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Antioxidants, Volume 13, Issue 1 (January 2024) – 134 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Heavy metals pose a serious threat to human health. Recent studies have linked damage associated with heavy metal exposure to oxidative stress and aging, and have identified common pathways, such as apoptosis, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and mitochondrial stress. Chelation therapy is a traditional approach to heavy metal-induced disorders, but recently the focus has shifted to antioxidants, which have been proven to be more effective treatments. This review discusses the molecular basis of heavy metal toxicity, its correlation with aging, and its clinical significance, as well as the role of antioxidants and other protective agents against heavy metal damage, reflecting the evolving paradigm in therapeutic approaches. View this paper
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14 pages, 2063 KiB  
Article
Photoprotective Effects of Two New Morin-Schiff Base Derivatives on UVB-Irradiated HaCaT Cells
by Sara García-Gil, Azahara Rodríguez-Luna, Javier Ávila-Román, Gabriela Rodríguez-García, Rosa E. del Río, Virginia Motilva, Mario A. Gómez-Hurtado and Elena Talero
Antioxidants 2024, 13(1), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13010134 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1162
Abstract
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation harms the skin, causing oxidative damage, inflammation, and disruption of the skin’s barrier function. There is considerable interest in identifying new natural ingredients with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties to serve as adjuvants in sunscreens. The flavonoid morin (1) [...] Read more.
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation harms the skin, causing oxidative damage, inflammation, and disruption of the skin’s barrier function. There is considerable interest in identifying new natural ingredients with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties to serve as adjuvants in sunscreens. The flavonoid morin (1) can undergo structural modifications to enhance its biological properties. The aim of this study was to synthesize two new morin-Schiff base derivatives, morin oxime (2) and morin semicarbazone (3), comparing their photoprotective effects with that of the parent compound on UVB-exposed HaCaT keratinocytes. The chemical structure of the novel compounds was revealed based on spectroscopic data analysis. Our findings demonstrated that derivatives 2 and 3 enhanced the light absorption capability in the UV–visible (vis) range compared to 1. Tested compounds exhibited a higher scavenger capacity than Trolox. Moreover, pre-treatment with all compounds protected HaCaT cells from UVB-induced cell death. Compound 3 demonstrated the strongest antioxidant effect, reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and, subsequently, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Additionally, compounds 2 and 3 exhibited greater anti-inflammatory effects than compound 1, significantly reducing interleukin (IL)-6 production levels at all tested concentrations. These findings have demonstrated, for the first time, a promising photoprotective activity of two new Schiff base derivatives and suggest their use as natural sunscreen ingredients. Full article
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18 pages, 1366 KiB  
Review
A Critical Appraisal of the Protective Activity of Polyphenolic Antioxidants against Iatrogenic Effects of Anticancer Chemotherapeutics
by Rosa Purgatorio, Angelina Boccarelli, Leonardo Pisani, Modesto de Candia, Marco Catto and Cosimo D. Altomare
Antioxidants 2024, 13(1), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13010133 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1353
Abstract
Polyphenolic compounds, encompassing flavonoids (e.g., quercetin, rutin, and cyanidin) and non-flavonoids (e.g., gallic acid, resveratrol, and curcumin), show several health-related beneficial effects, which include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antiviral, and anticarcinogenic properties, as well as the prevention of coronary heart diseases. Polyphenols have also [...] Read more.
Polyphenolic compounds, encompassing flavonoids (e.g., quercetin, rutin, and cyanidin) and non-flavonoids (e.g., gallic acid, resveratrol, and curcumin), show several health-related beneficial effects, which include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antiviral, and anticarcinogenic properties, as well as the prevention of coronary heart diseases. Polyphenols have also been investigated for their counteraction against the adverse effects of common anticancer chemotherapeutics. This review evaluates the outcomes of clinical studies (and related preclinical data) over the last ten years, with a focus on the use of polyphenols in chemotherapy as auxiliary agents acting against oxidative stress toxicity induced by antitumor drugs. While further clinical studies are needed to establish adequate doses and optimal delivery systems, the improvement in polyphenols’ metabolic stability and bioavailability, through the implementation of nanotechnologies that are currently being investigated, could improve therapeutic applications of their pharmaceutical or nutraceutical preparations in tumor chemotherapy. Full article
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25 pages, 4078 KiB  
Review
The Roles of Neutrophil-Derived Myeloperoxidase (MPO) in Diseases: The New Progress
by Wei Lin, Huili Chen, Xijing Chen and Chaorui Guo
Antioxidants 2024, 13(1), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13010132 - 22 Jan 2024
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2288
Abstract
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a heme-containing peroxidase, mainly expressed in neutrophils and, to a lesser extent, in monocytes. MPO is known to have a broad bactericidal ability via catalyzing the reaction of Cl with H2O2 to produce a strong oxidant, [...] Read more.
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a heme-containing peroxidase, mainly expressed in neutrophils and, to a lesser extent, in monocytes. MPO is known to have a broad bactericidal ability via catalyzing the reaction of Cl with H2O2 to produce a strong oxidant, hypochlorous acid (HOCl). However, the overproduction of MPO-derived oxidants has drawn attention to its detrimental role, especially in diseases characterized by acute or chronic inflammation. Broadly speaking, MPO and its derived oxidants are involved in the pathological processes of diseases mainly through the oxidation of biomolecules, which promotes inflammation and oxidative stress. Meanwhile, some researchers found that MPO deficiency or using MPO inhibitors could attenuate inflammation and tissue injuries. Taken together, MPO might be a promising target for both prognostic and therapeutic interventions. Therefore, understanding the role of MPO in the progress of various diseases is of great value. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the diverse roles of MPO in the progression of several diseases, including cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), neurodegenerative diseases, cancers, renal diseases, and lung diseases (including COVID-19). This information serves as a valuable reference for subsequent mechanistic research and drug development. Full article
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12 pages, 3147 KiB  
Article
Peiminine Exerts Its Anti-Acne Effects by Regulating the NF-κB Pathway
by So Jin Cha, Seon Sook Kim, Jin Hak Shin and Su Ryeon Seo
Antioxidants 2024, 13(1), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13010131 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1211
Abstract
Peiminine is the main natural alkaloid compound extracted from the Chinese herb Fritillaria. Although peiminine is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in conditions such as mastitis and arthritis, its impact on inflammation induced by Cutibacterisum acnes (C. acnes) has [...] Read more.
Peiminine is the main natural alkaloid compound extracted from the Chinese herb Fritillaria. Although peiminine is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in conditions such as mastitis and arthritis, its impact on inflammation induced by Cutibacterisum acnes (C. acnes) has not been explored. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of peiminine on C. acnes-induced inflammatory responses in the skin and to identify the underlying mechanism involved. We discovered that peiminine inhibits the C. acnes-induced expression of inflammatory mediators such as pro-interleukin-1β (pro-IL-1β), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). Peiminine suppressed the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) without affecting the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways such as JNK, ERK, and p38 MAPK. In addition, we found that peiminine suppressed inflammatory cytokine expression and ameliorated histological symptoms in C. acnes-induced mouse skin. Our study is the first to provide evidence that peiminine has an inhibitory effect on acne, and it points toward the potential of incorporating peiminine into cosmetic and pharmaceutical formulations for acne treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants for Skin Health)
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14 pages, 2397 KiB  
Article
High Tyrosol and Hydroxytyrosol Intake Reduces Arterial Inflammation and Atherosclerotic Lesion Microcalcification in Healthy Older Populations
by Nada Zoubdane, Redha-Alla Abdo, Michel Nguyen, M’hamed Bentourkia, Eric E. Turcotte, Hicham Berrougui, Tamas Fulop and Abdelouahed Khalil
Antioxidants 2024, 13(1), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13010130 - 22 Jan 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1303
Abstract
Aging is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and convincing data have shown that chronic low-grade inflammation, which develops with advanced age, contributes significantly to cardiovascular risk. The present study aimed to use 18F-FDG/18F-NaF-PET/CT imaging to, respectively, gauge arterial [...] Read more.
