrane-based dialyzers that achieve therapeutic levels of uremic toxin clearance for patients with kidney failure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membranes in Medicine and Biology)
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1358 KiB  
Article
YSZ-Reinforced Alumina Multi-Channel Capillary Membranes for Micro-Filtration
by Bo Wang, Melanie Lee and Kang Li
Membranes 2016, 6(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes6010005 - 30 Dec 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 6113
Abstract
The combined phase-inversion and sintering method not only produces ceramic hollow fibre membranes with much lower fabrication costs than conventional methods, but these membranes can also be designed to have greatly reduced transport resistances for filtration processes. The bottleneck of this technique is [...] Read more.
The combined phase-inversion and sintering method not only produces ceramic hollow fibre membranes with much lower fabrication costs than conventional methods, but these membranes can also be designed to have greatly reduced transport resistances for filtration processes. The bottleneck of this technique is the weak mechanical property of the fibres, due to the small dimensions and the brittle nature of the ceramic materials. In this study, yttrium stabilised zirconia (YSZ) reinforced alumina seven-channel capillary microfiltration membranes were prepared with a pore size of ~230 nm and their mechanical property and permeation characteristics were studied. It is found that the addition of YSZ can effectively enhance the mechanical property of the membrane and also increase pure water permeation flux. The Al2O3-YSZ seven-channel capillary membranes could reach a fracture load of 23.4 N and a bending extension of 0.54 mm when being tested with a 6 cm span, to meet the requirements for most industrial microfiltration applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membranes for Environmental Applications)
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2222 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Microporous Polymeric Support Modification on Surface and Gas Transport Properties of Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes
by Alsu A. Akhmetshina, Ilsiya M. Davletbaeva, Ekaterina S. Grebenschikova, Tatyana S. Sazanova, Anton N. Petukhov, Artem A. Atlaskin, Evgeny N. Razov, Ilnaz I. Zaripov, Carla F. Martins, Luísa A. Neves and Ilya V. Vorotyntsev
Membranes 2016, 6(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes6010004 - 30 Dec 2015
Cited by 40 | Viewed by 7123
Abstract
Microporous polymers based on anionic macroinitiator and toluene 2,4-diisocyanate were used as a support for 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6]) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([emim][Tf2N]) immobilization. The polymeric support was modified by using silica particles associated in oligomeric media, and the influence [...] Read more.
Microporous polymers based on anionic macroinitiator and toluene 2,4-diisocyanate were used as a support for 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6]) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([emim][Tf2N]) immobilization. The polymeric support was modified by using silica particles associated in oligomeric media, and the influence of the modifier used on the polymeric structure was studied. The supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs) were tested for He, N2, NH3, H2S, and CO2 gas separation and ideal selectivities were calculated. The high values of ideal selectivity for ammonia-based systems with permanent gases were observed on polymer matrixes immobilized with [bmim][PF6] and [emim][Tf2N]. The modification of SILMs by nanosize silica particles leads to an increase of NH3 separation relatively to CO2 or H2S. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membranes for Environmental Applications)
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4841 KiB  
Article
Economic Evaluation of a Hybrid Desalination System Combining Forward and Reverse Osmosis
by Yongjun Choi, Hyeongrak Cho, Yonghyun Shin, Yongsun Jang and Sangho Lee
Membranes 2016, 6(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes6010003 - 29 Dec 2015
Cited by 46 | Viewed by 7026
Abstract
This study seeks to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of the forward osmosis (FO)–reverse osmosis (RO) hybrid process; to propose a guideline by which this hybrid process might be more price-competitive in the field. A solution-diffusion model modified with film theory was [...] Read more.
