Next Issue
Volume 11, March
Previous Issue
Volume 11, January
 
 

Vaccines, Volume 11, Issue 2 (February 2023) – 295 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Genetic factors’ role in modulating the response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is currently being extensively studied. Nevertheless, the host genetic determinants of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine effectiveness appear largely unexplored. The epidemiology of infectious diseases have demonstrated that multiple host- and vaccine-specific factors modify the individual response. Studies on vaccine responses to many viral infections have highlighted the role of polymorphisms of key genes regulating the innate and adaptive immunity. Instead, studies on immunogenetics of anti SARS-CoV2 vaccination are still scarce. This Vaccines issue publishes research on the role that genetic variants of the cytokine network might play in regulating the immune-response induced by the mRNA-based anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
16 pages, 364 KiB  
Review
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection: Treatments and Clinical Management
by Shiza Malik, Tahir Ahmad, Khalid Muhammad and Yasir Waheed
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 491; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020491 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2826
Abstract
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major healthcare concern, especially for immune-compromised individuals and infants below 5 years of age. Worldwide, it is known to be associated with incidences of morbidity and mortality in infants. Despite the seriousness of the issue and continuous [...] Read more.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major healthcare concern, especially for immune-compromised individuals and infants below 5 years of age. Worldwide, it is known to be associated with incidences of morbidity and mortality in infants. Despite the seriousness of the issue and continuous rigorous scientific efforts, no approved vaccine or available drug is fully effective against RSV. The purpose of this review article is to provide insights into the past and ongoing efforts for securing effective vaccines and therapeutics against RSV. The readers will be able to confer the mechanism of existing therapies and the loopholes that need to be overcome for future therapeutic development against RSV. A methodological approach was applied to collect the latest data and updated results regarding therapeutics and vaccine development against RSV. We outline the latest throughput vaccination technologies and prophylactic development efforts linked with RSV. A range of vaccination approaches with the already available vaccine (with limited use) and those undergoing trials are included. Moreover, important drug regimens used alone or in conjugation with adjuvants or vaccines are also briefly discussed. After reading this article, the audience will be able to understand the current standing of clinical management in the form of the vaccine, prophylactic, and therapeutic candidates against RSV. An understanding of the biological behavior acting as a reason behind the lack of effective therapeutics against RSV will also be developed. The literature indicates a need to overcome the limitations attached to RSV clinical management, drugs, and vaccine development that could be explained by dealing with the challenges of current study designs with continuous improvement and further work and approval on novel therapeutic applications. Full article
20 pages, 1835 KiB  
Review
Recent Developments in Oral Delivery of Vaccines Using Nanocarriers
by Amna Zafar, Raffia Arshad, Asim Ur.Rehman, Naveed Ahmed and Hashaam Akhtar
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020490 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4002
Abstract
As oral administration of vaccines is the preferred route due to its high patient compliance and ability to stimulate both cellular and humoral immune responses, it is also associated with several challenges that include denaturation of vaccine components in the acidic environment of [...] Read more.
As oral administration of vaccines is the preferred route due to its high patient compliance and ability to stimulate both cellular and humoral immune responses, it is also associated with several challenges that include denaturation of vaccine components in the acidic environment of the stomach, degradation from proteolytic enzymes, and poor absorption through the intestinal membrane. To achieve effective delivery of such biomolecules, there is a need to investigate novel strategies of formulation development that can overcome the barriers associated with conventional vaccine delivery systems. Nanoparticles are advanced drug delivery carriers that provide target-oriented delivery by encapsulating vaccine components within them, thus making them stable against unfavorable conditions. This review provides a detailed overview of the different types of nanocarriers and various approaches that can enhance oral vaccine delivery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Delivery and Related ADME Studies of Vaccines)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 881 KiB  
Review
Crosstalk between COVID-19 Infection and Kidney Diseases: A Review on the Metabolomic Approaches
by Reshma Murali, Uddesh Ramesh Wanjari, Anirban Goutam Mukherjee, Abilash Valsala Gopalakrishnan, Sandra Kannampuzha, Arunraj Namachivayam, Harishkumar Madhyastha, Kaviyarasi Renu and Raja Ganesan
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020489 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2568
Abstract
The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes COVID-19, a respiratory disorder. Various organ injuries have been reported in response to this virus, including kidney injury and, in particular, kidney tubular injury. It has been discovered that infection with the virus [...] Read more.
The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes COVID-19, a respiratory disorder. Various organ injuries have been reported in response to this virus, including kidney injury and, in particular, kidney tubular injury. It has been discovered that infection with the virus does not only cause new kidney disease but also increases treatment difficulty and mortality rates in people with kidney diseases. In individuals hospitalized with COVID-19, urinary metabolites from several metabolic pathways are used to distinguish between patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) and those without. This review summarizes the pathogenesis, pathophysiology, treatment strategies, and role of metabolomics in relation to AKI in COVID-19 patients. Metabolomics is likely to play a greater role in predicting outcomes for patients with kidney disease and COVID-19 with varying levels of severity in the near future as data on metabolic profiles expand rapidly. Here, we also discuss the correlation between COVID-19 and kidney diseases and the available metabolomics approaches. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 378 KiB  
Article
Acceptance, Advocacy, and Perception of Health Care Providers on COVID-19 Vaccine: Comparing Early Stage of COVID-19 Vaccination with Latter Stage in the Eastern Region of Saudi Arabia
by Eman M. Almusalami, Mohammed I. Al-Bazroun, Amal I. Alhasawi, Fatimah S. Alahmed, Zahra M. Al-Muslim, Lubana I. Al-Bazroun, Maryam Muslim, Chandni Saha, Elbert Kay, Zeyad A. Alzahrani, Gasmelseed Y. Ahmed and Abbas Al Mutair
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 488; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020488 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1903
Abstract
Vaccination of healthcare providers has recently gained focused attention of public health officials. As HCPs have direct contact with the population, and HCPs significantly influence the population, this study aimed to compare the acceptance rate, advocacy rate, and beliefs about the COVID-19 vaccine [...] Read more.
Vaccination of healthcare providers has recently gained focused attention of public health officials. As HCPs have direct contact with the population, and HCPs significantly influence the population, this study aimed to compare the acceptance rate, advocacy rate, and beliefs about the COVID-19 vaccine among HCPs in two time periods. In this repeated cross-sectional study, different HCPs were assessed in two periods ten months apart, i.e., November to December 2020 and September to October 2021, which were before and after COVID-19 vaccine approval by authorities. The study was conducted in Qatif Central Hospital, Eastern Region of Saudi Arabia. There were 609 respondents: 236 participants in the first period and 373 participants in the second period. Only 13 participants did not get the COVID-19 vaccine. There was around a 40% difference in the acceptance rate between the two study periods; the latter period was higher at 94.7%. Furthermore, 24.1% was the difference between the willingness to advocate the COVID-19 vaccine for others; the first period had a lower percentage (60.1%). Overall, results of the study showed that vaccine hesitancy, as well as the willingness to advocate for the vaccine, were improved between the pre-vaccine approval period and post-vaccine approval period, showing that the efforts made by the government improved COVID-19 acceptance and advocacy among HCPs. However, vaccine hesitancy is not a new issue, and for a better understanding of HCPs’ beliefs, a qualitative study is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccine Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

30 pages, 2248 KiB  
Article
A Synthetic Biology Approach for Vaccine Candidate Design against Delta Strain of SARS-CoV-2 Revealed Disruption of Favored Codon Pair as a Better Strategy over Using Rare Codons
by Pankaj Gurjar, Noushad Karuvantevida, Igor Vladimirovich Rzhepakovsky, Azmat Ali Khan and Rekha Khandia
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 487; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020487 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1839
Abstract
The SARS-CoV-2 delta variant (B.1.617.2) appeared for the first time in December 2020 and later spread worldwide. Currently available vaccines are not so efficacious in curbing the viral pathogenesis of the delta strain of COVID; therefore, the development of a safe and effective [...] Read more.