Aging is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and convincing data have shown that chronic low-grade inflammation, which develops with advanced age, contributes significantly to cardiovascular risk. The present study aimed to use 18F-FDG/18F-NaF-PET/CT imaging to, respectively, gauge arterial inflammation and microcalcification in a healthy elderly population and to assess the potential benefits of a tyrosol- and hydroxytyrosol-rich diet on these two markers of atherosclerotic plaque fragility. Eleven healthy participants (mean age 75 ± 5.67 years) were supplemented for 6 months with high polyphenol-rich extra virgin olive oil (HP-EVOO), extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), or refined olive oil (ROO). The participants underwent PET/CT imaging with 18F-FDG and 18F-NaF radiotracers at baseline and after 6 months. 18F-FDG and 18F-NaF uptakes were quantified using standardized uptake values (SUV) and were categorized based on artery calcification and olive oil type. A total of 324 slices of the aortas of the imaged participants were analyzed for arterial inflammation and 327 slices were analyzed for microcalcification. 18F-FDG uptake was significantly higher in the non-calcified segments than in the calcified segments (SUVmax = 2.70 ± 0.62 and SUVmax = 2.54 ± 0.44, respectively, p < 0.042). Conversely, the non-calcified segments displayed significantly lower 18F-NaF uptake than the calcified segments (SUVmax = 1.90 ± 0.37 and 2.09 ± 0.24, respectively, p < 0.0001). The 6-month supplementation with HP-EVOO induced a significant reduction in 18F-FDG uptake in both the non-calcified (2.93 ± 0.23 to 2.75 ± 0.38, p < 0.004) and calcified segments of the aortas (2.25 ± 0.29 to 2.15 ± 0.19, p < 0.02). 18F-NaF uptake was also significantly lower in patients supplemented with HP-EVOO (SUVmax = 1.98 ± 0.33 at baseline compared to 1.85 ± 0.28, after the 6-month supplementation, p < 0.004), whereas no significant effect was observed with EVOO. Conversely, participants supplemented with ROO displayed a significant increase in 18F-NaF uptake (SUVmax = 1.78 ± 0.34 to 1.95 ± 0.34, p < 0.0001). The present study confirmed that a phenolic-compound-rich diet reduces both arterial inflammation and atherosclerotic lesion microcalcification and demonstrated that 18F-FDG/18F-NaF-PET/CT imaging is a valuable approach for assessing age-related arterial damage. Full article
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19 pages, 4964 KiB  
Article
Effects of Alkalinity Exposure on Antioxidant Status, Metabolic Function, and Immune Response in the Hepatopancreas of Macrobrachium nipponense
by Shubo Jin, Mingjia Xu, Xuanbin Gao, Sufei Jiang, Yiwei Xiong, Wenyi Zhang, Hui Qiao, Yan Wu and Hongtuo Fu
Antioxidants 2024, 13(1), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13010129 - 21 Jan 2024
Viewed by 927
Abstract
The oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense is an important freshwater economic species in China, producing huge economic benefits. However, M. nipponense shows lower alkali tolerance than fish species, thus genetic selection is urgently needed in order to improve alkali tolerance in this species. [...] Read more.
The oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense is an important freshwater economic species in China, producing huge economic benefits. However, M. nipponense shows lower alkali tolerance than fish species, thus genetic selection is urgently needed in order to improve alkali tolerance in this species. In the present study, the effects of alkalinity exposure on the hepatopancreas of M. nipponense were measured under the alkali concentrations of 0 (control), 4, 8, and 12 mmol/L with the exposure time of 96 h through histological observations, measurement of antioxidant enzymes, metabolic profiling analysis, and transcriptome profiling analysis. The present study identified that the low concentration of alkali treatment (<4 mmol/L) did not result in morphological changes in the hepatopancreas and activity changes in antioxidant enzymes, while high-alkali treatment (>8 mmol/L) damaged the normal structures of the lumen and vacuoles and significantly stimulated the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and total antioxidant capacity, indicating these antioxidant enzymes play essential roles in the protection of the body from the damage caused by the alkali treatment. Metabolic profiling analysis revealed that the main enriched metabolic pathways of differentially expressed metabolites in the present study were consistent with the metabolic pathways caused by environmental stress in plants and other aquatic animals. Transcriptome profiling analysis revealed that the alkali concentration of <8 mmol/L did not lead to significant changes in gene expression. The main enriched metabolic pathways were selected from the comparison between 0 mmol/L vs. 12 mmol/L, and some significantly up-regulated genes were selected from these metabolic pathways, predicting these selected metabolic pathways and genes are involved in the adaptation to alkali treatment in M. nipponense. The expressions of Ras-like GTP-binding protein, Doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 1a, and Hypothetical protein JAY84 are sensitive to changes in alkali concentrations, suggesting these three genes participated in the process of alkali adaptation in M. nipponense. The present study identified the effects of alkalinity exposure on the hepatopancreas of M. nipponense, including the changes in antioxidant status and the expressions of metabolites and genes, contributing to further studies of alkali tolerance in this species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Aquatic Animal Health)
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28 pages, 2233 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Effect of an Olive Phenolic Extract on the Secondary Shelf Life of a Fresh Pesto
by Beatrice Sordini, Stefania Urbani, Sonia Esposto, Roberto Selvaggini, Luigi Daidone, Gianluca Veneziani, Maurizio Servili and Agnese Taticchi
Antioxidants 2024, 13(1), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13010128 - 20 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1084
Abstract
Recent advances in the olive oil sector aim to develop sustainable strategies for the valorisation of mechanical extraction co-products as a rich source of bioactive compounds with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. In this work, we studied the effectiveness of a phenolic extract (PE) [...] Read more.
Recent advances in the olive oil sector aim to develop sustainable strategies for the valorisation of mechanical extraction co-products as a rich source of bioactive compounds with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. In this work, we studied the effectiveness of a phenolic extract (PE) from olive vegetation water (OVW) as a new antioxidant of natural origin for improving the quality and extending the secondary shelf life (SSL) of a fresh basil pesto sold as a served loose product at the deli counter, simulating the storage conditions after packaging, opening, and serving. For that, the PE was mixed with the oily phase of fresh pesto in two different concentrations and compared to a control pesto (CTRL) made with the addition of common additives (ascorbic acid (E300) and sorbic acid (E200)). The physicochemical parameters, phenolic and volatile composition, sensory profiles, and antioxidant capacity of the experimental pesto samples were evaluated after opening. The results proved that the enrichment with the PE improved the stability of the pesto and, hence, its overall quality. The PE provided higher protection than the CTRL against primary and secondary oxidation at both concentrations tested and delayed the accumulation of the volatile compounds responsible for the ‘rancid’ off-flavour up to 7 days after first opening, while also preserving higher levels of the pesto phytonutrients (such as the rosmarinic, caffeic, and chicoric acids and α-tocopherol). These results show that the generation of food waste in households, catering chains, retail, and/or restaurants can be reduced, improving the sustainability of the food industry and the competitiveness of the olive oil sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Processing on Antioxidant Rich Foods - 2nd Edition)
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25 pages, 1229 KiB  
Review
Using Redox Proteomics to Gain New Insights into Neurodegenerative Disease and Protein Modification
by Paula Cadenas-Garrido, Ailén Schonvandt-Alarcos, Lourdes Herrera-Quintana, Héctor Vázquez-Lorente, Alicia Santamaría-Quiles, Jon Ruiz de Francisco, Marina Moya-Escudero, David Martín-Oliva, Sandra M. Martín-Guerrero, César Rodríguez-Santana, Jerónimo Aragón-Vela and Julio Plaza-Diaz
Antioxidants 2024, 13(1), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13010127 - 20 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1694
Abstract
Antioxidant defenses in biological systems ensure redox homeostasis, regulating baseline levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS). Oxidative stress (OS), characterized by a lack of antioxidant defenses or an elevation in ROS and RNS, may cause a modification of biomolecules, [...] Read more.