This study seeks to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of the forward osmosis (FO)–reverse osmosis (RO) hybrid process; to propose a guideline by which this hybrid process might be more price-competitive in the field. A solution-diffusion model modified with film theory was applied to analyze the effects of concentration polarization, water, and salt transport coefficient on flux, recovery, seawater concentration, and treated wastewater of the FO process of an FO-RO hybrid system. A simple cost model was applied to analyze the effects of flux; recovery of the FO process; energy; and membrane cost on the FO-RO hybrid process. The simulation results showed that the water transport coefficient and internal concentration polarization resistance are very important factors that affect performance in the FO process; however; the effect of the salt transport coefficient does not seem to be large. It was also found that the flux and recovery of the FO process, the FO membrane, and the electricity cost are very important factors that influence the water cost of an FO-RO hybrid system. This hybrid system can be price-competitive with RO systems when its recovery rate is very high, the flux and the membrane cost of the FO are similar to those of the RO, and the electricity cost is expensive. The most important thing in commercializing the FO process is enhancing performance (e.g.; flux and the recovery of FO membranes). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forward Osmosis/Pressure Retarded Osmosis)
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1424 KiB  
Article
Polymer-Induced Swelling of Solid-Supported Lipid Membranes
by Martin Kreuzer, Marcus Trapp, Reiner Dahint and Roland Steitz
Membranes 2016, 6(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes6010002 - 23 Dec 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 5706
Abstract
In this paper, we study the interaction of charged polymers with solid-supported 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) membranes by in-situ neutron reflectivity. We observe an enormous swelling of the oligolamellar lipid bilayer stacks after incubation in solutions of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) in D2O. The [...] Read more.
In this paper, we study the interaction of charged polymers with solid-supported 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) membranes by in-situ neutron reflectivity. We observe an enormous swelling of the oligolamellar lipid bilayer stacks after incubation in solutions of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) in D2O. The positively charged polyelectrolyte molecules interact with the lipid bilayers and induce a drastic increase in their d-spacing by a factor of ~4. Temperature, time, and pH influence the swollen interfacial lipid linings. From our study, we conclude that electrostatic interactions introduced by the adsorbed PAH are the main cause for the drastic swelling of the lipid coatings. The DMPC membrane stacks do not detach from their solid support at T > Tm. Steric interactions, also introduced by the PAH molecules, are held responsible for the stabilizing effect. We believe that this novel system offers great potential for fundamental studies of biomembrane properties, keeping the membrane’s natural fluidity and freedom, decoupled from a solid support at physiological conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Structure and Dynamics)
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Article
Crosslinked PEG and PEBAX Membranes for Concurrent Permeation of Water and Carbon Dioxide
by Colin A. Scholes, George Q. Chen, Hiep T. Lu and Sandra E. Kentish
Membranes 2016, 6(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes6010001 - 23 Dec 2015
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 6947
Abstract
Membrane technology can be used for both post combustion carbon dioxide capture and acidic gas sweetening and dehydration of natural gas. These processes are especially suited for polymeric membranes with polyether functionality, because of the high affinity of this species for both H [...] Read more.
Membrane technology can be used for both post combustion carbon dioxide capture and acidic gas sweetening and dehydration of natural gas. These processes are especially suited for polymeric membranes with polyether functionality, because of the high affinity of this species for both H2O and CO2. Here, both crosslinked polyethylene glycol diacrylate and a polyether-polyamide block copolymer (PEBAX 2533©) are studied for their ability to separate CO2 from CH4 and N2 under single and mixed gas conditions, for both dry and wet feeds, as well as when 500 ppm H2S is present. The solubility of gases within these polymers is shown to be better correlated with the Lennard Jones well depth than with critical temperature. Under dry mixed gas conditions, CO2 permeability is reduced compared to the single gas measurement because of competitive sorption from CH4 or N2. However, selectivity for CO2 is retained in both polymers. The presence of water in the feed is observed to swell the PEG membrane resulting in a significant increase in CO2 permeability relative to the dry gas scenario. Importantly, the selectivity is again retained under wet feed gas conditions. The presence of H2S is observed to only slightly reduce CO2 permeability through both membranes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membranes for Environmental Applications)
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