The SARS-CoV-2 delta variant (B.1.617.2) appeared for the first time in December 2020 and later spread worldwide. Currently available vaccines are not so efficacious in curbing the viral pathogenesis of the delta strain of COVID; therefore, the development of a safe and effective vaccine is required. In the present study, we envisaged molecular patterns in the structural genes’ spike, nucleoprotein, membrane, and envelope of the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant. The study was based on determining compositional features, dinucleotide odds ratio, synonymous codon usage, positive and negative codon contexts, rare codons, and insight into relatedness between the human host isoacceptor tRNA and preferred codons from the structural genes. We found specific patterns, including a significant abundance of T nucleotide over all other three nucleotides. The underrepresentation of GpA, GpG, CpC, and CpG dinucleotides and the overrepresentation of TpT, ApA, CpT, and TpG were observed. A preference towards ACT- (Thr), AAT- (Asn), TTT- (Phe), and TTG- (Leu) initiated codons and aversion towards CGG (Arg), CCG (Pro), and CAC (His) was present in the structural genes of the delta strain. The interaction between the host tRNA pool and preferred codons of the envisaged structural genes revealed that the virus preferred the codons for those suboptimal numbers of isoacceptor tRNA were present. We see this as a strategy adapted by the virus to keep the translation rate low to facilitate the correct folding of viral proteins. The information generated in the study helps design the attenuated vaccine candidate against the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant using a synthetic biology approach. Three strategies were tested: changing TpT to TpA, introducing rare codons, and disrupting favored codons. It found that disrupting favored codons is a better approach to reducing virus fitness and attenuating SARS-CoV-2 delta strain using structural genes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 Variant and Vaccines Development)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 635 KiB  
Review
Effectiveness and Safety of COVID-19 Vaccination in Patients with Malignant Disease
by Li Zhao, Lin Fu, Yuqin He, Han Li, Yixuan Song and Shaoyan Liu
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020486 - 20 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1406
Abstract
A novel virus named SARS-CoV-2 has caused a worldwide pandemic, resulting in a disastrous impact to the public health since 2019. The disease is much more lethal among patients with malignant disease. Vaccination plays an important role in the prevention of infection and [...] Read more.
A novel virus named SARS-CoV-2 has caused a worldwide pandemic, resulting in a disastrous impact to the public health since 2019. The disease is much more lethal among patients with malignant disease. Vaccination plays an important role in the prevention of infection and subsequent severe COVID-19. However, the efficacy and safety of vaccines for cancer patients needs further investigation. Encouragingly, there have been important findings deduced from research so far. In this review, an overview of the immunogenicity, effectiveness, and safeness of COVID-19 vaccines in patients with cancer to date is to be shown. We also highlight important questions to consider and directions that could be followed in future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section COVID-19 Vaccines and Vaccination)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 2803 KiB  
Article
Epidemiological Analysis of Avian Reovirus in China and Research on the Immune Protection of Different Genotype Strains from 2019 to 2020
by Dong Liu, Zhong Zou, Shanshan Song, Hongxiang Liu, Xiao Gong, Bin Li, Ping Liu, Qunyi Wang, Fengbo Liu, Dongzu Luan, Xiang Zhang, Yuanzhao Du and Meilin Jin
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020485 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1563
Abstract
Avian reovirus (ARV) is the primary pathogen responsible for viral arthritis. In this study, 2340 samples with suspected viral arthritis were collected from 2019 to 2020 in 16 provinces of China to investigate the prevalence of ARV in China and to characterize the [...] Read more.
Avian reovirus (ARV) is the primary pathogen responsible for viral arthritis. In this study, 2340 samples with suspected viral arthritis were collected from 2019 to 2020 in 16 provinces of China to investigate the prevalence of ARV in China and to characterize the molecular genetic evolution of epidemic strains. From 113 samples analyzed by RT-PCR, 46 strains of avian reovirus were successfully isolated and identified. The genetic evolution of the σC gene showed that 46 strains were distributed in 1–5 branches, with the largest number of strains in branches 1 and 2. The σC gene homology among the strains was low, with approximately 62% homology in branches 4 and 5 and about 55% in the remaining branches. The strains circulating during the ARV epidemic in different provinces were distributed in different branches. The SPF chickens were immunized with inactivated vaccines containing strains from branches 1 and 4 to analyze the cross-immune protection elicited by different branches of ARV strains. A challenge protection test was performed using strains in branches 1, 2, 4, and 5. Our results showed that inactivated vaccines containing strains from branches 1 and 4 could fully protect from strains in branches 1, 4, and 5. The results of this study revealed the genetic diversity among the endemic strains of ARV in China from 2019 to 2020. Each genotype strain elicited partial cross-protection, providing a scientific basis for the prevention and control of ARV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology and Prevention of Avian Immunosuppressive Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1958 KiB  
Article
Acceptance and Risk Perception of COVID-19 Vaccination among Pregnant and Non Pregnant Women in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Cross-Sectional Matched-Sample Study
by Onyekachukwu M. Amiebenomo, Uchechukwu L. Osuagwu, Esther Awazzi Envuladu, Chundung Asabe Miner, Khathutshelo P. Mashige, Godwin Ovenseri-Ogbomo, Emmanuel Kwasi Abu, Chikasirimobi Goodhope Timothy, Bernadine N. Ekpenyong, Raymond Langsi, Richard Oloruntoba, Piwuna Christopher Goson, Deborah Donald Charwe, Tanko Ishaya and Kingsley E. Agho
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020484 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1844
Abstract
This study aims to evaluate the acceptance and risk perception of pregnant and non pregnant women towards COVID-19 vaccines using a cross-sectional matched-sample study approach. A web-based questionnaire with closed- and open-ended questions was administered to adults older than 18 years in the [...] Read more.