Antioxidant defenses in biological systems ensure redox homeostasis, regulating baseline levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS). Oxidative stress (OS), characterized by a lack of antioxidant defenses or an elevation in ROS and RNS, may cause a modification of biomolecules, ROS being primarily absorbed by proteins. As a result of both genome and environment interactions, proteomics provides complete information about a cell’s proteome, which changes continuously. Besides measuring protein expression levels, proteomics can also be used to identify protein modifications, localizations, the effects of added agents, and the interactions between proteins. Several oxidative processes are frequently used to modify proteins post-translationally, including carbonylation, oxidation of amino acid side chains, glycation, or lipid peroxidation, which produces highly reactive alkenals. Reactive alkenals, such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, are added to cysteine (Cys), lysine (Lys), or histidine (His) residues by a Michael addition, and tyrosine (Tyr) residues are nitrated and Cys residues are nitrosylated by a Michael addition. Oxidative and nitrosative stress have been implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases as a result of oxidative damage to the brain, which may be especially vulnerable due to the large consumption of dioxygen. Therefore, the current methods applied for the detection, identification, and quantification in redox proteomics are of great interest. This review describes the main protein modifications classified as chemical reactions. Finally, we discuss the importance of redox proteomics to health and describe the analytical methods used in redox proteomics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Redox Proteomics)
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13 pages, 1417 KiB  
Article
Non-Thyroidal Illness in Chronic Renal Failure: Triiodothyronine Levels and Modulation of Extra-Cellular Superoxide Dismutase (ec-SOD)
by Antonio Mancini, Andrea Silvestrini, Fabio Marcheggiani, Emmanuele Capobianco, Sonia Silvestri, Erminia Lembo, Patrick Orlando, Flavia Beccia, Nicola Nicolotti, Nicola Panocchia and Luca Tiano
Antioxidants 2024, 13(1), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13010126 - 20 Jan 2024
Viewed by 839
Abstract
Oxidative stress (OS) is implicated in several chronic diseases. Extra-cellular superoxide dismutase (ec-SOD) catalyses the dismutation of superoxide anions with a protective role in endothelial cells. In chronic kidney disease (CKD), OS and thyroid dysfunction (low fT3 syndrome) are frequently present, but their [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress (OS) is implicated in several chronic diseases. Extra-cellular superoxide dismutase (ec-SOD) catalyses the dismutation of superoxide anions with a protective role in endothelial cells. In chronic kidney disease (CKD), OS and thyroid dysfunction (low fT3 syndrome) are frequently present, but their relationship has not yet been investigated. This cohort study evaluated ec-SOD activity in CKD patients during haemodialysis, divided into “acute haemodialytic patients” (AH, 1–3 months of treatment) and “chronic haemodialytic patients” (CH, treated for a longer period). We also evaluated plasmatic total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and its relationships with thyroid hormones. Two basal samples (“basal 1”, obtained 3 days after the last dialysis; and “basal 2”, obtained 2 days after the last dialysis) were collected. On the same day of basal 2, a sample was collected 5 and 10 min after the standard heparin dose and at the end of the procedure. The ec-SOD values were significantly higher in CH vs. AH in all determinations. Moreover, the same patients had lower TAC values. When the CH patients were divided into two subgroups according to fT3 levels (normal or low), we found significantly lower ec-SOD values in the group with low fT3 in the basal, 5, and 10 min samples. A significant correlation was also observed between fT3 and ec-SOD in the basal 1 samples. These data, confirming OS and low fT3 syndrome in patients with CKD, suggest that low fT3 concentrations can influence ec-SOD activity and could therefore potentially contribute to endothelial oxidative damage in these patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Antioxidant Enzyme Systems)
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15 pages, 1571 KiB  
Article
Telomere Maintenance Is Associated with Type 2 Diabetes Remission in Response to a Long-Term Dietary Intervention without Non-Weight Loss in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease: From the CORDIOPREV Randomized Controlled Trial
by Ana Ojeda-Rodriguez, Juan F. Alcala-Diaz, Oriol Alberto Rangel-Zuñiga, Antonio P. Arenas-de Larriva, Francisco M. Gutierrez-Mariscal, Jose D. Torres-Peña, Marina Mora-Ortiz, Juan L. Romero-Cabrera, Raul M. Luque, Jose M. Ordovas, Pablo Perez-Martinez, Javier Delgado-Lista, Elena M. Yubero-Serrano and Jose Lopez-Miranda
Antioxidants 2024, 13(1), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13010125 - 19 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1201
Abstract
In order to evaluate whether telomere maintenance is associated with type 2 diabetes remission, newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients without glucose-lowering treatment (183 out of 1002) from the CORDIOPREV study (NCT00924937) were randomized to consume a Mediterranean or low-fat diet. Patients were [...] Read more.
In order to evaluate whether telomere maintenance is associated with type 2 diabetes remission, newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients without glucose-lowering treatment (183 out of 1002) from the CORDIOPREV study (NCT00924937) were randomized to consume a Mediterranean or low-fat diet. Patients were classified as Responders, those who reverted from type 2 diabetes during the 5 years of dietary intervention (n = 69), and Non-Responders, who did not achieve diabetes remission by the end of the follow-up period (n = 104). We found no differences in diabetes remission between the two diets, and we determined telomere length (TL) by measuring qPCR, telomerase activity using the TRAP assay, and direct redox balance based on the ratio of reduced glutathione (GSH) to oxidized glutathione (GSSH) via colorimetric assay. Responders exhibited higher baseline TL in comparison with Non-Responders (p = 0.040), and a higher TL at baseline significantly predicted a higher probability of type 2 diabetes remission (OR 2.13; 95% CI, 1.03 to 4.41). After the dietary intervention, Non-Responders showed significant telomere shortening (−0.19, 95% CI −0.32 to 0.57; p = 0.005). Telomere shortening was significantly pronounced in type 2 diabetes patients with a worse profile of insulin resistance and/or beta-cell functionality: high hepatic insulin resistance fasting, a high disposition index (−0.35; 95% CI, −0.54 to −0.16; p < 0.001), and a low disposition index (−0.25; 95% CI, −0.47 to −0.01; p = 0.037). In addition, changes in TL were correlated to the GSH/GSSG ratio. Responders also showed increased telomerase activity compared with baseline (p = 0.048), from 0.16 (95% CI, 0.08 to 0.23) to 0.28 (95% CI, 0.15 to 0.40), with a more marked increase after the dietary intervention compared with Non-Responders (+0.07; 95% CI, −0.06–0.20; p = 0.049). To conclude, telomere maintenance may play a key role in the molecular mechanisms underlying type 2 diabetes remission in newly diagnosed patients. However, further larger-scale prospective studies are necessary to corroborate our findings. Full article
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17 pages, 9681 KiB  
Article
The Hepatokine RBP4 Links Metabolic Diseases to Articular Inflammation
by Andrés Pazos-Pérez, María Piñeiro-Ramil, Eloi Franco-Trepat, Ana Alonso-Pérez, María Guillán-Fresco, Antía Crespo-Golmar, Miriam López-Fagúndez, Javier Conde Aranda, Susana Belen Bravo, Alberto Jorge-Mora and Rodolfo Gómez
Antioxidants 2024, 13(1), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13010124 - 19 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1263
Abstract
Objectives: This study investigates the role of retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) in an articular context. RBP4, a vitamin A transporter, is linked to various metabolic diseases. Methods: Synovial fluid RBP4 levels were assessed in crystalline arthritis (CA) patients using ELISA. RBP4’s impact [...] Read more.
Objectives: This study investigates the role of retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) in an articular context. RBP4, a vitamin A transporter, is linked to various metabolic diseases. Methods: Synovial fluid RBP4 levels were assessed in crystalline arthritis (CA) patients using ELISA. RBP4’s impact on articular cell types was analysed in vitro through RT-PCR and flow cytometry. Proteomic analysis was conducted on primary human osteoarthritis chondrocytes (hOACs). Results: Synovial fluid RBP4 concentrations in CA patients correlated positively with glucose levels and negatively with synovial leukocyte count and were elevated in hypertensive patients. In vitro, these RBP4 concentrations activated neutrophils, induced the expression of inflammatory factors in hOACs as well as synoviocytes, and triggered proteomic changes consistent with inflammation. Moreover, they increased catabolism and decreased anabolism, mitochondrial dysfunction, and glycolysis promotion. Both in silico and in vitro experiments suggested that RBP4 acts through TLR4. Conclusions: This study identifies relevant RBP4 concentrations in CA patients’ synovial fluids, linking them to hypertensive patients with a metabolic disruption. Evidence is provided that RBP4 acts as a DAMP at these concentrations, inducing robust inflammatory, catabolic, chemotactic, and metabolic responses in chondrocytes, synoviocytes, and neutrophils. These effects may explain RBP4-related metabolic diseases’ contribution to joint destruction in various rheumatic conditions like CA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress)
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23 pages, 13551 KiB  
Article
Prolonged Supplementation of Ozonated Sunflower Oil Bestows an Antiaging Effect, Improves Blood Lipid Profile and Spinal Deformities, and Protects Vital Organs of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) against Age-Related Degeneration: Two-Years Consumption Study
by Kyung-Hyun Cho, Ashutosh Bahuguna, Dae-Jin Kang and Ji-Eun Kim
Antioxidants 2024, 13(1), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13010123 - 19 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1571
Abstract
Ozonated sunflower oil (OSO) is renowned for its diverse therapeutic benefits. Nonetheless, the consequences of extended dietary intake of OSO have yet to be thoroughly investigated. Herein, the effect of 2-year dietary supplementation of OSO was examined on the survivability, obesity, skeletal deformities, [...] Read more.
Ozonated sunflower oil (OSO) is renowned for its diverse therapeutic benefits. Nonetheless, the consequences of extended dietary intake of OSO have yet to be thoroughly investigated. Herein, the effect of 2-year dietary supplementation of OSO was examined on the survivability, obesity, skeletal deformities, swimming behavior, and liver, kidney, ovary, and testis function of zebrafish. Results showed that the zebrafish feed supplemented with 20% (wt/wt) OSO for 2 years emerged with higher survivability and body weight management compared to sunflower oil (SO) and normal diet (ND)-supplemented zebrafish. Radio imaging (X-ray)-based analysis revealed 2.6° and 15.2° lower spinal curvature in the OSO-supplemented groups than in the SO and ND-supplemented groups; consistently, OSO-supplemented zebrafish showed better swimming behavior. The histology analysis of the liver revealed the least fatty liver change and interleukin (IL)-6 generation in the OSO-supplemented group. Additionally, a significantly lower level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), apoptotic, and senescent cells were observed in the liver of the OSO-supplemented zebrafish. Also, no adverse effect on the kidney, testis, and ovary morphology was detected during 2 years of OSO consumption. Moreover, lower senescence with diminished ROS and apoptosis was noticed in the kidney and ovary in response to OSO consumption. The OSO supplementation was found to be effective in countering age-associated dyslipidemia by alleviating total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoproteins (LDL-C) and elevating high-density lipoproteins (HDL-C)/TC levels. Conclusively, prolonged OSO consumption showed no adverse effect on the morphology and functionality of vital organs; in fact, OSO supplementation displayed a protective effect against age-associated detrimental effects on spinal deformities, vital organ functionality, cell senescence, and the survivability of zebrafish. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural and Synthetic Antioxidants)
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13 pages, 3846 KiB  
Article
Chrysoeriol Improves the Early Development Potential of Porcine Oocytes by Maintaining Lipid Homeostasis and Improving Mitochondrial Function
by Chao-Rui Wang, Xiu-Wen Yuan, He-Wei Ji, Yong-Nan Xu, Ying-Hua Li and Nam-Hyung Kim
Antioxidants 2024, 13(1), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13010122 - 19 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1036
Abstract
Our previous study established that chrysoeriol (CHE) can reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, apoptosis, and autophagy in vitro culture (IVC) of porcine embryos. However, the role of CHE in oocyte maturation and lipid homeostasis is unclear. Herein, we aimed to elucidate the [...] Read more.
Our previous study established that chrysoeriol (CHE) can reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, apoptosis, and autophagy in vitro culture (IVC) of porcine embryos. However, the role of CHE in oocyte maturation and lipid homeostasis is unclear. Herein, we aimed to elucidate the effect of CHE on porcine oocyte competence in vitro maturation (IVM) and subsequent embryo development. The study chooses parthenogenetic activated porcine oocytes as the research model. The study revealed that the cumulus expansion index and related gene expressions are significantly elevated after supplementing 1 μM CHE. Although there were no significant differences in nuclear maturation and cleavage rates, the blastocyst formation rate and total cell numbers were significantly increased in the 1 μM CHE group. In addition, CHE improved the expression of genes related to oocyte and embryo development. ROS was significantly downregulated in all CHE treatment groups, and intracellular GSH (glutathione) was significantly upregulated in 0.01, 0.1, and 1 μM CHE groups. The immunofluorescence results indicated that mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and lipid droplet (LD), fatty acid (FA), ATP, and functional mitochondria contents significantly increased with 1 μM CHE compared to the control. Furthermore, CHE increased the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism, mitochondrial biogenesis, and β-oxidation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Antioxidant Ingredients from Natural Products)
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13 pages, 5131 KiB  
Article
Maintaining the Mitochondrial Quality Control System Was a Key Event of Tanshinone IIA against Deoxynivalenol-Induced Intestinal Toxicity
by Cong Zhang, Youshuang Wang, Xinyu Zhang, Kefei Zhang, Fengjuan Chen, Jiayan Fan, Xuebing Wang and Xu Yang
Antioxidants 2024, 13(1), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13010121 - 18 Jan 2024
Viewed by 872
Abstract
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the one of the most common mycotoxins, widely detected in various original foods and processed foods. Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) is a fat-soluble diterpene quinone extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, which has multi-biological functions and pharmacological effects. However, whether Tan [...] Read more.
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the one of the most common mycotoxins, widely detected in various original foods and processed foods. Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) is a fat-soluble diterpene quinone extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, which has multi-biological functions and pharmacological effects. However, whether Tan IIA has a protective effect against DON-induced intestinal toxicity is unknown. In this study, the results showed Tan IIA treatment could attenuate DON-induced IPEC-J2 cell death. DON increased oxidation product accumulation, decreased antioxidant ability and disrupted barrier function, while Tan IIA reversed DON-induced barrier function impairment and oxidative stress. Furthermore, Tan IIA dramatically improved mitochondrial function via mitochondrial quality control. Tan IIA could upregulate mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial fusion as well as downregulate mitochondrial fission and mitochondrial unfolded protein response. In addition, Tan IIA significantly attenuated mitophagy caused by DON. Collectively, Tan IIA presented a potential protective effect against DON toxicity and the underlying mechanisms were involved in mitochondrial quality control–mediated mitophagy. Full article
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23 pages, 2976 KiB  
Review
Diabetic Keratopathy: Redox Signaling Pathways and Therapeutic Prospects
by Francesco Buonfiglio, Joanna Wasielica-Poslednik, Norbert Pfeiffer and Adrian Gericke
Antioxidants 2024, 13(1), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13010120 - 18 Jan 2024
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1180
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus, the most prevalent endocrine disorder, not only impacts the retina but also significantly involves the ocular surface. Diabetes contributes to the development of dry eye disease and induces morphological and functional corneal alterations, particularly affecting nerves and epithelial cells. These changes [...] Read more.