This study aims to evaluate the acceptance and risk perception of pregnant and non pregnant women towards COVID-19 vaccines using a cross-sectional matched-sample study approach. A web-based questionnaire with closed- and open-ended questions was administered to adults older than 18 years in the sub–Saharan African (SSA) region. Respondents (n = 131) were grouped based on their pregnancy status (54 pregnant and 77 non pregnant women) and matched for comparison by age. The matched groups were compared using the chi-square test and the t-test where appropriate. Compared to non pregnant women, pregnant women reported significantly lower risk perception scores of COVID-19 infection (3.74 vs. 5.78, p < 0.001) and were less likely to take the COVID-19 vaccine (odds ratio = 0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.06–0.27, p < 0.001). A similar proportion of pregnant and non pregnant women believed in false information about the COVID-19 vaccine, and 40% of unvaccinated pregnant women (n = 40) were concerned about the safety of the vaccine. After adjustment, women’s education, marital status, belief in misconceptions and risk perception were associated with non-vaccination among pregnant women. The content analysis revealed that pregnant women refused the vaccine due to mistrust of their countries’ health systems, concerns about the country where the vaccines were manufactured and a lack of confidence in the production process of the vaccines. This study shows the poor acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines among pregnant women in SSA, who perceived a lower risk of COVID-19 infection. Understanding the reasons for non-acceptance and the motivation to accept the COVID-19 vaccine could guide the development of health education and promotion programmes, and aid governments and policymakers in implementing targeted policy changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section COVID-19 Vaccines and Vaccination)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 1630 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 Incidence and Vaccine Effectiveness in University Staff, 1 March 2020–2 April 2022
by Luca Cegolon, Corrado Negro, Marco Pesce and Francesca Larese Filon
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 483; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020483 - 19 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2586
Abstract
Background: University workers undergo intense social interactions due to frequent contact with students and colleagues and lectures in crowdy conditions. The aim of our study was to assess the incidence of COVID-19 infection and vaccine effectiveness in a cohort of workers of [...] Read more.
Background: University workers undergo intense social interactions due to frequent contact with students and colleagues and lectures in crowdy conditions. The aim of our study was to assess the incidence of COVID-19 infection and vaccine effectiveness in a cohort of workers of the University of Trieste from 1 March 2020 (start of the pandemic) through 2 April 2022. Methods: The University of Trieste implemented a number of public health policies to contain the spread of SARS-CoV-2 on the campus, including prompt contact tracing, enhanced ventilation of all premises, fomites disinfection and mandatory use of face masks indoors. In compliance with the surveillance protocol of the local public health department, university personnel were tested for SARS-CoV-2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on a nasopharyngeal swab on demand, in the event of symptoms consistent with COVID-19 or for contact tracing, following close contact with a confirmed COVID-19 case. The incidence rates of SARS-CoV-2 infections were estimated as number of cases by number of person-days (p-d) at risk. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression model was employed to investigate the risk of primary COVID-19 infection, controlling for a number of potential confounders and expressing the risk as the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Results: The incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among university staff was lower than that of healthcare workers (HCWs) of the same area. Compared to unvaccinated colleagues (6.55 × 10,000 p-d), the raw incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was higher among university workers immunized with one (7.22 × 10,000 p-d) or two (7.48 × 10,000 p-d) doses of COVID-19 vaccines, decreasing in those receiving the booster (1.98 × 1000 p-d). The risk of infection increased only in postgraduate medical trainees (aHR = 2.16; 95% CI: 1.04; 4.48), though this was limited to the Omicron transmission period. After the implementation of the national vaccination campaign against COVID-19, workers immunized with the booster were less likely than unvaccinated workers to be infected by SARS-CoV-2 both before (aHR = 0.10; 95% CI: 0.06; 0.16) and after (aHR = 0.37; 95% CI: 0.27; 0.52) the Omicron transmission period. Vaccine effectiveness of the booster was 90% (=(1−0.10) × 100) before versus 63% (=(1−0.37) × 100) during the Omicron wave, without a significant difference between homologous (three doses of m-RNA vaccines) and heterologous immunization (first two doses of Vaxzevria followed by a third dose of m-RNA vaccine). Conclusions: The incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in university staff was lower than that of HCWs of ASUGI, likely because the testing-on-demand schedule inevitably missed the vast majority of asymptomatic infections. Therefore, the observed significantly protective effect of the booster dose in university personnel referred to symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections. The infection prevention and control policies implemented by the University of Trieste managed to equalize the biological risk between administrative and teaching staff. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines: 10th Anniversary)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 645 KiB  
Communication
Transient Positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR without Induction of Systemic Immune Responses
by Barbara C. Gärtner, Verena Klemis, Tina Schmidt, Martina Sester and Tim Meyer
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 482; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020482 - 19 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1483
Abstract
SARS-CoV-2 testing is dominated by PCR to guide treatment and individual as well as public health preventive measures. Among 1700 football (soccer) players and staff of the German Bundesliga and Bundesliga 2 who were regularly tested by PCR twice weekly, 98 individuals had [...] Read more.
SARS-CoV-2 testing is dominated by PCR to guide treatment and individual as well as public health preventive measures. Among 1700 football (soccer) players and staff of the German Bundesliga and Bundesliga 2 who were regularly tested by PCR twice weekly, 98 individuals had a positive PCR (May 2020 to mid-January 2021). A subset of these were retested shortly after the initial positive result. Among those, 11 subjects were identified who only had a transient single positive PCR of low viral load. All individuals were asymptomatic and none developed long COVID. We tested SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgA as well as SARS-CoV-2 specific CD4 und CD8 positive T cells, and showed that only one out of 11 individuals developed SARS-CoV-2 specific cellular and humoral immunity after the positive PCR, whereas a specific immunity was undetectable in all other individuals. Thus, a single positive PCR might indicate that transient colonization of the upper respiratory tract with SARS-CoV-2 may occur without systemic induction of specific adaptive immunity. Together with test artifacts as another potential reason for a transiently positive test, this finding may favor cautious interpretation of positive PCR results or retesting before initiating intervening treatment or infection control measures in some cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Response of SARS-CoV-2 Infection)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 1740 KiB  
Article
Incidence and Associated Factors of SARS-CoV-2 Infection Post-mRNA-1273 Booster Vaccination in Health-Care Workers
by Anshari Saifuddin Hasibuan, Sukamto Koesnoe, Alvina Widhani, Muhadi Muhadi, Hamzah Shatri, Eka Ginanjar, Evy Yunihastuti, Pradana Soewondo, Sally Aman Nasution, Samsuridjal Djauzi, Lies Dina Liastuti, Trimartani Koento, Sumariyono Sumariyono and Astri Mulyantini
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 481; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020481 - 19 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2005
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially among health-care workers. One of the most important preventive measures is vaccination. This study examined factors associated with the incidence rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection after mRNA-1273 booster vaccination (preceded by the CoronaVac [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially among health-care workers. One of the most important preventive measures is vaccination. This study examined factors associated with the incidence rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection after mRNA-1273 booster vaccination (preceded by the CoronaVac primary vaccination) and the antibody profile of health-care workers at one of the tertiary hospitals in Indonesia. This was a combined retrospective cohort and cross-sectional study. Three hundred health-care workers who were given the mRNA-1273 booster vaccine a minimum of 5 months prior to this study were randomly selected. Participants were then interviewed about their history of COVID-19 vaccination, history of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and comorbidities. Blood samples were taken to assess IgG sRBD antibody levels. The median antibody level was found to be 659 BAU/mL (min 37 BAU/mL, max 5680 BAU/mL, QIR 822 BAU/mL) after the booster, and this was not related to age, sex, comorbidities, or adverse events following immunization (AEFI) after the booster. SARS-CoV-2 infection after the booster was correlated with higher antibody levels. In sum, 56 participants (18.6%) experienced SARS-CoV-2 infection after the mRNA-1273 booster vaccination within 5 months. Incidence per person per month was 3.2%. Age, sex, diabetes mellitus type 2, hypertension, obesity, and post-booster AEFI were not related to COVID-19 incidence after the booster. History of SARS-CoV-2 infection before the booster vaccination was significantly associated with a reduced risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection after booster vaccination, with a relative risk (RR) of 0.21 (95% CI 0.09–0.45, p < 0.001). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 and Vaccination Strategies in Global Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 2317 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Interferon-Lambda-3 Polymorphism in the Antibody Response to COVID-19 in Older Adults Seropositive for CMV
by Ariane Nardy, Camila Tussato Soares Camargo, Yasmim Faustina Castro de Oliveira, Fernanda Cristina da Silva, Millena Soares de Almeida, Fernanda Rodrigues Monteiro, Brenda Rodrigues Silva, Jônatas Bussador do Amaral, Danielle Bruna Leal Oliveira, Edison Luiz Durigon, Guilherme Pereira Scagion, Vanessa Nascimento Chalup, Érika Donizetti Candido, Andressa Simões Aguiar, Neil Ferreira Novo, Marina Tiemi Shio, Carolina Nunes França, Luiz Henrique da Silva Nali and André Luis Lacerda Bachi
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020480 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1513
Abstract
Background: Here, we investigated the impact of IFN-lambda-3 polymorphism on specific IgG responses for COVID-19 in older adults seropositive for CMV. Methods: Blood samples of 25 older adults of both sexes were obtained at three different times: during a micro-outbreak (MO) of SARS-CoV-2 [...] Read more.