Diabetes mellitus, the most prevalent endocrine disorder, not only impacts the retina but also significantly involves the ocular surface. Diabetes contributes to the development of dry eye disease and induces morphological and functional corneal alterations, particularly affecting nerves and epithelial cells. These changes manifest as epithelial defects, reduced sensitivity, and delayed wound healing, collectively encapsulated in the context of diabetic keratopathy. In advanced stages of this condition, the progression to corneal ulcers and scarring further unfolds, eventually leading to corneal opacities. This critical complication hampers vision and carries the potential for irreversible visual loss. The primary objective of this review article is to offer a comprehensive overview of the pathomechanisms underlying diabetic keratopathy. Emphasis is placed on exploring the redox molecular pathways responsible for the aberrant structural changes observed in the cornea and tear film during diabetes. Additionally, we provide insights into the latest experimental findings concerning potential treatments targeting oxidative stress. This endeavor aims to enhance our understanding of the intricate interplay between diabetes and ocular complications, offering valuable perspectives for future therapeutic interventions. Full article
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15 pages, 9799 KiB  
Article
ERK2 Is a Promoter of Cancer Cell Growth and Migration in Colon Adenocarcinoma
by Alessia Parascandolo, Giulio Benincasa, Francesco Corcione and Mikko O. Laukkanen
Antioxidants 2024, 13(1), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13010119 - 17 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1021
Abstract
ERK1/2 phosphorylation is frequently downregulated in the early phase of colon tumorigenesis with subsequent activation of ERK5. In the current work, we studied the advantages of ERK1/2 downregulation for tumor growth by dissecting the individual functions of ERK1 and ERK2. The patient sample [...] Read more.
ERK1/2 phosphorylation is frequently downregulated in the early phase of colon tumorigenesis with subsequent activation of ERK5. In the current work, we studied the advantages of ERK1/2 downregulation for tumor growth by dissecting the individual functions of ERK1 and ERK2. The patient sample data demonstrated decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the early phase of tumorigenesis followed by increased phosphorylation in late-stage colon adenocarcinomas with intratumoral invasion or metastasis. In vitro results indicated that SOD3-mediated coordination of small GTPase RAS regulatory genes inhibited RAS-ERK1/2 signaling. In vitro and in vivo studies suggested that ERK2 has a more prominent role in chemotactic invasion, collective migration, and cell proliferation than ERK1. Of note, simultaneous ERK1 and ERK2 expression inhibited collective cell migration and proliferation but tended to promote invasion, suggesting that ERK1 controls ERK2 function. According to the present data, phosphorylated ERK1/2 at the early phase of colon adenocarcinoma limits tumor mass expansion, whereas reactivation of the kinases at the later phase of colon carcinogenesis is associated with the initiation of metastasis. Additionally, our results suggest that ERK1 is a regulatory kinase that coordinates ERK2-promoted chemotactic invasion, collective migration, and cell proliferation. Our findings indicate that ROS, especially H2O2, are associated with the regulation of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in colon cancer by either increasing or decreasing kinase activity. These data suggest that ERK2 has a growth-promoting role and ERK1 has a regulatory role in colon tumorigenesis, which could lead to new avenues in the development of cancer therapy. Full article
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18 pages, 2888 KiB  
Article
Chickpea Seed Flours Improve the Nutritional and the Antioxidant Profiles of Traditional Shortbread Biscuits: Effects of In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion
by Cristina Delgado-Andrade, Raquel Olías, Mari Carmen Marín-Manzano, Isabel Seiquer and Alfonso Clemente
Antioxidants 2024, 13(1), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13010118 - 17 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1146
Abstract
Functional gluten-free biscuits enriched with commercial and landrace non-commercial chickpea flours were designed and compared with a traditional shortbread biscuit. They were analyzed in sensory attributes, amino acid profile, and antioxidant properties. Subsequently, the biscuits were digested in vitro to evaluate protein hydrolysis, [...] Read more.
Functional gluten-free biscuits enriched with commercial and landrace non-commercial chickpea flours were designed and compared with a traditional shortbread biscuit. They were analyzed in sensory attributes, amino acid profile, and antioxidant properties. Subsequently, the biscuits were digested in vitro to evaluate protein hydrolysis, amino acid bioaccessibility, phenolic compounds release, and antioxidant markers. The presence of chickpea flours provided golden color and heightened biscuit hardness and fracturability (especially in non-commercial), increasing crispness and reducing brittleness. The protein hydrolysis was similar among samples (≈15%), except for one of the non-commercial (≈20%). Amino acids such as arginine, phenylalanine, leucine, tyrosine, and lysine exhibited the highest bioaccessibilities. Incorporating chickpea flour improved the antioxidant activity and polyphenol content in undigested samples and bioaccesible fractions, with higher levels of p-coumaric and ferulic acids after digestion, regardless of the chickpea seed. Non-commercial flours increased the presence of resveratrol and/or catechin in the bioaccessible fraction. Antioxidant action assessed in the Caco-2 cell line showed that the protective effect against reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation did not always correlate with the in vitro antioxidant capacity. Our data support that the inclusion of chickpea flours in the formulation of functional biscuits provides the consumer with products of added nutritional value with attractive organoleptic features. Full article
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21 pages, 1279 KiB  
Review
Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Mitochondrial Dysfunction: A Link between Obesity and Atrial Fibrillation
by Alkora Ioana Balan, Vasile Bogdan Halațiu and Alina Scridon
Antioxidants 2024, 13(1), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13010117 - 17 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1753
Abstract
The adipose tissue has long been thought to represent a passive source of triglycerides and fatty acids. However, extensive data have demonstrated that the adipose tissue is also a major endocrine organ that directly or indirectly affects the physiological functions of almost all [...] Read more.
The adipose tissue has long been thought to represent a passive source of triglycerides and fatty acids. However, extensive data have demonstrated that the adipose tissue is also a major endocrine organ that directly or indirectly affects the physiological functions of almost all cell types. Obesity is recognized as a risk factor for multiple systemic conditions, including metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, sleep apnea, cardiovascular disorders, and many others. Obesity-related changes in the adipose tissue induce functional and structural changes in cardiac myocytes, promoting a wide range of cardiovascular disorders, including atrial fibrillation (AF). Due to the wealth of epidemiologic data linking AF to obesity, the mechanisms underlying AF occurrence in obese patients are an area of rich ongoing investigation. However, progress has been somewhat slowed by the complex phenotypes of both obesity and AF. The triad inflammation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction are critical for AF pathogenesis in the setting of obesity via multiple structural and functional proarrhythmic changes at the level of the atria. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive view of the close relationship between obesity-induced oxidative stress, inflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction and the pathogenesis of AF. The clinical implications of these mechanistic insights are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress)
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13 pages, 2410 KiB  
Article
Anastrozole Protects against Human Coronavirus Infection by Ameliorating the Reactive Oxygen Species–Mediated Inflammatory Response
by Eun-Bin Kwon, Buyun Kim, Young Soo Kim and Jang-Gi Choi
Antioxidants 2024, 13(1), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13010116 - 17 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1007
Abstract
The common human coronavirus (HCoV) exhibits mild disease with upper respiratory infection and common cold symptoms. HCoV-OC43, one of the HCoVs, can be used to screen drug candidates against SARS-CoV-2. We determined the antiviral effects of FDA/EMA-approved drug anastrozole (AZ) on two human [...] Read more.