Background: Here, we investigated the impact of IFN-lambda-3 polymorphism on specific IgG responses for COVID-19 in older adults seropositive for CMV. Methods: Blood samples of 25 older adults of both sexes were obtained at three different times: during a micro-outbreak (MO) of SARS-CoV-2 in 2020; eight months after (CURE); and 30 days after the administration of the second dose of ChadOx-1 vaccine (VAC). The specific IgG for both SARS-CoV-2 and CMV antigens, neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, and also the polymorphism profile for IFN-lambda-3 (rs12979860 C > T) were assessed. Results: Higher levels of specific IgG for SARS-CoV-2 antigens were found in the MO and VAC than in the CURE time-point. Volunteers with specific neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 showed better specific IgG responses for SARS-CoV-2 and lower specific IgG levels for CMV than volunteers without specific neutralizing antibodies. Significant negative correlations between the specific IgG levels for SARS-CoV-2 and CMV were found at the MO time-point, as well as in the group of individuals homozygous for allele 1 (C/C) in the MO time-point and heterozygotes (C/T) in the CURE time-point. Conclusion: Our results suggested that both CMV seropositivity and the homozygosis for allele 1 (C/C) in IFN-lambda-3 gene can negatively impact the antibody response to COVID-19 infection and vaccination in older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Interaction of Cytomegalovirus with the Human Immune System)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 1551 KiB  
Review
Yeast-Based Virus-like Particles as an Emerging Platform for Vaccine Development and Delivery
by Vartika Srivastava, Kripa N. Nand, Aijaz Ahmad and Ravinder Kumar
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020479 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 8085
Abstract
Virus-like particles (VLPs) are empty, nanoscale structures morphologically resembling viruses. Internal cavity, noninfectious, and particulate nature with a high density of repeating epitopes, make them an ideal platform for vaccine development and drug delivery. Commercial use of Gardasil-9 and Cervarix showed the usefulness [...] Read more.
Virus-like particles (VLPs) are empty, nanoscale structures morphologically resembling viruses. Internal cavity, noninfectious, and particulate nature with a high density of repeating epitopes, make them an ideal platform for vaccine development and drug delivery. Commercial use of Gardasil-9 and Cervarix showed the usefulness of VLPs in vaccine formulation. Further, chimeric VLPs allow the raising of an immune response against different immunogens and thereby can help reduce the generation of medical or clinical waste. The economically viable production of VLPs significantly impacts their usage, application, and availability. To this end, several hosts have been used and tested. The present review will discuss VLPs produced using different yeasts as fermentation hosts. We also compile a list of studies highlighting the expression and purification of VLPs using a yeast-based platform. We also discuss the advantages of using yeast to generate VLPs over other available systems. Further, the issues or limitations of yeasts for producing VLPs are also summarized. The review also compiles a list of yeast-derived VLP-based vaccines that are presently in public use or in different phases of clinical trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Vaccine Characterization, Formulations, and Development)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 265 KiB  
Article
Parental Decision Making Regarding COVID-19 Vaccines for Children under Age 5: Does Decision Self-Efficacy Play a Role?
by Jennifer D. Allen, Masako Matsunaga, Eunjung Lim, Gregory D. Zimet, Kimberly H. Nguyen and Holly B. Fontenot
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 478; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020478 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1666
Abstract
Background: COVID-19 vaccines are now available under Emergency Use Authorization for children ages 6 months to 5 years. We examined parents’ intentions to vaccinate their children under the age of 5 years and assessed whether their confidence in making an informed decision about [...] Read more.
Background: COVID-19 vaccines are now available under Emergency Use Authorization for children ages 6 months to 5 years. We examined parents’ intentions to vaccinate their children under the age of 5 years and assessed whether their confidence in making an informed decision about vaccination (decision self-efficacy) was associated with these intentions. Method: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey of U.S. parents between 23 March and 5 April 2022. We examined associations between parental intention to vaccinate their young children (<age 5 years) and confidence in vaccine decision making (decision self-efficacy). A multivariable multinomial logistic regression model was used to obtain adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of parental intention (categorized as intend to vaccinate, unsure, or do not intend to vaccinate). Results: Of the 591 parents in this sample, 49% indicated that they intended to vaccinate their child(ren), 29% reported that they would not, and 21% were undecided. In bivariate analyses, race/ethnicity, health insurance, flu vaccination in the past 12 months, and parental COVID-19 vaccination status were significantly related to parental intention to vaccinate their child(ren). In the multivariable analyses, which controlled for these factors, parents who intended to vaccinate their child(ren) had greater confidence in their ability to make informed decisions about COVID-19 vaccinations compared to those who were unsure about vaccination. Each one standard deviation in the Decision Self-Efficacy score was associated with a 39% increase in intention to vaccinate one’s child versus being unsure about vaccination (AOR 1.39, 95% CI 1.09, 1.77). Conclusions: Parents who are unsure about vaccinating their children against COVID-19 may benefit from interventions designed to increase their ability to obtain, understand, and utilize information to make informed decisions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Psychobehavioral Responses towards Vaccination)
13 pages, 613 KiB  
Article
BNT162b2 COVID-19 Vaccine Safety among Healthcare Workers of a Tertiary Hospital in Italy
by Flavia Beccia, Luca Regazzi, Eleonora Marziali, Viria Beccia, Domenico Pascucci, Nadia Mores, Giuseppe Vetrugno and Patrizia Laurenti
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 477; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020477 - 17 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1618
Abstract
Millions of people have died because of the COVID-19 pandemic. The vaccination campaign helped tackle the pandemic and saved millions of lives. In a retrospective pharmacovigilance study, we explored the safety of the BNT162b2 (Comirnaty) vaccine among healthcare workers (HCWs) in a large [...] Read more.
Millions of people have died because of the COVID-19 pandemic. The vaccination campaign helped tackle the pandemic and saved millions of lives. In a retrospective pharmacovigilance study, we explored the safety of the BNT162b2 (Comirnaty) vaccine among healthcare workers (HCWs) in a large Italian teaching hospital, and 2428 Adverse Events Reports (AERs) filed by HCWs after the administration of the first dose of vaccine were collected and analyzed, reporting the results quantitively and comparing them to the vaccine Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC). Spearman’s correlation coefficients were computed to investigate the correlation among reported adverse effects, and recurrent clusters of symptoms were investigated through the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and k-means Cluster Analysis. The BNT162b2 vaccine’s safety profile was favorable, with predominant reports of early onset, mild, non-serious and short-term resolved symptoms. We observed higher than the expected frequency for various non-serious undesirable effects, especially among those listed and classified as less common in the SPC. Furthermore, we identified three clusters of adverse effects that were frequently reported together, defined by the presence/absence of fatigue, malaise, localized pain, chills, pyrexia, insomnia, nausea and injection site pain. Post-marketing pharmacovigilance activities, together with targeted public health interventions, can be valuable tools to promote vaccination and improve the control of the spread of the pandemic, especially in sensitive settings and populations such as hospitals and healthcare professionals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology, Vaccination and Public Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 434 KiB  
Article
Development of Autoantibodies Following BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination and Their Association with Disease Flares in Adult Patients with Autoimmune Inflammatory Rheumatic Diseases (AIIRD) and the General Population: Results of 1-Year Prospective Follow-Up Study
by Tal Gazitt, Tali Eviatar, Jacqueline Shear, Roni Meidan, Victoria Furer, Joy Feld, Amir Haddad, Muna Elias, Nizar Hijazi, Nili Stein, Pninit Shaked Mishan, Anna Zetser, Hagit Peleg, Ori Elkayam and Devy Zisman
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020476 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2228
Abstract
Development of autoantibodies following BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccination and their association with disease flares in adult patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIIRD) and the general population: results of 1-year prospective follow-up study. We conducted a prospective study aimed at investigating the incidence [...] Read more.
Development of autoantibodies following BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccination and their association with disease flares in adult patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIIRD) and the general population: results of 1-year prospective follow-up study. We conducted a prospective study aimed at investigating the incidence of appearance of autoantibodies (antinuclear, antiphospholipid, and rheumatoid factor) in the sera of 463 adult patients with AIIRD compared to 55 controls from the general population prior to, and following the second and third vaccine doses, and at 1-year of follow-up. Pre- and post-vaccination disease activity indices and the association of autoantibodies with rheumatic disease flares and new onset AIIRD were examined. Autoantibody development of any type in AIIRD patients vs. the controls was 4.0% (vs. 6.7%, p = 0.423) following two vaccine doses and 7.6% (vs. 0%, p = 0.152) after three doses. There was no significant difference in sex, age, or disease-type among individuals with and without autoantibody development, regardless of the immunosuppressant use. More patients developed autoantibodies following the third than the second vaccine dose (p = 0.004). Disease flares occurred in 5.8% and 7.2% of AIIRD patients following second and third vaccine doses, respectively, with autoantibody production increasing the risk of flares following the second (p = 0.002) and third (p = 0.004) vaccine doses. BNT162b2 vaccination resulted in the development of autoantibodies in a minority of AIIRD patients and controls. Autoantibody development was associated with disease flares in patients, but no new-onset autoimmunity was observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibody Response of Vaccines to SARS-CoV-2)
13 pages, 1945 KiB  
Article
SARS-CoV-2 Infection-Blocking Immunity Post Natural Infection: The Role of Vitamin D
by Rami Abu Fanne, Mahmud Moed, Aviv Kedem, Ghalib Lidawi, Emad Maraga, Fady Mohsen, Ariel Roguin and Simcha-Ron Meisel
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020475 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1546
Abstract
Objective and Aim: The extent of the protection against SARS-CoV-2 conferred by natural infection is unclear. Vitamin D may have a role in the interplay between SARS-CoV-2 infection and the evolving acquired immunity against it. We tested the correlation between baseline 25(OH) D [...] Read more.
Objective and Aim: The extent of the protection against SARS-CoV-2 conferred by natural infection is unclear. Vitamin D may have a role in the interplay between SARS-CoV-2 infection and the evolving acquired immunity against it. We tested the correlation between baseline 25(OH) D content and both the reinfection rate and the anti-spike protein antibody titer following COVID-19 infection. Methods A retrospective observational survey that included a large convalescent COVID-19 population of subjects insured by the Leumit HMO was recorded between 1 February 2020 and 30 January 2022. Inclusion criteria required at least one available 25(OH)D level prior to enlistment. The association between 25(OH)D levels, the rate of breakthrough infection, and the anti-spike protein antibody titer was evaluated. Results A total of 10,132 COVID-19 convalescent subjects were included, of whom 322 (3.3%) sustained reinfection within a one-year follow-up. In the first 8 months after recovery, the reinfected patients were characterized by a higher incidence of low 25(OH)D levels (<30 ng/mL, 92% vs. 84.8%, p < 0.05), while during the following three months, the incidence of low 25(OH)D levels was non-significantly higher among PCR-negative convalescent subjects compared to those reinfected (86% vs. 81.7, p = 0.15). By multivariate analysis, age > 44 years (OR-0.39, 95% CI: 0.173–0.87, p = 0.02) and anti-spike protein antibody titer > 50 AU/mL (0.49, 95% CI: 0.25–0.96, p = 0.04) were inversely related to reinfection. No consistent correlation with vitamin D levels was observed among the 3351 available anti-spike protein antibody titers of convalescent subjects. However, the median anti-spike protein antibody titers tended to increase over time in the vitamin D-deficient group. Conclusion Higher pre-infection 25(OH)D level correlated with protective COVID-19 immunity during the first 8 months following COVID-19 infection, which could not be explained by anti-spike protein antibody titers. This effect dissipated beyond this period, demonstrating a biphasic 25(OH)D association that warrants future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibody Response to Infection and Vaccination)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 241 KiB  
Brief Report
Acute Macular Neuroretinopathy and Paracentral Acute Middle Maculopathy during SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Vaccination
by Parthopratim Dutta Majumder and Aniruddha Agarwal
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 474; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020474 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1585
Abstract
Purpose: To review the demographic and clinical profile of patients developing acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN) or paracentral acute middle maculopathy (PAMM) after receiving coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) vaccination or infection. Methods: In this review article, the published literature was searched to determine cases developing [...] Read more.