The common human coronavirus (HCoV) exhibits mild disease with upper respiratory infection and common cold symptoms. HCoV-OC43, one of the HCoVs, can be used to screen drug candidates against SARS-CoV-2. We determined the antiviral effects of FDA/EMA-approved drug anastrozole (AZ) on two human coronaviruses, HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-229E, using MRC-5 cells in vitro. The AZ exhibited antiviral effects against HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-229E infection. Subsequent studies focused on HCoV-OC43, which is related to the SARS-CoV-2 family. AZ exhibited anti-viral effects and reduced the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β. It also inhibited NF-κB translocation to effectively suppress the inflammatory response. AZ reduced intracellular calcium and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, including mitochondrial ROS and Ca2+, induced by the virus. AZ inhibited the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome components and cleaved IL-1β, suggesting that it blocks NLRP3 inflammasome activation in HCoV-OC43-infected cells. Moreover, AZ enhanced cell viability and reduced the expression of cleaved gasdermin D (GSDMD), a marker of pyroptosis. Overall, we demonstrated that AZ exhibits antiviral activity against HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-229E. We specifically focused on its efficacy against HCoV-OC43 and showed its potential to reduce inflammation, inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome activation, mitigate mitochondrial dysfunction, and suppress pyroptosis in infected cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Microbial Infections)
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22 pages, 9168 KiB  
Article
Role of Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Chaperone-Mediated Autophagy and Lipophagy in Baicalin and N-Acetylcysteine Mitigation of Cadmium-Induced Lipid Accumulation in Liver
by Jian Sun, Yan Chen, Tao Wang, Waseem Ali, Yonggang Ma, Zongping Liu and Hui Zou
Antioxidants 2024, 13(1), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13010115 - 17 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1086
Abstract
Cadmium (Cd) is a major health concern globally and can accumulate and cause damage in the liver for which there is no approved treatment. Baicalin and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) have been found to have protective effects against a variety of liver injuries, but it [...] Read more.
Cadmium (Cd) is a major health concern globally and can accumulate and cause damage in the liver for which there is no approved treatment. Baicalin and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) have been found to have protective effects against a variety of liver injuries, but it is not clear whether their combined use is effective in preventing and treating Cd-induced lipid accumulation. The study found that Cd increased the production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) and elevated the level of chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). Interestingly, mROS-mediated CMA exacerbates the Cd-induced inhibition of lipophagy. Baicalin and NAC counteracted inhibition of lipophagy by attenuating Cd-induced CMA, suggesting an interplay between CMA elevation, mitochondrial destruction, and mROS formation. Maintaining the stability of mitochondrial structure and function is essential for alleviating Cd-induced lipid accumulation in the liver. Choline is an essential component of the mitochondrial membrane and is responsible for maintaining its structure and function. Mitochondrial transcriptional factor A (TFAM) is involved in mitochondrial DNA transcriptional activation and replication. Our study revealed that the combination of baicalin and NAC can regulate choline metabolism through TFAM and thereby maintain mitochondrial structure and functionality. In summary, the combination of baicalin and NAC plays a more beneficial role in alleviating Cd-induced lipid accumulation than the drug alone, and the combination of baicalin and NAC can stabilize mitochondrial structure and function and inhibit mROS-mediated CMA through TFAM-choline, thereby promoting lipophagy to alleviate Cd-induced lipid accumulation. Full article
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20 pages, 16240 KiB  
Article
PKCiota Inhibits the Ferroptosis of Esophageal Cancer Cells via Suppressing USP14-Mediated Autophagic Degradation of GPX4
by Hao Tao, Sheng-Jie Song, Ze-Wen Fan, Wen-Ting Li, Xin Jin, Wen Jiang, Jie Bai and Zhi-Zhou Shi
Antioxidants 2024, 13(1), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13010114 - 17 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1179
Abstract
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most frequent malignant tumors, and the mechanisms underlying the anti-ferroptosis of esophageal cancer cells are still largely unclear. This study aims to explore the roles of amplified protein kinase C iota (PKCiota) in the [...] Read more.
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most frequent malignant tumors, and the mechanisms underlying the anti-ferroptosis of esophageal cancer cells are still largely unclear. This study aims to explore the roles of amplified protein kinase C iota (PKCiota) in the ferroptosis of ESCC cells. Cell viability, colony formation, MDA assay, Western blotting, co-IP, PLA, and RNA-seq technologies are used to reveal the roles and mechanisms underlying the PKCiota-induced resistance of ESCC cells to ferroptosis. We showed here that PKCiota was amplified and overexpressed in ESCC and decreased during RSL3-induced ferroptosis of ESCC cells. PKCiota interacted with GPX4 and the deubiquitinase USP14 and improved the protein stability of GPX4 by suppressing the USP14-mediated autophagy–lysosomal degradation pathway. PKCiota was negatively regulated by miR-145-5p, which decreased in esophageal cancer, and also regulated by USP14 and GPX4 by a positive feedback loop. PKCiota silencing and miR-145-5p overexpression suppressed tumor growth of ESCC cells in vivo, respectively; even a combination of silencing PKCiota and RSL3 treatment showed more vital suppressive roles on tumor growth than silencing PKCiota alone. Both PKCiota silencing and miR-145-5p overexpression sensitized ESCC cells to RSL3-induced ferroptosis. These results unveiled that amplified and overexpressed PKCiota induced the resistance of ESCC cells to ferroptosis by suppressing the USP14-mediated autophagic degradation of GPX4. Patients with PKCiota/USP14/GPX4 pathway activation might be sensitive to GPX4-targeted ferroptosis-based therapy. Full article
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14 pages, 2774 KiB  
Article
Effects of Particulate Matter Inhalation during Exercise on Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Function in Mouse Skeletal Muscle
by Jinhan Park, Junho Jang, Byunghun So, Kanggyu Lee, Dongjin Yeom, Ziyi Zhang, Woo Shik Shin and Chounghun Kang
Antioxidants 2024, 13(1), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13010113 - 17 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1227
Abstract
Particulate matter (PM) has deleterious consequences not only on the respiratory system but also on essential human organs, such as the heart, blood vessels, kidneys, and liver. However, the effects of PM inhalation on skeletal muscles have yet to be sufficiently elucidated. Female [...] Read more.
Particulate matter (PM) has deleterious consequences not only on the respiratory system but also on essential human organs, such as the heart, blood vessels, kidneys, and liver. However, the effects of PM inhalation on skeletal muscles have yet to be sufficiently elucidated. Female C57BL/6 or mt-Keima transgenic mice were randomly assigned to one of the following four groups: control (CON), PM exposure alone (PM), treadmill exercise (EX), or PM exposure and exercise (PME). Mice in the three-treatment group were subjected to treadmill running (20 m/min, 90 min/day for 1 week) and/or exposure to PM (100 μg/m3). The PM was found to exacerbate oxidative stress and inflammation, both at rest and during exercise, as assessed by the levels of proinflammatory cytokines, manganese-superoxide dismutase activity, and the glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio. Furthermore, we detected significant increases in the levels of in vivo mitophagy, particularly in the PM group. Compared with the EX group, a significant reduction in the level of mitochondrial DNA was recorded in the PME group. Moreover, PM resulted in a reduction in cytochrome c oxidase activity and an increase in hydrogen peroxide generation. However, exposure to PM had no significant effect on mitochondrial respiration. Collectively, our findings in this study indicate that PM has adverse effects concerning both oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in skeletal muscle and mitochondria, both at rest and during exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress Induced by Air Pollution)
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18 pages, 2456 KiB  
Article
Pyridoxamine Limits Cardiac Dysfunction in a Rat Model of Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity
by Sibren Haesen, Manon Marie Jager, Aline Brillouet, Iris de Laat, Lotte Vastmans, Eline Verghote, Anouk Delaet, Sarah D’Haese, Ibrahim Hamad, Markus Kleinewietfeld, Jeroen Mebis, Wilfried Mullens, Ivo Lambrichts, Esther Wolfs, Dorien Deluyker and Virginie Bito
Antioxidants 2024, 13(1), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13010112 - 17 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1522
Abstract
The use of doxorubicin (DOX) chemotherapy is restricted due to dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. Pyridoxamine (PM) is a vitamin B6 derivative with favorable effects on diverse cardiovascular diseases, suggesting a cardioprotective effect on DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. The cardioprotective nature of PM was investigated in a rat [...] Read more.