Purpose: To review the demographic and clinical profile of patients developing acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN) or paracentral acute middle maculopathy (PAMM) after receiving coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) vaccination or infection. Methods: In this review article, the published literature was searched to determine cases developing either AMN or PAMM after COVID-19 vaccinations or infections. Data, including demographic profile, presenting features, symptoms, diagnosis, and clinical outcomes, were extracted from the selected publications. These parameters were compared between the two groups, i.e., patients developing AMN/PAMM either after vaccination or infection. Results: After the literature review, 57 patients developing either AMN (n = 40), PAMM (n = 14), or both (n = 3) after COVID-19 infection (n = 29) or vaccination (n = 28) were included (mean age: 34.9 ± 14.4 years; n = 38; 66.7% females). In 24.6% patients, the diagnosis of COVID-19 infection was preceded by the development of ocular disease. There were no significant differences in the age or gender between the patients developing AMN or PAMM after vaccination or infection (p > 0.13). Among the vaccination group, the highest number of patients developing AMN/PAMM were after the Oxford-AstraZeneca (n = 12; 42.9%). Patients with vaccination had a significantly early onset of AMN/PAMM compared to those with infection (11.5 ± 17.6 days versus 37.8 ± 43.6 days; p = 0.001). Conclusions: Both AMN and PAMM are reported to be associated with COVID-19 infections and in persons receiving vaccination against COVID-19. While COVID-19 infections and vaccinations may have a contributory role, other risk factors such as oral contraceptive pills may also play a role in the development of the disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ophthalmic Adverse Events following SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination)
4 pages, 220 KiB  
Editorial
Social Media Content on Immunology: Is an Assessment by the Scientific Community Required?
by Simone Morra, Francesco Di Bello, Claudia Collà Ruvolo and Gianluigi Califano
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020473 - 17 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1072
Abstract
In recent years, vaccines and immunotherapy have become two of the most promising and effective tools in the fight against a wide range of diseases, from the common cold to cancer [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Media in Immunology and Immunotherapy)
17 pages, 1688 KiB  
Article
Cohort-Specific Peptide Reagents Broaden Depth and Breadth Estimates of the CD8 T Cell Response to HIV-1 Gag Potential T Cell Epitopes
by Clive M. Michelo, Andrew Fiore-Gartland, Jama A. Dalel, Peter Hayes, Jianming Tang, Edward McGowan, William Kilembe, Natalia Fernandez, Jill Gilmour and Eric Hunter
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020472 - 17 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1583
Abstract
An effective HIV vaccine will need to stimulate immune responses against the sequence diversity presented in circulating virus strains. In this study, we evaluate breadth and depth estimates of potential T-cell epitopes (PTEs) in transmitted founder virus sequence-derived cohort-specific peptide reagents against reagents [...] Read more.
An effective HIV vaccine will need to stimulate immune responses against the sequence diversity presented in circulating virus strains. In this study, we evaluate breadth and depth estimates of potential T-cell epitopes (PTEs) in transmitted founder virus sequence-derived cohort-specific peptide reagents against reagents representative of consensus and global sequences. CD8 T-cells from twenty-six HIV-1+ PBMC donor samples, obtained at 1-year post estimated date of infection, were evaluated. ELISpot assays compared responses to 15mer consensus (n = 121), multivalent-global (n = 320), and 10mer multivalent cohort-specific (n = 300) PTE peptides, all mapping to the Gag antigen. Responses to 38 consensus, 71 global, and 62 cohort-specific PTEs were confirmed, with sixty percent of common global and cohort-specific PTEs corresponding to consensus sequences. Both global and cohort-specific peptides exhibited broader epitope coverage compared to commonly used consensus reagents, with mean breadth estimates of 3.2 (global), 3.4 (cohort) and 2.2 (consensus) epitopes. Global or cohort peptides each identified unique epitope responses that would not be detected if these peptide pools were used alone. A peptide set designed around specific virologic and immunogenetic characteristics of a target cohort can expand the detection of CD8 T-cell responses to epitopes in circulating viruses, providing a novel way to better define the host response to HIV-1 with implications for vaccine development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cellular/Molecular Immunology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1059 KiB  
Article
Neutralization Effect of Sera against Delta and Omicron in Patients Recovering from COVID-19 and Inactivated Vaccine Recipients
by Yajuan Zhu, Qianhong Zhong, Zhanzhong Ma, Shuang Liu, Yunhua Lan, Bo Peng, Xiaomin Zhang, Xiaolu Shi, Jing Qu, Zhilong Wu, Zhimeng Zhao, Xilin Zhang and Dingmei Zhang
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020471 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1189
Abstract
This study aims to analyze the serum neutralization capacity against Delta and Omicron variants in three clusters of individuals, including those who had recovered from COVID-19 and those who had received two and three doses of inactivated vaccine. Pseudovirus neutralization tests were performed [...] Read more.
This study aims to analyze the serum neutralization capacity against Delta and Omicron variants in three clusters of individuals, including those who had recovered from COVID-19 and those who had received two and three doses of inactivated vaccine. Pseudovirus neutralization tests were performed on serum samples. The neutralizing titers between different groups were compared using the Wilcoxon’s signed-rank test. Among the two-dose vaccinees, the neutralization titers of the Omicron variant were reduced by approximately 3.1-fold compared to the wild-type virus (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, among the three-dose vaccinees, the neutralization titers for Delta and Omicron variants were 3.5-fold (p < 0.05) and 5.0-fold (p < 0.05) lower, respectively, as compared to the wild-type virus. In addition, among the recovering patients, the neutralization titers for Delta and Omicron variants were 3.9-fold (p < 0.05) and 29.1-fold (p < 0.05) lower, respectively, as compared to the wild-type virus. Overall, only 12.0% (11/92) of participants showed neutralizing titers against Omicron above the detection limit. The ability to neutralize wild-type pseudovirus was significantly boosted in three-dose vaccinees as compared to two-dose vaccinees. Sera from recovered patients showed greater neutralizing titers for the wild-type and Delta pseudoviruses than the two- and three-dose inactivated vaccine groups. The present study revealed a loss of neutralizing activity against the Omicron variant in almost all samples. Moreover, the immunization effect obtained through natural infection is more robust than that from the active immunization method of vaccination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 Variants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 481 KiB  
Review
Bacterial Pathogenesis in Various Fish Diseases: Recent Advances and Specific Challenges in Vaccine Development
by Aadil Ahmed Irshath, Anand Prem Rajan, Sugumar Vimal, Vasantha-Srinivasan Prabhakaran and Raja Ganesan
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 470; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020470 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 4752
Abstract
Aquaculture is a fast-growing food sector but is plagued by a plethora of bacterial pathogens that infect fish. The rearing of fish at high population densities in aquaculture facilities makes them highly susceptible to disease outbreaks, which can cause significant economic loss. Thus, [...] Read more.
Aquaculture is a fast-growing food sector but is plagued by a plethora of bacterial pathogens that infect fish. The rearing of fish at high population densities in aquaculture facilities makes them highly susceptible to disease outbreaks, which can cause significant economic loss. Thus, immunity development in fish through vaccination against various pathogens of economically important aquaculture species has been extensively studied and has been largely accepted as a reliable method for preventing infections. Vaccination studies in aquaculture systems are strategically associated with the economically and environmentally sustainable management of aquaculture production worldwide. Historically, most licensed fish vaccines have been developed as inactivated pathogens combined with adjuvants and provided via immersion or injection. In comparison, live vaccines can simulate a whole pathogenic illness and elicit a strong immune response, making them better suited for oral or immersion-based therapy methods to control diseases. Advanced approaches in vaccine development involve targeting specific pathogenic components, including the use of recombinant genes and proteins. Vaccines produced using these techniques, some of which are currently commercially available, appear to elicit and promote higher levels of immunity than conventional fish vaccines. These technological advancements are promising for developing sustainable production processes for commercially important aquatic species. In this review, we explore the multitude of studies on fish bacterial pathogens undertaken in the last decade as well as the recent advances in vaccine development for aquaculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquaculture Diseases: Prevention and Control Strategies)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1424 KiB  
Review
Infection, Transmission, Pathogenesis and Vaccine Development against Mycoplasma gallisepticum
by Susithra Priyadarshni Mugunthan, Ganapathy Kannan, Harish Mani Chandra and Biswaranjan Paital
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 469; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020469 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4669
Abstract
Mycoplasma sp. comprises cell wall-less bacteria with reduced genome size and can infect mammals, reptiles, birds, and plants. Avian mycoplasmosis, particularly in chickens, is primarily caused by Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) and Mycoplasma synoviae. It causes infection and pathology mainly in the respiratory, [...] Read more.
Mycoplasma sp. comprises cell wall-less bacteria with reduced genome size and can infect mammals, reptiles, birds, and plants. Avian mycoplasmosis, particularly in chickens, is primarily caused by Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) and Mycoplasma synoviae. It causes infection and pathology mainly in the respiratory, reproductive, and musculoskeletal systems. MG is the most widely distributed pathogenic avian mycoplasma with a wide range of host susceptibility and virulence. MG is transmitted both by horizontal and vertical routes. MG infection induces innate, cellular, mucosal, and adaptive immune responses in the host. Macrophages aid in phagocytosis and clearance, and B and T cells play critical roles in the clearance and prevention of MG. The virulent factors of MG are adhesion proteins, lipoproteins, heat shock proteins, and antigenic variation proteins, all of which play pivotal roles in host cell entry and pathogenesis. Prevention of MG relies on farm and flock biosecurity, management strategies, early diagnosis, use of antimicrobials, and vaccination. This review summarizes the vital pathogenic mechanisms underlying MG infection and recapitulates the virulence factors of MG–host cell adhesion, antigenic variation, nutrient transport, and immune evasion. The review also highlights the limitations of current vaccines and the development of innovative future vaccines against MG. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines for Chicken)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1693 KiB  
Communication
Estimating the Global Spread of Epidemic Human Monkeypox with Bayesian Directed Acyclic Graphic Model
by Ling-Chun Liao, Chen-Yang Hsu, Hsiu-Hsi Chen and Chao-Chih Lai
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 468; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020468 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1294
Abstract
A “Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)” monkeypox outbreak was declared by the World Health Organization on 23 June 2022. More than 16,000 monkeypox cases were reported in more than 75 countries across six regions as of July 25. The Bayesian SIR [...] Read more.
A “Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)” monkeypox outbreak was declared by the World Health Organization on 23 June 2022. More than 16,000 monkeypox cases were reported in more than 75 countries across six regions as of July 25. The Bayesian SIR (Susceptible–Infected–Recovered) model with the directed acyclic graphic method was used to estimate the basic/effective reproductive number (R0/Re) and to assess the epidemic spread of monkeypox across the globe. The maximum estimated R0/Re was 1.16 (1.15–1.17), 1.20 (1.20–1.20), 1.34 (1.34–1.35), 1.33 (1.33–1.33) and 2.52 (2.41–2.66) in the United States, Spain, Brazil, the United Kingdom and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, respectively. The values of R0/Re were below 1 after August 2022. The estimated infectious time before isolation ranged from 2.05 to 2.74 days. The PHEIC of the global spreading of human monkeypox has been contained so as to avoid a pandemic in the light of the reasoning-based epidemic model assessment. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 533 KiB  
Case Report
Case Report of Serum Sickness-like Reaction following the First Dose of the Chimpanzee Adenovirus-Vectored AstraZeneca COVID-19 Vaccine, ChAdOx1
by Areej Awad Alzaidi, Arwa Awad Alzaidi, Modhi Thaiban AlOtaibi and Reem M. Alsheikh
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020467 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1736
Abstract
Serum sickness-like reaction from serum sickness is critical. Serum sickness-like reaction has comparable symptoms to serum sickness, but their underlying pathophysiology is distinct. This delayed hypersensitivity response was first characterized as a drug-induced reaction and is uncommon in adults; it is more common [...] Read more.
Serum sickness-like reaction from serum sickness is critical. Serum sickness-like reaction has comparable symptoms to serum sickness, but their underlying pathophysiology is distinct. This delayed hypersensitivity response was first characterized as a drug-induced reaction and is uncommon in adults; it is more common in children. COVID-19 vaccinations are now being routinely given in the COVID-19 period, and adverse reactions to immunization have been recorded. We present a case of COVID-19 vaccination-induced serum sickness-like reaction which developed after receiving the first dose of AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibody Response of Vaccines to SARS-CoV-2)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 279 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy among New Jersey Teachers and Impacts of Vaccination Information Dissemination
by Kimberly T. Nguyen, Juhi Aggarwal, Maryanne L. Campbell, Stephanie Shiau and Derek G. Shendell
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020466 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1358
Abstract
Vaccine hesitancy continues to be prevalent in the United States, especially in relation to the COVID-19 vaccines and its boosters, which have been made increasingly available for public use as the pandemic has progressed. There continues to be concern surrounding the safety and [...] Read more.
Vaccine hesitancy continues to be prevalent in the United States, especially in relation to the COVID-19 vaccines and its boosters, which have been made increasingly available for public use as the pandemic has progressed. There continues to be concern surrounding the safety and health of secondary or high school education professionals as they transition back to in-person learning and working opportunities. The present study highlights how information dissemination regarding the COVID-19 vaccine has varied among New Jersey secondary or high school teachers throughout the pandemic. The survey was completed online through the PsychData platform by 269 participants between March and July 2022. Participants received the opportunity to complete the survey via email. Afterwards, data were exported and analyzed using Microsoft Excel and SAS 9.4 Analytics Software and stratified by various clinical and demographic-based variables. While trusted agencies and media outlets identified by participants varied, most participants identified the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (65.4%), primary care providers (37.5%), and state health departments (28.6%) as their top trusted sources for information related to COVID-19 vaccines. Overall, COVID-19 vaccination advocacy and educational efforts should continue across the state of New Jersey and elsewhere, especially as more variants emerge and boosters become available. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
13 pages, 284 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 Vaccine Uptake and Associated Factors in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from a Community-Based Survey in Tanzania
by Sia E. Msuya, Rachel N. Manongi, Norman Jonas, Monica Mtei, Caroline Amour, Melina B. Mgongo, Julieth S. Bilakwate, Maryam Amour, Albino Kalolo, Ntuli Kapologwe, James Kengia, Florian Tinuga, Frida Ngalesoni, Abdalla H. Bakari, Fatimata B. Kirakoya, Awet Araya and Innocent B. Mboya
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 465; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020465 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3469
Abstract
COVID-19 is a major public health threat associated with the increased global burden of infectious diseases, mortality, and enormous economic loss to countries and communities. Safe and efficacious COVID-19 vaccines are crucial in halting the pandemic. We assessed the COVID-19 vaccine uptake and [...] Read more.