The use of doxorubicin (DOX) chemotherapy is restricted due to dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. Pyridoxamine (PM) is a vitamin B6 derivative with favorable effects on diverse cardiovascular diseases, suggesting a cardioprotective effect on DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. The cardioprotective nature of PM was investigated in a rat model of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Six-week-old female Sprague Dawley rats were treated intravenously with 2 mg/kg DOX or saline (CTRL) weekly for eight weeks. Two other groups received PM via the drinking water next to DOX (DOX+PM) or saline (CTRL+PM). Echocardiography, strain analysis, and hemodynamic measurements were performed to evaluate cardiac function. Fibrotic remodeling, myocardial inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and ferroptosis were evaluated by various in vitro techniques. PM significantly attenuated DOX-induced left ventricular (LV) dilated cardiomyopathy and limited TGF-β1-related LV fibrotic remodeling and macrophage-driven myocardial inflammation. PM protected against DOX-induced ferroptosis, as evidenced by restored DOX-induced disturbance of redox balance, improved cytosolic and mitochondrial iron regulation, and reduced mitochondrial damage at the gene level. In conclusion, PM attenuated the development of cardiac damage after DOX treatment by reducing myocardial fibrosis, inflammation, and mitochondrial damage and by restoring redox and iron regulation at the gene level, suggesting that PM may be a novel cardioprotective strategy for DOX-induced cardiomyopathy. Full article
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17 pages, 3220 KiB  
Article
Chemical Profiling, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Hyoseris radiata L., a Plant Used in the Phytoalimurgic Tradition
by Maria Vitiello, Michela Pecoraro, Marinella De Leo, Fabiano Camangi, Valentina Parisi, Giuliana Donadio, Alessandra Braca, Silvia Franceschelli and Nunziatina De Tommasi
Antioxidants 2024, 13(1), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13010111 - 17 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1069
Abstract
Hyoseris radiata L. (Asteraceae), known as “wild chicory”, is a perennial herbaceous plant native to the Mediterranean region, North Africa, and West Asia. Collected from the wild, the plant is largely used in Italy for culinary purposes and in popular medicine, so that [...] Read more.
Hyoseris radiata L. (Asteraceae), known as “wild chicory”, is a perennial herbaceous plant native to the Mediterranean region, North Africa, and West Asia. Collected from the wild, the plant is largely used in Italy for culinary purposes and in popular medicine, so that it can be included in the list of phytoalimurgic plants. The present study aimed to investigate for the first time the plant’s chemical profile, through a combined UHPLC-HR-ESI-Orbitrap/MS and NMR approach, and its potential healthy properties, focusing on antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The LC-MS/MS analysis and the isolation through chromatographic techniques of the plant’s hydroalcoholic extract allowed the authors to identify 48 compounds, including hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonoids, megastigmane glucosides, coumarins, and lignans, together with several unsaturated fatty acids. The quantitative analysis highlighted a relevant amount of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids, with a total of 12.9 ± 0.4 mg/g DW. NMR-based chemical profiling revealed the presence of a good amount of amino acids and monosaccharides, and chicoric and chlorogenic acids as the most representative polyphenols. Finally, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of H. radiata were investigated through cell-free and cell-based assays, showing a good antioxidant potential for the plant extract and a significant reduction in COX-2 expression. Full article
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15 pages, 287 KiB  
Article
Association between Oxidative Stress with Psychological and Biochemical Variables in a Sample of Healthy Mexican People: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Ana Míriam Saldaña-Cruz, Sergio Gabriel Gallardo-Moya, Liliana Campos-Medina and Aniel Jessica Leticia Brambila-Tapia
Antioxidants 2024, 13(1), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13010110 - 17 Jan 2024
Viewed by 887
Abstract
Oxidative stress (OS) has been linked to cell damage and chronic disease development; however, the study of psychological factors related with OS has been limited, as has its relationship with biochemical and personal variables. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress (OS) has been linked to cell damage and chronic disease development; however, the study of psychological factors related with OS has been limited, as has its relationship with biochemical and personal variables. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between a wide variety of personal, psychological, and biochemical factors with OS in a sample of healthy Mexican people. A total of 134 participants, from which 70 (52%) were women, without known chronic conditions were included in the study, and the molecule 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was also measured as a marker of OS. We observed in the multivariate analysis of the whole sample that depressive symptoms (measured with CES-D scale) were the only psychological variable significantly associated (positively) with 8-OHdG. In addition, the following sociodemographic variables were associated with 8-OHdG: age, schooling (positively correlated), and the frequency of vitamins/antioxidant consumption (negatively correlated). The biochemical variables of erythrocytes in urine and amylase were positively correlated with 8-OHdG, while glucose was negatively correlated with it. Additional biochemical variables were associated in the multivariate analysis of each sex, including the positive correlation of LDL-cholesterol, LDH enzyme, lymphocytes, and the negative correlation of phosphorus and eosinophils in women’s samples, as well as the positive correlation of potassium, uric acid, and leucocytes in urine and the negative correlation of erythrocytes and lipase in the men’s samples. In conclusion, depression was the only psychological variable positively correlated with 8-OHdG after adjusting for confounders, and new associations with biochemical variables were found with some differences between sexes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Aberrant Oxidation of Biomolecules)
18 pages, 9646 KiB  
Article
Vutiglabridin Alleviates Cellular Senescence with Metabolic Regulation and Circadian Clock in Human Dermal Fibroblasts
by Jin-Woong Heo, Hye-Eun Lee, Jimin Lee, Leo Sungwong Choi, Jaejin Shin, Ji-Young Mun, Hyung-Soon Park, Sang-Chul Park and Chang-Hoon Nam
Antioxidants 2024, 13(1), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13010109 - 16 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1290
Abstract
The process of cellular senescence, which is characterized by stable cell cycle arrest, is strongly associated with dysfunctional cellular metabolism and circadian rhythmicity, both of which are reported to result from and also be causal to cellular senescence. As a result, modifying any [...] Read more.
The process of cellular senescence, which is characterized by stable cell cycle arrest, is strongly associated with dysfunctional cellular metabolism and circadian rhythmicity, both of which are reported to result from and also be causal to cellular senescence. As a result, modifying any of them—senescence, metabolism, or the circadian clock—may affect all three simultaneously. Obesity accelerates aging by disrupting the homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via an increased mitochondrial burden of fatty acid oxidation. As a result, if senescence, metabolism, and circadian rhythm are all linked, anti-obesity treatments may improve metabolic regulation while also alleviating senescence and circadian rhythm. Vutiglabridin is a small molecule in clinical trials that improves obesity by enhancing mitochondrial function. We found that chronic treatment of senescent primary human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) with vutiglabridin alleviates all investigated markers of cellular senescence (SA-β-gal, CDKN1A, CDKN2A) and dysfunctional cellular circadian rhythm (BMAL1) while remarkably preventing the alterations of mitochondrial function and structure that occur during the process of cellular senescence. Our results demonstrate the significant senescence-alleviating effects of vutiglabridin, specifically with the restoration of cellular circadian rhythmicity and metabolic regulation. These data support the potential development of vutiglabridin against aging-associated diseases and corroborate the intricate link between cellular senescence, metabolism, and the circadian clock. Full article
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16 pages, 2232 KiB  
Article
Albumin Redox Modifications Promote Cell Calcification Reflecting the Impact of Oxidative Status on Aortic Valve Disease and Atherosclerosis
by Tamara Sastre-Oliva, Nerea Corbacho-Alonso, Elena Rodriguez-Sanchez, Elisa Mercado-García, Ines Perales-Sanchez, German Hernandez-Fernandez, Cristina Juarez-Alia, Teresa Tejerina, Luis F. López-Almodóvar, Luis R. Padial, Pedro L. Sánchez, Ernesto Martín-Núñez, Natalia López-Andrés, Gema Ruiz-Hurtado, Laura Mourino-Alvarez and Maria G. Barderas
Antioxidants 2024, 13(1), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13010108 - 16 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1257
Abstract
Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) and coronary artery disease (CAD) are related cardiovascular diseases in which common mechanisms lead to tissue calcification. Oxidative stress plays a key role in these diseases and there is also evidence that the redox state of serum albumin [...] Read more.
Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) and coronary artery disease (CAD) are related cardiovascular diseases in which common mechanisms lead to tissue calcification. Oxidative stress plays a key role in these diseases and there is also evidence that the redox state of serum albumin exerts a significant influence on these conditions. To further explore this issue, we used multimarker scores (OxyScore and AntioxyScore) to assess the global oxidative status in patients with CAVD, with and without CAD, also evaluating their plasma thiol levels. In addition, valvular interstitial cells were treated with reduced, oxidized, and native albumin to study how this protein and its modifications affect cell calcification. The differences we found suggest that oxidative status is distinct in CAVD and CAD, with differences in redox markers and thiol levels. Importantly, the in vitro interstitial cell model revealed that modified albumin affects cell calcification, accelerating this process. Hence, we show here the importance of the redox system in the development of CAVD, emphasizing the relevance of multimarker scores, while also offering evidence of how the redox state of albumin influences vascular calcification. These data highlight the relevance of understanding the overall redox processes involved in these diseases, opening the door to new studies on antioxidants as potential therapies for these patients. Full article
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14 pages, 910 KiB  
Article
Oxidative Balance Score and New-Onset Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Adults without Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study-Health Examinees (KoGES-HEXA) Cohort
by Mid-Eum Moon, Dong Hyuk Jung, Seok-Jae Heo, Byoungjin Park and Yong Jae Lee
Antioxidants 2024, 13(1), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13010107 - 16 Jan 2024
Viewed by 983
Abstract
The oxidative balance score (OBS) is a novel composite of pro- and anti-oxidative markers for assessing the risk of cardiometabolic diseases and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, it has not yet been established whether the OBS is related to type 2 diabetes [...] Read more.
The oxidative balance score (OBS) is a novel composite of pro- and anti-oxidative markers for assessing the risk of cardiometabolic diseases and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, it has not yet been established whether the OBS is related to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), especially in a population without NALFD. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the longitudinal effect of the OBS on T2DM in a large cohort of Korean adults without NALFD. Data were assessed from 9798 participants without NALFD from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study-Health Examinees (KoGES-HEXA) cohort. The participants were divided into three groups according to OBS tertiles, identified as T1–T3. We prospectively assessed the hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for new-onset T2DM using multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models over 6 years following the baseline survey. During the mean 3.5 years of follow-up, 145 individuals (1.48%; 56 men and 89 women) developed T2DM. The HRs of T2DM for the OBS tertiles were 0.79 (95% CI, 0.53–1.18) and 0.60 (95% CI, 0.39–0.93) in the T2 and T3 groups after adjusting for metabolic parameters in subjects without NALFD, respectively; however, the T2 group did not show statistical significance toward a decrease in incident T2DM. A low OBS may be a useful predictive marker in new-onset T2DM for middle-aged and older subjects without NALFD. This implies that the OBS could be an additional valuable tool for assessing the incidence of T2DM among individuals without NAFLD. Full article
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24 pages, 6122 KiB  
Article
Oxidative Post-translational Protein Modifications upon Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury
by Aleksandra Binek, Celia Castans, Inmaculada Jorge, Navratan Bagwan, José Manuel Rodríguez, Rodrigo Fernández-Jiménez, Carlos Galán-Arriola, Eduardo Oliver, Mónica Gómez, Agustín Clemente-Moragón, Borja Ibanez, Emilio Camafeita and Jesús Vázquez
Antioxidants 2024, 13(1), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13010106 - 16 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1278
Abstract
While reperfusion, or restoration of coronary blood flow in acute myocardial infarction, is a requisite for myocardial salvage, it can paradoxically induce a specific damage known as ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Our understanding of the precise pathophysiological molecular alterations leading to I/R remains limited. [...] Read more.
While reperfusion, or restoration of coronary blood flow in acute myocardial infarction, is a requisite for myocardial salvage, it can paradoxically induce a specific damage known as ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Our understanding of the precise pathophysiological molecular alterations leading to I/R remains limited. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive and unbiased time-course analysis of post-translational modifications (PTMs) in the post-reperfused myocardium of two different animal models (pig and mouse) and evaluated the effect of two different cardioprotective therapies (ischemic preconditioning and neutrophil depletion). In pigs, a first wave of irreversible oxidative damage was observed at the earliest reperfusion time (20 min), impacting proteins essential for cardiac contraction. A second wave, characterized by irreversible oxidation on different residues and reversible Cys oxidation, occurred at late stages (6–12 h), affecting mitochondrial, sarcomere, and inflammation-related proteins. Ischemic preconditioning mitigated the I/R damage caused by the late oxidative wave. In the mouse model, the two-phase pattern of oxidative damage was replicated, and neutrophil depletion mitigated the late wave of I/R-related damage by preventing both Cys reversible oxidation and irreversible oxidation. Altogether, these data identify protein PTMs occurring late after reperfusion as an actionable therapeutic target to reduce the impact of I/R injury. Full article
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14 pages, 1733 KiB  
Article
Anti-Aging Properties of Chitosan-Based Hydrogels Rich in Bilberry Fruit Extract
by Elżbieta Studzińska-Sroka, Magdalena Paczkowska-Walendowska, Cansu Erdem, Jarosław Paluszczak, Robert Kleszcz, Marta Hoszman-Kulisz and Judyta Cielecka-Piontek
Antioxidants 2024, 13(1), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13010105 - 15 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1286
Abstract
Photoaging is a process related to an increased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Polyphenols can scavenge free radicals in the body, which can delay skin aging. Therefore, our work aimed to prepare a biologically active extract from dry fruits of Vaccinium myrtillus [...] Read more.
Photoaging is a process related to an increased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Polyphenols can scavenge free radicals in the body, which can delay skin aging. Therefore, our work aimed to prepare a biologically active extract from dry fruits of Vaccinium myrtillus or Vaccinium corymbosum and use it for the preparation of hydrogels for topical application. Therefore, eight different extracts (using V. myrtillus and V. corymbosum and different extraction mixtures: methanol, methanol–water 1:1, water, acetone–water 1:1) were prepared and their phytochemical (total polyphenolic content, total flavonoid content, total anthocyanin content) and biological properties (antioxidant, anti-hyaluronidase, and anti-tyrosinase activity) were assessed. Cytotoxicity towards HaCaT keratinocytes was also determined. Based on the results, the acetone–water extract from V. myrtillus was selected for further study. Using the Design of Experiments approach, chitosan-based hydrogels with bilberry fruit extract were prepared. The content of extract and chitosan were selected as independent factors. The activity of hydrogels depended on the extract content; however, the enzyme-inhibiting (anti-hyaluronidase and anti-tyrosinase) activity resulted from the presence of both the extract and chitosan. Increased concentration of chitosan in the hydrogel base led to increased viscosity of the hydrogel and, consequently, a slower release of active compounds. To get optimal hydrogel characteristics, 1% extract and 2.5% MMW chitosan were utilized. The research suggests the validity of using bilberry fruit extracts in topical preparations with anti-aging properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural and Synthetic Antioxidants)
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