COVID-19 is a major public health threat associated with the increased global burden of infectious diseases, mortality, and enormous economic loss to countries and communities. Safe and efficacious COVID-19 vaccines are crucial in halting the pandemic. We assessed the COVID-19 vaccine uptake and associated factors among community members from eight regions in Tanzania. The interviewer-administered questionnaire collected data. Multiple logistic regression models determined the factors associated with vaccine uptake. The median age of 3470 respondents was 37 years (interquartile range of 29–50 years) and 66% of them were females. Only 18% of them had received the COVID-19 vaccine, ranging from 8% in Dar es Salaam to 37% in Simiyu regions. A third (34%) of those vaccinated people did not know which vaccine they were given. Significantly higher rates of COVID-19 vaccine uptake were among the respondents aged 30+ years, males, and with a history of COVID-19 infection. Unfavorable perceptions about vaccine safety and efficacy lowered the rates of vaccine uptake. Setting-specific interventions and innovations are critical to improving vaccine uptake, given the observed differences between regions. Efforts are needed to increase vaccine uptake among women and younger people aged less than 30 years. Knowledge-based interventions should enhance the understanding of the available vaccines, benefits, target groups, and availability. Full article
7 pages, 976 KiB  
Case Report
Renal Biopsy Diagnosis of Acute Tubular Injury after Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccination: A Case Report
by Yu Soma, Daiyu Kitaji, Kaoru Hoshino, Sumire Sunohara, Takehisa Iwano and Naomi Kawano
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020464 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2017
Abstract
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a severe respiratory infection that can be fatal in unvaccinated individuals; however, acute kidney injury (AKI) is a rare adverse reaction to COVID-19 vaccination. AKI resulting from multiple conditions can have severe consequences, including end-stage renal failure, if [...] Read more.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a severe respiratory infection that can be fatal in unvaccinated individuals; however, acute kidney injury (AKI) is a rare adverse reaction to COVID-19 vaccination. AKI resulting from multiple conditions can have severe consequences, including end-stage renal failure, if not treated with immunosuppressive agents. However, acute tubular injury (ATI) as the sole cause of AKI has not been previously reported. Herein, we discuss an obese 54-year-old man with type 2 diabetes who received four COVID-19 vaccines; three from Pfizer and one from Moderna. Diabetic retinopathy, urinary protein, and occult blood were absent with no other underlying diseases. There was no history of COVID-19 infection. He was referred to our hospital 5 days after receiving the fourth Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine dose with stage 3 AKI. Urinary findings revealed new proteinuria and glomerular occult blood. Physical examination and infection testing were unremarkable. Steroids were introduced on admission for rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. A renal biopsy performed on Day 2 revealed only ATI. Therefore, steroids were discontinued on Day 5, after which renal function recovered spontaneously, and urinalysis abnormalities disappeared. Renal function remained normal during follow-up. We report a case of AKI with severe renal dysfunction after COVID-19 vaccination, wherein renal biopsy effectively determined the disease status (ATI), which did not require immunosuppressive treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination Strategies for COVID-19)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2744 KiB  
Article
Impact of BNT162b2 Booster Dose on SARS-CoV-2 Anti-Trimeric Spike Antibody Dynamics in a Large Cohort of Italian Health Care Workers
by Laura V. Renna, Fabio Bertani, Alessandro Podio, Sara Boveri, Matteo Carrara, Arianna Pinton, Valentina Milani, Giovanni Spuria, Angelica F. Nizza, Sara Basilico, Carola Dubini, Ambra Cerri, Lorenzo Menicanti, Massimiliano M. Corsi-Romanelli, Alexis E. Malavazos and Rosanna Cardani
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020463 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1729
Abstract
Accurate studies on the dynamics of Pfizer-Biontech BNT162b2-induced antibodies are crucial to better tailor booster dose administration depending on age, comorbidities, and previous natural infection with SARS-CoV-2. To date, little is known about the durability and kinetics of antibody titers months after receiving [...] Read more.
Accurate studies on the dynamics of Pfizer-Biontech BNT162b2-induced antibodies are crucial to better tailor booster dose administration depending on age, comorbidities, and previous natural infection with SARS-CoV-2. To date, little is known about the durability and kinetics of antibody titers months after receiving a booster dose. In this work, we studied the dynamic of anti-Trimeric Spike (anti-TrimericS) IgG titer in the healthcare worker population of a large academic hospital in Northern Italy, in those who had received two vaccine doses plus a booster dose. Blood samples were collected on the day of dose 1, dose 2, then 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after dose 2, the day of the administration of the booster dose, then 1 month and 3 months after the booster dose. The vaccination immunogenicity was evaluated by dosing anti-TrimericS IgG titer, which was further studied in relation to SARS-CoV-2 infection status, age, and sex. Our results suggest that after the booster dose, the anti-TrimericS IgG production was higher in the subjects that were infected only after the completion of the vaccination cycle, compared to those that were infected both before and after the vaccination campaign. Moreover, the booster dose administration exerts a leveling effect, mitigating the differences in the immunogenicity dependent on sex and age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section COVID-19 Vaccines and Vaccination)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 3546 KiB  
Article
Oral and Subcutaneous Immunization with a Plant-Produced Mouse-Specific Zona Pellucida 3 Peptide Presented on Hepatitis B Core Antigen Virus-like Particles
by Khadijeh Ghasemian, Inge Broer, Jennifer Schön, Richard Killisch, Nadine Kolp, Armin Springer and Jana Huckauf
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020462 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1809
Abstract
A short mouse-specific peptide from zona pellucida 3 (mZP3, amino acids 328–342) has been shown to be associated with antibody-mediated contraception. In this study, we investigated the production of mZP3 in the plant, as an orally applicable host, and examined the immunogenicity of [...] Read more.
A short mouse-specific peptide from zona pellucida 3 (mZP3, amino acids 328–342) has been shown to be associated with antibody-mediated contraception. In this study, we investigated the production of mZP3 in the plant, as an orally applicable host, and examined the immunogenicity of this small peptide in the BALB/c mouse model. The mZP3 peptide was inserted into the major immunodominant region of the hepatitis B core antigen and was produced in Nicotiana benthamiana plants via Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression. Soluble HBcAg-mZP3 accumulated at levels up to 2.63 mg/g leaf dry weight (LDW) containing ~172 µg/mg LDW mZP3 peptide. Sucrose gradient analysis and electron microscopy indicated the assembly of the HBcAg-mZP3 virus-like particles (VLPs) in the soluble protein fraction. Subcutaneously administered mZP3 peptide displayed on HBcAg VLPs was immunogenic in BALB/c mice at a relatively low dosage (5.5 µg mZP3 per dose) and led to the generation of mZP3-specific antibodies that bound to the native zona pellucida of wild mice. Oral delivery of dried leaves expressing HBcAg-mZP3 also elicited mZP3-specific serum IgG and mucosal IgA that cross-reacted with the zona pellucida of wild mice. According to these results, it is worthwhile to investigate the efficiency of plants producing HBcAg-mZP3 VLPs as immunogenic edible baits in reducing the fertility of wild mice through inducing antibodies that cross-react to the zona pellucida. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Vaccines Based on Virus-Like Particles-2nd Edition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop