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Antioxidants, Volume 11, Issue 9 (September 2022) – 215 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is an aging-related disease initiated by endothelial dysfunction. Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is involved in preserving endothelial function; however, its role in CAVD is unknown. This study demonstrated that decreased ILK endothelial expression is strongly associated with human CAVD development. ILK exerts a protective role in CAVD by preventing the valvular endothelial dysfunction and osteogenic transformation initiated by endothelial cell phenotypic transition (endMT). Mechanistically, ILK decreases NO release and activates the TGF/Smad pathway, a critical inducer of endMT. Nitric oxide supplementation prevents VEC-osteogenic differentiation and TGF-β/Smad pathway activation. Thus, ILK may represent a new therapeutic target in CAVD. View this paper
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46 pages, 1474 KiB  
Review
The Impact of Oxidative Stress and AKT Pathway on Cancer Cell Functions and Its Application to Natural Products
by Jun-Ping Shiau, Ya-Ting Chuang, Jen-Yang Tang, Kun-Han Yang, Fang-Rong Chang, Ming-Feng Hou, Ching-Yu Yen and Hsueh-Wei Chang
Antioxidants 2022, 11(9), 1845; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11091845 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 5028
Abstract
Oxidative stress and AKT serine-threonine kinase (AKT) are responsible for regulating several cell functions of cancer cells. Several natural products modulate both oxidative stress and AKT for anticancer effects. However, the impact of natural product-modulating oxidative stress and AKT on cell functions lacks [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress and AKT serine-threonine kinase (AKT) are responsible for regulating several cell functions of cancer cells. Several natural products modulate both oxidative stress and AKT for anticancer effects. However, the impact of natural product-modulating oxidative stress and AKT on cell functions lacks systemic understanding. Notably, the contribution of regulating cell functions by AKT downstream effectors is not yet well integrated. This review explores the role of oxidative stress and AKT pathway (AKT/AKT effectors) on ten cell functions, including apoptosis, autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial morphogenesis, ferroptosis, necroptosis, DNA damage response, senescence, migration, and cell-cycle progression. The impact of oxidative stress and AKT are connected to these cell functions through cell function mediators. Moreover, the AKT effectors related to cell functions are integrated. Based on this rationale, natural products with the modulating abilities for oxidative stress and AKT pathway exhibit the potential to regulate these cell functions, but some were rarely reported, particularly for AKT effectors. This review sheds light on understanding the roles of oxidative stress and AKT pathway in regulating cell functions, providing future directions for natural products in cancer treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products as Agents of Targeted Cancer Therapeutic Action)
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17 pages, 2330 KiB  
Article
The Catechins Profile of Green Tea Extracts Affects the Antioxidant Activity and Degradation of Catechins in DHA-Rich Oil
by Caroline Waingeh Nain, Eric Mignolet, Marie-France Herent, Joëlle Quetin-Leclercq, Cathy Debier, Melissa M. Page and Yvan Larondelle
Antioxidants 2022, 11(9), 1844; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11091844 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2480
Abstract
This study investigated the effect of the catechins profile on the antioxidant activity of green tea extracts (GTEs) by comparing the antioxidant activity of an EGC-rich GTE (GTE1, catechin content: 58% EGC, 30.1% EGCG, 7.9% EC, and 3.9% ECG) and an EGCG-rich GTE [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effect of the catechins profile on the antioxidant activity of green tea extracts (GTEs) by comparing the antioxidant activity of an EGC-rich GTE (GTE1, catechin content: 58% EGC, 30.1% EGCG, 7.9% EC, and 3.9% ECG) and an EGCG-rich GTE (GTE2, catechin content: 60.6% EGCG, 17.7% EGC, 11.8% ECG, and 9.8% EC) in a DHA-rich oil. The effects of the individual catechins (EGC, EC, EGCG, and ECG) and reconstituted catechins mixtures (CatMix), prepared to contain the same amount of major catechins as in the GTEs, were also measured. All treatments (GTE1, CatMix1, GTE2, CatMix2, EGC250, EC250, EGCG250, and ECG250), each containing epistructured catechins at a concentration of 250 ppm, as well as the control (oil with no added antioxidant), were stored at 30 °C for 21 days with sampling intervals of 7 days. The antioxidant activity was assessed by measuring the peroxide value (PV) and p-anisidine value (p-AV) of oils. Changes in fatty acid content and catechins content were also monitored. Both GTEs enhanced the oxidative stability of the DHA-rich oil, but GTE1 demonstrated a stronger antioxidant activity than GTE2. No significant difference was observed between the PV of treatments with GTE1 and CatMix1 during storage, whereas the PV of oil with GTE2 was significantly higher than that with CatMix2 after 21 days. Among the individual catechins, EGC was the strongest antioxidant. Overall, the antioxidant activities of the extracts and catechins were observed in the decreasing order GTE1 ≈ EGC250 ≈ CatMix1 > GTE2 > EGCG250 ≈ CatMix2 > ECG250 > EC250. A significant change in fatty acid content was observed for the control and EC250 samples, and the catechins were most stable in GTE1-supplemented oil. Our results indicate that the EGC-rich GTE is a more potent antioxidant in DHA-rich oil than the EGCG-rich GTE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipid Oxidation in Food and Antioxidant Strategies)
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12 pages, 764 KiB  
Article
Effects of Dietary Rutin Supplementation on the Intestinal Morphology, Antioxidant Capacity, Immunity, and Microbiota of Aged Laying Hens
by Hengzhi Li, Yunfeng Gu, Rui Jin, Qingfen He and Yanmin Zhou
Antioxidants 2022, 11(9), 1843; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11091843 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1840
Abstract
This research investigated the effects of dietary rutin supplementation on the intestinal morphology, antioxidant capacity, immunity, and microbiota of aged laying hens. The results showed that 500 mg/kg rutin supplementation increased the villus height of jejunum (P < 0.05). Rutin affected the [...] Read more.
This research investigated the effects of dietary rutin supplementation on the intestinal morphology, antioxidant capacity, immunity, and microbiota of aged laying hens. The results showed that 500 mg/kg rutin supplementation increased the villus height of jejunum (P < 0.05). Rutin affected the immune system of the ileum and the jejunum. In the jejunum, a diet with 500 mg/kg rutin supplementation enhanced secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and reduced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels (P < 0.05). A diet with 1000 mg/kg rutin supplementation increased jejunal sIgA, immunologlobulin M (IgM), and interleukin-4 (IL-4) levels while decreasing interleukin-1β (IL-1β), TNF-α, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) levels (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, a diet with 500 mg/kg rutin increased sIgA, immunologlobulin G (IgG), IgM, and interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels and reduced TNF-α and IFN-γ levels in the ileum (P < 0.05). In the ileum, a diet with 1000 mg/kg rutin supplementation raised sIgA, IgG, IgM, IL-4, and IL-10 levels while decreasing IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-γ levels (P < 0.05). At the family level, a diet with 500 mg/kg rutin supplementation raised the relative abundance of Monoglobaceae and decreased the relative abundance of Eubacteriaceae (P < 0.05) compared to the control group. In the 1000 mg/kg rutin group, the relative abundance of Lactobacillaceae and Unclassified Coriobacteriale was considerably lower and the relative abundance of Monoglobaceae was higher than the control group (P < 0.05). This study showed that a diet with rutin supplementation can improve the intestinal health of aged laying hens, and the mechanism is related to improving the intestinal morphology and intestinal immune status, and regulating the intestinal microbes. Full article
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19 pages, 1712 KiB  
Review
The Current State of Knowledge in Biological Properties of Cirsimaritin
by Taoufiq Benali, Imane Jaouadi, Rokia Ghchime, Nasreddine El Omari, Kaoutar Harboul, Khalil Hammani, Maksim Rebezov, Mohammad Ali Shariati, Mohammad S. Mubarak, Jesus Simal-Gandara, Gokhan Zengin, Moon-Nyeo Park, Bonglee Kim, Shafi Mahmud, Learn-Han Lee and Abdelhakim Bouyahya
Antioxidants 2022, 11(9), 1842; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11091842 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2851
Abstract
The search for natural plant-based products as new pharmacological alternatives to treat various human pathologies has taken on great importance for researchers and research laboratories. In this context, research has intensified to extract and identify natural molecules endowed with biological effects. The objective [...] Read more.
The search for natural plant-based products as new pharmacological alternatives to treat various human pathologies has taken on great importance for researchers and research laboratories. In this context, research has intensified to extract and identify natural molecules endowed with biological effects. The objective of this study is to review the source and pharmacological properties of cirsimaritin. The identification and isolation of this flavonoid from various natural sources, including medicinal plants such as Artemisia judaica, Cirsium japonicum, Lithocarpus dealbatus, Microtea debilis, and Ocimum sanctum, has been carried out and verified using different spectral techniques. Biological effect investigations are carried out with a wide variety of experimental models in vitro and in vivo and laboratory techniques. The results of these research works showed the biological properties of cirsimaritin including anticancer, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antiparasitic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. The mechanisms involved in the multiple activities of this molecule are diverse and include sub-cellular, cellular, and molecular levels. Indeed, this bioactive induces anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects by inhibiting cell membrane receptors, interference with signaling pathways, and inhibiting transcriptional factors such as Nf-κB involved in cell promotion and proliferation. In the light of these results, cirsimaritin appears as a promising and viable alternative natural bioactive drug to treat many pathological conditions. Full article
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13 pages, 2232 KiB  
Article
The Aftermath of Long-Term Cigarette Smoking on Telomere Length and Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number in Human Cumulus Cells Prior to In Vitro Fertilization—A Pilot Study
by Fani Konstantinidou, Maria Cristina Budani, Guya Diletta Marconi, Francesca Gonnella, Annalina Sarra, Oriana Trubiani, Liborio Stuppia, Gian Mario Tiboni and Valentina Gatta
Antioxidants 2022, 11(9), 1841; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11091841 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1868
Abstract
Cigarette smoking among women of reproductive age is known to take a toll on systemic health and fertility potential by severely impacting ovarian tissues and cells, such as granulosa and cumulus cells (CCs). The purpose of this study was to determine the potential [...] Read more.
Cigarette smoking among women of reproductive age is known to take a toll on systemic health and fertility potential by severely impacting ovarian tissues and cells, such as granulosa and cumulus cells (CCs). The purpose of this study was to determine the potential damage caused by tobacco smoke at a molecular level in the CCs of females who had undergone in vitro fertilization. The level of intracellular damage was determined by estimating the average telomere length (TL) and mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA-CN), as well as the expression profile of telomere maintenance genes TERF1, TERF2, POT1 and microRNAs miR-155, miR-23a and miR-185. Western blotting analysis was performed to detect consequent protein levels of TERF1, TERF2 and POT1. Our results evidenced significantly lower relative TL and mtDNA-CN and a down-regulation pattern for all three described genes and corresponding proteins in the CCs of smokers compared with controls (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found in the miRNAs’ modulation. Combined, our data add another piece to the puzzle of the complex regulatory molecular networks controlling the general effects of tobacco smoke in CCs. This pilot study extends the until now modest number of studies simultaneously investigating the mtDNA-CN and TL pathways in the human CCs of smoking women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Gene Regulation)
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20 pages, 3938 KiB  
Article
Carob (Ceratonia siliqua) as Functional Feed Is Beneficial in Yellow Mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) Rearing: Evidence from Growth, Antioxidant Status and Cellular Responses
by Efthimia Antonopoulou, Nikolas Panteli, Kostantinos Feidantsis, Maria Mastoraki, Eleni I. Koutsogeorgiou, Eirini Grivaki, Theodora Papagrigoriou, Spyros P. Christias, Stavros Chatzifotis, Diamanto Lazari, Stefanos S. Andreadis and Nikos Krigas
Antioxidants 2022, 11(9), 1840; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11091840 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2591
Abstract
In terms of sustainability and circular economy, agricultural by-products may be efficiently reused in insects’ rearing for high-quality protein sources in human diet and animal feeds. The present study aimed to explore whether the utilization of carob pods as feeding substrate may beneficially [...] Read more.
In terms of sustainability and circular economy, agricultural by-products may be efficiently reused in insects’ rearing for high-quality protein sources in human diet and animal feeds. The present study aimed to explore whether the utilization of carob pods as feeding substrate may beneficially affect Tenebrio molitor’s growth, nutritional value, antioxidant status and cellular responses. Increasing levels of milled whole carob pods (0, 25, 50, 75, 100%) were used as alternative wheat bran (control) substrates for yellow mealworm rearing, while growth performance, proximate composition, total phenolic content, antioxidant enzyme activity and the expression of stress- and apoptotic-related proteins were evaluated in larvae. The results showed that carob pods’ content up to 75% did not significantly differentiate larvae weight, development time and total dry matter. Larvae total phenolic content and antioxidant activity exhibited a significant increase at 75% content. Although the antioxidant enzymes’ activity decreased at both 25 and 50% levels, higher carob content levels (75 and 100%) resulted in no significant changes compared to the control. Carob pods led to decreased apoptotic indicators and the low expression of most stress-related proteins compared to the control. The present findings demonstrate that carob pods and their antioxidant properties exert beneficial effects on T. molitor’s rearing and nutritional status, although 100% carob content may impact adversely the larvae due to the high amounts of carob tannins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defense in Insects)
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13 pages, 3453 KiB  
Article
PD-1 Alleviates Cisplatin-Induced Muscle Atrophy by Regulating Inflammation and Oxidative Stress
by Xiaoguang Liu, Miaomiao Xu, Yang Yu, Yingjie Chen, Xinyu Weng and Lin Zhu
Antioxidants 2022, 11(9), 1839; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11091839 - 18 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2211
Abstract
Skeletal muscle atrophy is an important characteristic of cachexia, which can be induced by chemotherapy and significantly contributes to functional muscle impairment. Inflammation and oxidative stress are believed to play important roles in the muscle atrophy observed in cachexia, but whether programmed cell [...] Read more.
Skeletal muscle atrophy is an important characteristic of cachexia, which can be induced by chemotherapy and significantly contributes to functional muscle impairment. Inflammation and oxidative stress are believed to play important roles in the muscle atrophy observed in cachexia, but whether programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) is affected by this condition remains unclear. PD-1 is a membrane protein that is expressed on the surface of many immune cells and plays an important role in adaptive immune responses and autoimmunity. Thus, we investigated the role and underlying mechanism of PD-1 in cisplatin-induced muscle atrophy in mice. We found that PD-1 knockout dramatically contributed to skeletal muscle atrophy. Mechanistically, we found that E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases were significantly increased in PD-1 knockout mice after cisplatin treatment. In addition, we found that PD-1 knockout significantly exacerbated cisplatin-induced skeletal muscle inflammation and oxidative stress. Moreover, we found that there were significant increases in ferroptosis-related and autophagy-related genes in PD-1 knockout mice after cisplatin treatment. These data indicate that PD-1 plays an important role in cisplatin-induced skeletal muscle atrophy. Full article
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15 pages, 5441 KiB  
Article
Eugenol Attenuates Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus-Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis Via ROS-NRF2-ARE Signaling
by Kang Wang, Yan Tang, Xiu Wu, Hongmin Liang, Daiwen Chen, Bing Yu, Jun He, Xiangbing Mao, Zhiqing Huang, Hui Yan, Aimin Wu, Yuheng Luo, Ping Zheng, Jie Yu, Huifen Wang and Junqiu Luo
Antioxidants 2022, 11(9), 1838; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11091838 - 18 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2869
Abstract
Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), a coronavirus that causes severe diarrhea due to oxidative stress in the piglet intestine, is a major cause of economic loss in the livestock industry. However, limited interventions have been shown to be effective in the treatment of TGEV. [...] Read more.
Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), a coronavirus that causes severe diarrhea due to oxidative stress in the piglet intestine, is a major cause of economic loss in the livestock industry. However, limited interventions have been shown to be effective in the treatment of TGEV. Here, we demonstrate the therapeutic activity of eugenol in TGEV-induced intestinal oxidative stress and apoptosis. Our data show that eugenol supplementation protects intestine and IPEC-J2 cells from TGEV-induced damage. Mechanistically, eugenol reduces TGEV-induced oxidative stress in intestinal epithelial cells by reducing reactive oxygen species levels. Interestingly, eugenol also inhibits TGEV-induced intestinal cell apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, our data suggest that eugenol prevents TGEV-induced intestinal oxidative stress by reducing ROS-mediated damage to antioxidant signaling pathways. Therefore, eugenol may be a promising therapeutic strategy for TGEV infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress)
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17 pages, 3837 KiB  
Article
Chelerythrine-Induced Apoptotic Cell Death in HepG2 Cells Involves the Inhibition of Akt Pathway and the Activation of Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Apoptotic Pathway
by Yanling Lin, Qinzhi Zhang, Baofu Xie, Haiyang Jiang, Jianzhong Shen, Shusheng Tang and Chongshan Dai
Antioxidants 2022, 11(9), 1837; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11091837 - 18 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2022
Abstract
Chelerythrine (CHE) is a majorly harmful isoquinoline alkaloid ingredient in Chelidonium majus that could trigger potential hepatotoxicity, but the pivotal molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. In the present study, CHE-induced cytotoxicity and the underlying toxic mechanisms were investigated using human HepG2 cells in [...] Read more.
Chelerythrine (CHE) is a majorly harmful isoquinoline alkaloid ingredient in Chelidonium majus that could trigger potential hepatotoxicity, but the pivotal molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. In the present study, CHE-induced cytotoxicity and the underlying toxic mechanisms were investigated using human HepG2 cells in vitro. Data showed that CHE treatment (at 1.25–10 μM)-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells is dose-dependent. CHE treatment increased the production of ROS and induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. Additionally, CHE treatment triggered the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, decreased the expression of mitochondrial complexes, upregulated the expression of Bax, CytC, and cleaved-PARP1 proteins and the activities of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and downregulated the expression of Bcl-XL, and HO-1 proteins, finally resulting in cell apoptosis. N-acetylcysteine supplementation significantly inhibited CHE-induced ROS production and apoptosis. Furthermore, CHE treatment significantly downregulated the expression of phosphorylation (p)-Akt (Ser473), p-mTOR (Ser2448), and p-AMPK (Thr172) proteins in HepG2 cells. Pharmacology inhibition of Akt promoted CHE-induced the downregulation of HO-1 protein, caspase activation, and apoptosis. In conclusion, CHE-induced cytotoxicity may involve the inhibition of Akt pathway and the activation of oxidative stress-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in HepG2 cells. This study sheds new insights into understanding the toxic mechanisms and health risks of CHE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacological Characterization of Natural Antioxidants)
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12 pages, 983 KiB  
Article
Natural Activators of Autophagy Increase Maximal Walking Distance and Reduce Oxidative Stress in Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease: A Pilot Study
by Ombretta Martinelli, Mariangela Peruzzi, Simona Bartimoccia, Alessandra D’Amico, Simona Marchitti, Speranza Rubattu, Giovanni Alfonso Chiariello, Luca D’Ambrosio, Sonia Schiavon, Fabio Miraldi, Wael Saade, Mizar D’Abramo, Annachiara Pingitore, Lorenzo Loffredo, Cristina Nocella, Maurizio Forte and Pasquale Pignatelli
Antioxidants 2022, 11(9), 1836; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11091836 - 18 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 5198
Abstract
Trehalose, spermidine, nicotinamide, and polyphenols have been shown to display pro-autophagic and antioxidant properties, eventually reducing cardiovascular and ischemic complications. This study aimed to investigate whether a mixture of these components improves maximal walking distance (MWD) in peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients. Nitrite/nitrate [...] Read more.
Trehalose, spermidine, nicotinamide, and polyphenols have been shown to display pro-autophagic and antioxidant properties, eventually reducing cardiovascular and ischemic complications. This study aimed to investigate whether a mixture of these components improves maximal walking distance (MWD) in peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients. Nitrite/nitrate (NOx), endothelin-1, sNOX2-dp, H2O2 production, H2O2 break-down activity (HBA), ATG5 and P62 levels, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and MWD were evaluated in 20 PAD patients randomly allocated to 10.5 g of mixture or no-treatment in a single-blind study. The above variables were assessed at baseline and 60 days after mixture ingestion. Compared with baseline, mixture intake significantly increased MWD (+91%; p < 0.01) and serum NOx (+96%; p < 0.001), whereas it significantly reduced endothelin-1 levels (−30%, p < 0.01). Moreover, mixture intake led to a remarkable reduction in sNOX2dp (−31%, p < 0.05) and H2O2 (−40%, p < 0.001) and potentiated antioxidant power (+110%, p < 0.001). Finally, mixture ingestion restored autophagy by increasing ATG5 (+43%, p < 0.01) and decreasing P62 (−29%, p < 0.05). No changes in the above-mentioned variables were observed in the no-treatment group. The treatment with a mixture of trehalose, spermidine, nicotinamide, and polyphenols improves MWD in PAD patients, with a mechanism possibly related to NOX2-mediated oxidative stress downregulation and autophagic flux upregulation. Clinical Trial Registration unique identifier: NCT04061070. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Vascular Regulation, Disease and Treatment)
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15 pages, 2556 KiB  
Article
Differential Effects of Arsenic in Drinking Water on Mouse Hepatic and Intestinal Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression
by Hui Li, Xiaoyu Fan, Xiangmeng Wu, Weiguo Han, Mary Kay Amistadi, Pengfei Liu, Donna Zhang, Jon Chorover, Xinxin Ding and Qing-Yu Zhang
Antioxidants 2022, 11(9), 1835; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11091835 - 18 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1737
Abstract
Arsenic exposure has been associated with the risks of various diseases, including cancers and metabolic diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of arsenic exposure via drinking water on the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a major responsive gene [...] Read more.
Arsenic exposure has been associated with the risks of various diseases, including cancers and metabolic diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of arsenic exposure via drinking water on the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a major responsive gene to arsenic-induced oxidative stress, in mouse intestinal epithelial cells which is the first site of exposure for ingested arsenic, and the liver, a known target of arsenic toxicity. The expression of HO-1 was determined at mRNA, protein, or enzymic activity levels in mice exposed to sodium arsenite through drinking water, at various doses (0, 2.5, 10, 25, 100 ppm), and for various time periods (1, 3, 7, or 28 days). HO-1 was significantly induced in the intestine, but not liver, at arsenic doses of 25 ppm or lower. The intestinal HO-1 induction was seen in both males and females, plateaued within 1–3 days of exposure, and was accompanied by increases in microsomal HO activity. In mice exposed to 25-ppm of arsenite for 7 days, total arsenic and As(III) levels in intestinal epithelial cells were significantly higher than in the liver. These findings identify intestinal epithelial cells as likely preferential targets for arsenic toxicity and support further studies on the functional consequences of intestinal HO-1 induction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental and Therapeutic Targeting of Heme Oxygenase)
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25 pages, 1423 KiB  
Review
Neuropharmacological Effects of Terpenoids on Preclinical Animal Models of Psychiatric Disorders: A Review
by Tamanna Jahan Mony, Fazle Elahi, Ji Woong Choi and Se Jin Park
Antioxidants 2022, 11(9), 1834; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11091834 - 18 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2535
Abstract
Terpenoids are widely distributed in nature, especially in the plant kingdom, and exhibit diverse pharmacological activities. In recent years, screening has revealed a wide variety of new terpenoids that are active against different psychiatric disorders. This review synthesized the current published preclinical studies [...] Read more.
Terpenoids are widely distributed in nature, especially in the plant kingdom, and exhibit diverse pharmacological activities. In recent years, screening has revealed a wide variety of new terpenoids that are active against different psychiatric disorders. This review synthesized the current published preclinical studies of terpenoid use in psychiatric disorders. This review was extensively investigated to provide empirical evidence regarding the neuropharmacological effects of the vast group of terpenoids in translational models of psychiatric disorders, their relevant mechanisms of action, and treatment regimens with evidence of the safety and psychotropic efficacy. Therefore, we utilized nine (9) electronic databases and performed manual searches of each. The relevant data were retrieved from the articles published until present. We used the search terms “terpenoids” or “terpenes” and “psychiatric disorders” (“psychiatric disorders” OR “psychiatric diseases” OR “neuropsychiatric disorders” OR “psychosis” OR “psychiatric symptoms”). The efficacy of terpenoids or biosynthetic compounds in the terpenoid group was demonstrated in preclinical animal studies. Ginsenosides, bacosides, oleanolic acid, asiatic acid, boswellic acid, mono- and diterpenes, and different forms of saponins and triterpenoids were found to be important bioactive compounds in several preclinical studies of psychosis. Taken together, the findings of the present review indicate that natural terpenoids and their derivatives could achieve remarkable success as an alternative therapeutic option for alleviating the core or associated behavioral features of psychiatric disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Psychiatric Research)
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24 pages, 10270 KiB  
Article
New Properties of a Well-Known Antioxidant: Pleiotropic Effects of Human Lactoferrin in Mice Exposed to Gamma Irradiation in a Sublethal Dose
by Marina Yu. Kopaeva, Irina B. Alchinova, Anton B. Cherepov, Marina S. Demorzhi, Mikhail V. Nesterenko, Irina Yu. Zarayskaya and Mikhail Yu. Karganov
Antioxidants 2022, 11(9), 1833; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11091833 - 18 Sep 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1739
Abstract
We studied the effects of human lactoferrin (hLf), a multifunctional protein from the transferrin family, on integral (survival, lifespan during the experiment, body weight, behavior, subfractional compositions of blood serum) and systemic (hemoglobin level, leukocyte number, differential leukocyte count, histological structure of the [...] Read more.
We studied the effects of human lactoferrin (hLf), a multifunctional protein from the transferrin family, on integral (survival, lifespan during the experiment, body weight, behavior, subfractional compositions of blood serum) and systemic (hemoglobin level, leukocyte number, differential leukocyte count, histological structure of the liver and spleen) parameters of the body in mice after acute gamma irradiation in a sublethal dose. The experiments were performed on male C57BL/6 mice. The mice in the experimental groups were exposed to whole-body gamma radiation in a dose of 7.5 Gy from a 60Co source. Immediately after irradiation and 24 h after it, some animals received an intraperitoneal injection of hLf (4 mg/mouse). Single or repeated administration of hLf had a positive pleiotropic effect on irradiated animals: animal survival increased from 28% to 78%, and the mean life expectancy during the experiment (30 days) increased from 16 to 26 days. A compensatory effect of hLf on radiation-induced body weight loss, changes in homeostasis parameters, and a protective effect on the structural organization of the spleen were demonstrated. These data indicate that Lf has potential as a means of early therapy after radiation exposure. Full article
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14 pages, 914 KiB  
Article
Oxidized Resveratrol Metabolites as Potent Antioxidants and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitors
by Orinamhe G. Agbadua, Norbert Kúsz, Róbert Berkecz, Tamás Gáti, Gábor Tóth and Attila Hunyadi
Antioxidants 2022, 11(9), 1832; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11091832 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1649
Abstract
Resveratrol is a well-known natural polyphenol with a plethora of pharmacological activities. As a potent antioxidant, resveratrol is highly oxidizable and readily reacts with reactive oxygen species (ROS). Such a reaction not only leads to a decrease in ROS levels in a biological [...] Read more.
Resveratrol is a well-known natural polyphenol with a plethora of pharmacological activities. As a potent antioxidant, resveratrol is highly oxidizable and readily reacts with reactive oxygen species (ROS). Such a reaction not only leads to a decrease in ROS levels in a biological environment but may also generate a wide range of metabolites with altered bioactivities. Inspired by this notion, in the current study, our aim was to take a diversity-oriented chemical approach to study the chemical space of oxidized resveratrol metabolites. Chemical oxidation of resveratrol and a bioactivity-guided isolation strategy using xanthine oxidase (XO) and radical scavenging activities led to the isolation of a diverse group of compounds, including a chlorine-substituted compound (2), two iodine-substituted compounds (3 and 4), two viniferins (5 and 6), an ethoxy-substituted compound (7), and two ethoxy-substitute,0d dimers (8 and 9). Compounds 4, 7, 8, and 9 are reported here for the first time. All compounds without ethoxy substitution exerted stronger XO inhibition than their parent compound, resveratrol. By enzyme kinetic and in silico docking studies, compounds 2 and 4 were identified as potent competitive inhibitors of the enzyme, while compound 3 and the viniferins acted as mixed-type inhibitors. Further, compounds 2 and 9 had better DPPH scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbing capacity than resveratrol. Our results suggest that the antioxidant activity of resveratrol is modulated by the effect of a cascade of chemically stable oxidized metabolites, several of which have significantly altered target specificity as compared to their parent compound. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Metabolites of Antioxidants)
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17 pages, 2479 KiB  
Article
Free, Conjugated, and Bound Phenolics in Peel and Pulp from Four Wampee Varieties: Relationship between Phenolic Composition and Bio-Activities by Multivariate Analysis
by Xue Lin, Yousheng Shi, Pan Wen, Xiaoping Hu and Lu Wang
Antioxidants 2022, 11(9), 1831; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11091831 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1613
Abstract
Free, conjugated, and bound phenolic fractions of peel and pulp in four wampee varieties from South China were analyzed for their contents, composition, antioxidant capacities, and inhibitory activities against α-glucosidase. We found that there were significant differences in phenolic/flavonoid contents among diverse [...] Read more.
Free, conjugated, and bound phenolic fractions of peel and pulp in four wampee varieties from South China were analyzed for their contents, composition, antioxidant capacities, and inhibitory activities against α-glucosidase. We found that there were significant differences in phenolic/flavonoid contents among diverse varieties and different parts (peel and pulp), and the contents were highest in the peel’s bound form. The results of UHPL-Q-Exactive HF-X and HPLC showed that chlorogenic acid, gentisic acid, and rutin were abundantly distributed over the three phenolic fractions in peel and pulp of all wampee samples, while isoquercitrin was the most abundant in the conjugated form of peel/pulp and myricetin had the richest content in the free form of peel/pulp. Wampee peel had stronger antioxidant capacities of ABTS+, DPPH, ·OH, and FRAP than the pulp, and the bound phenolic fraction of the peel/pulp had much higher antioxidant activities than FP and CP fractions. It is interesting that the same phenolic fraction of the wampee peel displayed roughly close IC50 values of α-glucosidase inhibition to those from the pulp samples. The relationship between individual phenolic and TPC/TFC/the bio-activities and the similarity among the free, conjugated, and bound phenolic fractions in peel and pulp samples were explored by using Pearson correlation analysis, principal component analysis, and hierarchical cluster analysis. This work provides a systematic and comprehensive comparison of the three phenolic fractions of diverse wampee varieties and different parts, and a rationale for applying phenolics from wampee fruits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Potential of Extracts from Foods and Plants)
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16 pages, 847 KiB  
Review
NADPH Oxidases in Aortic Aneurysms
by Morgan Salmon
Antioxidants 2022, 11(9), 1830; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11091830 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2174
Abstract
Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are a progressive dilation of the infrarenal aorta and are characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration, smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, and degradation of the extracellular matrix. Oxidative stress and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been [...] Read more.
Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are a progressive dilation of the infrarenal aorta and are characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration, smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, and degradation of the extracellular matrix. Oxidative stress and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to play roles in inflammatory cell infiltration, and smooth muscle cell migration and apoptosis in AAAs. In this review, we discuss the principles of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH oxidase/NOX) signaling and activation. We also discuss the effects of some of the major mediators of NOX signaling in AAAs. Separately, we also discuss the influence of genetic or pharmacologic inhibitors of NADPH oxidases on experimental pre-clinical AAAs. Experimental evidence suggests that NADPH oxidases may be a promising future therapeutic target for developing pharmacologic treatment strategies for halting AAA progression or rupture prevention in the management of clinical AAAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NADPH Oxidases in Health and Aging)
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28 pages, 8119 KiB  
Review
The Impact of Tobacco Cigarettes, Vaping Products and Tobacco Heating Products on Oxidative Stress
by Rosalia Emma, Massimo Caruso, Davide Campagna, Roberta Pulvirenti and Giovanni Li Volti
Antioxidants 2022, 11(9), 1829; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11091829 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 6313
Abstract
Cells constantly produce oxidizing species because of their metabolic activity, which is counteracted by the continuous production of antioxidant species to maintain the homeostasis of the redox balance. A deviation from the metabolic steady state leads to a condition of oxidative stress. The [...] Read more.
Cells constantly produce oxidizing species because of their metabolic activity, which is counteracted by the continuous production of antioxidant species to maintain the homeostasis of the redox balance. A deviation from the metabolic steady state leads to a condition of oxidative stress. The source of oxidative species can be endogenous or exogenous. A major exogenous source of these species is tobacco smoking. Oxidative damage can be induced in cells by chemical species contained in smoke through the generation of pro-inflammatory compounds and the modulation of intracellular pro-inflammatory pathways, resulting in a pathological condition. Cessation of smoking reduces the morbidity and mortality associated with cigarette use. Next-generation products (NGPs), as alternatives to combustible cigarettes, such as electronic cigarettes (e-cig) and tobacco heating products (THPs), have been proposed as a harm reduction strategy to reduce the deleterious impacts of cigarette smoking. In this review, we examine the impact of tobacco smoke and MRPs on oxidative stress in different pathologies, including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and tumors. The impact of tobacco cigarette smoke on oxidative stress signaling in human health is well established, whereas the safety profile of MRPs seems to be higher than tobacco cigarettes, but further, well-conceived, studies are needed to better understand the oxidative effects of these products with long-term exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Respiratory Diseases)
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14 pages, 3652 KiB  
Article
FaAKR23 Modulates Ascorbic Acid and Anthocyanin Accumulation in Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) Fruits
by Lingzhi Wei, Huabo Liu, Yang Ni, Jing Dong, Chuanfei Zhong, Rui Sun, Shuangtao Li, Rong Xiong, Guixia Wang, Jian Sun, Yuntao Zhang, Linlin Chang and Yongshun Gao
Antioxidants 2022, 11(9), 1828; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11091828 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2009
Abstract
Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruits are rich in ascorbic acid (AsA) and anthocyanin, which are essential antioxidants for human health. However, the underlying regulatory mechanism of these antioxidant accumulation, especially AsA accumulation in strawberry fruits, remains largely unknown. In this study, [...] Read more.
Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruits are rich in ascorbic acid (AsA) and anthocyanin, which are essential antioxidants for human health. However, the underlying regulatory mechanism of these antioxidant accumulation, especially AsA accumulation in strawberry fruits, remains largely unknown. In this study, we identified FaAKR23 was a regulator of AsA and anthocyanin accumulation. We transiently expressed FaAKR23 in strawberry fruits and conducted metabolic and molecular analyses to explore the role of FaAKR23 in AsA and anthocyanin accumulation. Transient silencing of FaAKR23 (FaAKR23-RNAi) in strawberry fruits significantly decreased the AsA and anthocyanin contents compared with control (empty vector-RNAi, EV-RNAi). Correspondingly, expression of some structural genes and regulatory factors involved in these two antioxidants’ accumulation was dramatically repressed. In addition, transcriptome analysis of EV-RNAi and FaAKR23-RNAi fruits suggested that FaAKR23 was also involved in starch and sucrose metabolism as well as plant–pathogen interaction. Overall, these results not only provide the coordinated regulatory function of FaAKR23 on AsA and anthocyanin accumulation but also offer a promising candidate gene for strawberry breeding with high antioxidants. Full article
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22 pages, 2390 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant Potential of the Sweet Whey-Based Beverage Colada after the Digestive Process and Relationships with the Lipid and Protein Fractions
by Victoria E. García-Casas, Isabel Seiquer, Zaira Pardo, Ana Haro, Isidra Recio and Raquel Olías
Antioxidants 2022, 11(9), 1827; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11091827 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2666
Abstract
Whey-based beverages could be an effective way of reusing a by-product of th cheese industry, mitigating environmental hazards and, at the same time, profiting a useful food with high nutritional and antioxidant properties. In this study, a traditional Ecuadorian beverage (Colada) [...] Read more.
Whey-based beverages could be an effective way of reusing a by-product of th cheese industry, mitigating environmental hazards and, at the same time, profiting a useful food with high nutritional and antioxidant properties. In this study, a traditional Ecuadorian beverage (Colada) was prepared combining sweet whey, Maracuyá and barley. Antioxidant properties before and after an in vitro digestion using the INFOGEST method were determined, and relationships with intestinal transformations of the lipid and protein fractions were analyzed. The digestive process had a positive effect on antioxidant properties based on increased values of ABTS and FRAP located in the bioaccessible fraction (BF), together with strong increments of total polyphenols. Moreover, pretreatment of Caco-2 cells with the BF of Colada significantly reduced ROS generation (p < 0.001) measured by the dichlorofluorescein assay. Substantial changes of the fatty acid profile occurred during digestion, such as a fall of saturated fatty acids and a rise of polyunsaturated. The protein profile, examined by SDS-PAGE and exclusion molecular chromatography in the BF, showed that the major part of the proteins were digested in the intestinal phase. Analysis of NanoLC-MS/MS revealed 18 antioxidant peptides originated from whey proteins, but also 16 peptides from barley with potential antioxidant properties. In conclusion, combining sweet whey with Maracuyá and barley constitutes an excellent nutritional beverage with a strong antioxidant potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Antioxidant Ingredients from Natural Products)
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19 pages, 4718 KiB  
Article
Hydrogen-Rich Water as a Novel Therapeutic Strategy for the Affective Disorders Linked with Chronic Neuropathic Pain in Mice
by Maria Martínez-Serrat, Ignacio Martínez-Martel, Santiago Coral-Pérez, Xue Bai, Gerard Batallé and Olga Pol
Antioxidants 2022, 11(9), 1826; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11091826 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3704
Abstract
Neuropathic pain manifested with allodynia and hyperalgesia usually becomes a chronic condition accompanied with mood disorders. Clinical therapies for neuropathic pain are still unsatisfactory with notable side effects. Recent studies have reported the protective role of molecular hydrogen (H2) in different [...] Read more.
Neuropathic pain manifested with allodynia and hyperalgesia usually becomes a chronic condition accompanied with mood disorders. Clinical therapies for neuropathic pain are still unsatisfactory with notable side effects. Recent studies have reported the protective role of molecular hydrogen (H2) in different diseases including neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer’s as well as its antidepressant activities in animals with chronic stress. This study explored the effects of treatment with hydrogen-rich water (HRW) in male mice with neuropathic pain induced by the chronic constriction of the sciatic nerve (CCI) and the accompanying affective deficits. The likely pathways implied in the HRW analgesic activity, as well as the interaction between heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) enzyme and H2 during neuropathic pain were also studied. The results showed: (i) the inhibitory effects of the repetitive treatment with HRW on the allodynia and hyperalgesia provoked by CCI; (ii) the anxiolytic and antidepressant actions of HRW in animals with neuropathic pain; (iii) the contribution of the antioxidant enzymes (HO-1 and NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1) and the ATP sensitive potassium channels in the painkiller activities of HRW during neuropathic pain; (iv) a positive interaction between the HO-1 and H2 systems in inhibiting the CCI-induced neuropathy; and (v) the antioxidant, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and/or antiapoptotic features of HRW treatment in the dorsal root ganglia and/or amygdala of sciatic nerve-injured mice. This study demonstrates new protective actions of H2 and suggests that treatment with HRW might be an interesting therapeutic strategy for chronic neuropathic pain and its associated mood disorders. Full article
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5 pages, 232 KiB  
Editorial
Advances in Natural Antioxidants for Food Improvement
by María López-Pedrouso, José M. Lorenzo and Daniel Franco
Antioxidants 2022, 11(9), 1825; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11091825 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2358
Abstract
In the food industry, antioxidants are natural and synthetic compounds added to neutralize free radicals that deteriorate fats, proteins and cellular DNA, causing rancidity of fats and accelerating the ageing process, which lead to undesirable smells and tastes [...] Full article
23 pages, 1643 KiB  
Review
NADPH Oxidases in Diastolic Dysfunction and Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction
by James P. Teuber, Kobina Essandoh, Scott L. Hummel, Nageswara R. Madamanchi and Matthew J. Brody
Antioxidants 2022, 11(9), 1822; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11091822 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3548
Abstract
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases regulate production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause oxidative damage to cellular components but also regulate redox signaling in many cell types with essential functions in the cardiovascular system. Research over the past couple of decades [...] Read more.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases regulate production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause oxidative damage to cellular components but also regulate redox signaling in many cell types with essential functions in the cardiovascular system. Research over the past couple of decades has uncovered mechanisms by which NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzymes regulate oxidative stress and compartmentalize intracellular signaling in endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, macrophages, cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts, and other cell types. NOX2 and NOX4, for example, regulate distinct redox signaling mechanisms in cardiac myocytes pertinent to the onset and progression of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), which accounts for at least half of all heart failure cases and has few effective treatments to date, is classically associated with ventricular diastolic dysfunction, i.e., defects in ventricular relaxation and/or filling. However, HFpEF afflicts multiple organ systems and is associated with systemic pathologies including inflammation, oxidative stress, arterial stiffening, cardiac fibrosis, and renal, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle dysfunction. Basic science studies and clinical data suggest a role for systemic and myocardial oxidative stress in HFpEF, and evidence from animal models demonstrates the critical functions of NOX enzymes in diastolic function and several HFpEF-associated comorbidities. Here, we discuss the roles of NOX enzymes in cardiovascular cells that are pertinent to the development and progression of diastolic dysfunction and HFpEF and outline potential clinical implications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NADPH Oxidases in Health and Aging)
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24 pages, 26866 KiB  
Article
Tamarix articulata Induced Prevention of Hepatotoxicity Effects of In Vivo Carbon Tetrachloride by Modulating Pro-Inflammatory Serum and Antioxidant Enzymes to Reverse the Liver Fibrosis
by Abdullah M. Alnuqaydan, Abdulmajeed G. Almutary, Mohammed A. Alsahli, Sulaiman Alnasser and Bilal Rah
Antioxidants 2022, 11(9), 1824; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11091824 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1872
Abstract
This study evaluates the hepatoprotective activity of a Tamarix articulata extract against carbon tetrachloride-mediated hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. Our results demonstrated that the oral administration of Tamarix articulata extract (50 mg/kg b.w.) significantly restored the serum levels of liver enzymes and antioxidant parameters [...] Read more.
This study evaluates the hepatoprotective activity of a Tamarix articulata extract against carbon tetrachloride-mediated hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. Our results demonstrated that the oral administration of Tamarix articulata extract (50 mg/kg b.w.) significantly restored the serum levels of liver enzymes and antioxidant parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and thiobarbituric reactive substances). Histopathology analysis revealed that Tamarix articulata extract significantly reduced hepatic fibrosis by inhibiting the necrosis of hepatocytes. Furthermore, serum pro-inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, tumor growth factor-beta, and interleukin-6) markers were significantly restored. However, the anti-inflammatory cytokine adiponectin levels increased to normal levels in the group treated with Tamarix articulata extract. Additionally, we observed diminished reactive oxygen species production and the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential in hepatocytes extracted from animal livers treated with Tamarix articulata extract. Our findings suggest that Tamarix articulata extract prevents liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride and decreases the necrotic population of hepatocytes. These events restored the antioxidant enzymatic activity, serum levels of liver enzymes, and pro-inflammatory markers to their normal levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Inflammatory Skin and Tissue Disorders)
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16 pages, 15773 KiB  
Article
Sequential Accumulation of ‘Driver’ Pathway Mutations Induces the Upregulation of Hydrogen-Sulfide-Producing Enzymes in Human Colonic Epithelial Cell Organoids
by Kelly Ascenção, Nahzli Dilek, Karim Zuhra, Katalin Módis, Toshiro Sato and Csaba Szabo
Antioxidants 2022, 11(9), 1823; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11091823 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2473
Abstract
Recently, a CRISPR-Cas9 genome-editing system was developed with introduced sequential ‘driver’ mutations in the WNT, MAPK, TGF-β, TP53 and PI3K pathways into organoids derived from normal human intestinal epithelial cells. Prior studies have demonstrated that isogenic organoids harboring mutations in the tumor suppressor [...] Read more.
Recently, a CRISPR-Cas9 genome-editing system was developed with introduced sequential ‘driver’ mutations in the WNT, MAPK, TGF-β, TP53 and PI3K pathways into organoids derived from normal human intestinal epithelial cells. Prior studies have demonstrated that isogenic organoids harboring mutations in the tumor suppressor genes APC, SMAD4 and TP53, as well as the oncogene KRAS, assumed more proliferative and invasive properties in vitro and in vivo. A separate body of studies implicates the role of various hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-producing enzymes in the pathogenesis of colon cancer. The current study was designed to determine if the sequential mutations in the above pathway affect the expression of various H2S producing enzymes. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of the H2S-producing enzymes cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST), as well as several key enzymes involved in H2S degradation such as thiosulfate sulfurtransferase/rhodanese (TST), ethylmalonic encephalopathy 1 protein/persulfide dioxygenase (ETHE1) and sulfide-quinone oxidoreductase (SQR). H2S levels were detected by live-cell imaging using a fluorescent H2S probe. Bioenergetic parameters were assessed by Extracellular Flux Analysis; markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were assessed by Western blotting. The results show that the consecutive mutations produced gradual upregulations in CBS expression—in particular in its truncated (45 kDa) form—as well as in CSE and 3-MST expression. In more advanced organoids, when the upregulation of H2S-producing enzymes coincided with the downregulation of the H2S-degrading enzyme SQR, increased H2S generation was also detected. This effect coincided with the upregulation of cellular bioenergetics (mitochondrial respiration and/or glycolysis) and an upregulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, a key effector of EMT. Thus sequential mutations in colon epithelial cells according to the Vogelstein sequence are associated with a gradual upregulation of multiple H2S generating pathways, which, in turn, translates into functional changes in cellular bioenergetics and dedifferentiation, producing more aggressive and more invasive colon cancer phenotypes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Antioxidant Enzyme Systems)
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17 pages, 3719 KiB  
Article
Chronic High-Altitude Hypoxia Alters Iron and Nitric Oxide Homeostasis in Fetal and Maternal Sheep Blood and Aorta
by Taiming Liu, Meijuan Zhang, Avoumia Mourkus, Hobe Schroeder, Lubo Zhang, Gordon G. Power and Arlin B. Blood
Antioxidants 2022, 11(9), 1821; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11091821 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1492
Abstract
The mammalian fetus thrives at oxygen tensions much lower than those of adults. Gestation at high altitude superimposes hypoxic stresses on the fetus resulting in increased erythropoiesis. We hypothesized that chronic hypoxia at high altitude alters the homeostasis of iron and bioactive nitric [...] Read more.
The mammalian fetus thrives at oxygen tensions much lower than those of adults. Gestation at high altitude superimposes hypoxic stresses on the fetus resulting in increased erythropoiesis. We hypothesized that chronic hypoxia at high altitude alters the homeostasis of iron and bioactive nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) in gestation. To test for this, electron paramagnetic resonance was used to provide unique measurements of iron, metalloproteins, and free radicals in the blood and aorta of fetal and maternal sheep from either high or low altitudes (3801 or 300 m). Using ozone-based chemiluminescence with selectivity for various NOx species, we determined the NOx levels in these samples immediately after collection. These experiments demonstrated a systemic redistribution of iron in high altitude fetuses as manifested by a decrease in both chelatable and total iron in the aorta and an increase in non-transferrin bound iron and total iron in plasma. Likewise, high altitude altered the redox status diversely in fetal blood and aorta. This study also found significant increases in blood and aortic tissue NOx in fetuses and mothers at high altitude. In addition, gradients in NOx concentrations observed between fetus and mother, umbilical artery and vein, and plasma and RBCs demonstrated complex dynamic homeostasis of NOx among these circulatory compartments, such as placental generation and efflux as well as fetal consumption of iron-nitrosyls in RBCs, probably HbNO. In conclusion, these results may suggest the utilization of iron from non-hematopoietic tissues iron for erythropoiesis in the fetus and increased NO bioavailability in response to chronic hypoxic stress at high altitude during gestation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress, Pregnancy and Pregnancy-Related Diseases)
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17 pages, 5039 KiB  
Article
The Putative Auto-Inhibitory Domain of Durum Wheat Catalase (TdCAT1) Positively Regulates Bacteria Cells in Response to Different Stress Conditions
by Mouna Ghorbel, Kaouthar Feki, Sana Tounsi, Nouha Bouali, Malek Besbes and Faiçal Brini
Antioxidants 2022, 11(9), 1820; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11091820 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1351
Abstract
Catalase is a crucial enzyme in the antioxidant defense system protecting organisms from oxidative stress. Proteins of this kind play important roles in controlling plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses by catalyzing the decomposition of H2O2. The durum [...] Read more.
Catalase is a crucial enzyme in the antioxidant defense system protecting organisms from oxidative stress. Proteins of this kind play important roles in controlling plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses by catalyzing the decomposition of H2O2. The durum wheat catalase 1, TdCAT1, has been previously isolated and characterized. Here, using bio-informatic analysis, we showed that durum wheat catalase 1 TdCAT1 harbors different novel conserved domains. In addition, TdCAT1 contains various phosphorylation residues and S-Nitrosylation residues located at different positions along the protein sequence. TdCAT1 activity decreased after treatment with λ−phosphatase. On the other hand, we showed that durum wheat catalase 1 (TdCAT1) exhibits a low CAT activity in vitro, whereas a deleted form of TdCAT1 has better activity compared to the full-length protein (TdCAT460), suggesting that TdCAT1 could present a putative autoinhibitory domain in its C-terminal portion. Moreover, we showed that TdCAT1 positively regulates E. coli cells in response to salt, ionic and osmotic stresses as well as heavy metal stress in solid and liquid mediums. Such effects had not been reported and lead us to suggest that the durum wheat catalase 1 TdCAT1 protein could play a positive role in response to a wide array of abiotic stress conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Mechanisms in Plants)
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12 pages, 641 KiB  
Review
Anti- and Pro-Oxidant Properties of Essential Oils against Antimicrobial Resistance
by Amanda Shen-Yee Kong, Sathiya Maran, Polly Soo-Xi Yap, Swee-Hua Erin Lim, Shun-Kai Yang, Wan-Hee Cheng, Yong-Hui Tan and Kok-Song Lai
Antioxidants 2022, 11(9), 1819; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11091819 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2462
Abstract
The rapid evolution of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has remained a major public health issue, reducing the efficacy of antibiotics and increasing the difficulty of treating infections. The discovery of novel antimicrobial agents is urgently needed to overcome the challenges created by AMR. Natural [...] Read more.
The rapid evolution of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has remained a major public health issue, reducing the efficacy of antibiotics and increasing the difficulty of treating infections. The discovery of novel antimicrobial agents is urgently needed to overcome the challenges created by AMR. Natural products such as plant extracts and essential oils (EOs) have been viewed as potential candidates to combat AMR due to their complex chemistry that carries inherent pro-oxidant and antioxidant properties. EOs and their constituents that hold pro-oxidant properties can induce oxidative stress by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to biological damage in target cells. In contrast, the antioxidant properties scavenge free radicals through offsetting ROS. Both pro-oxidant and antioxidant activities in EOs represent a promising strategy to tackle AMR. Thus, this review aimed to discuss how pro-oxidants and antioxidants in EOs may contribute to the mitigation of AMR and provided a detailed description of the challenges and limitations of utilizing them as a means to combat AMR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Antioxidants—Review Collection)
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21 pages, 1373 KiB  
Article
Understanding the Gastrointestinal Behavior of the Coffee Pulp Phenolic Compounds under Simulated Conditions
by Silvia Cañas, Miguel Rebollo-Hernanz, Cheyenne Braojos, Vanesa Benítez, Rebeca Ferreras-Charro, Montserrat Dueñas, Yolanda Aguilera and María A. Martín-Cabrejas
Antioxidants 2022, 11(9), 1818; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11091818 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2450
Abstract
Numerous residues, such as the coffee pulp, are generated throughout coffee processing. This by-product is a source of antioxidant phytochemicals, including phenolic compounds and caffeine. However, the antioxidant properties of the phenolic compounds from the coffee pulp are physiologically limited to their bioaccessibility, [...] Read more.
Numerous residues, such as the coffee pulp, are generated throughout coffee processing. This by-product is a source of antioxidant phytochemicals, including phenolic compounds and caffeine. However, the antioxidant properties of the phenolic compounds from the coffee pulp are physiologically limited to their bioaccessibility, bioavailability, and biotransformation occurring during gastrointestinal digestion. Hence, this study explored the phenolic and caffeine profile in the coffee pulp flour (CPF) and extract (CPE), their intestinal bioaccessibility through in vitro digestion, and their potential bioavailability and colonic metabolism using in silico models. The CPE exhibited a higher concentration of phenolic compounds than the CPF, mainly phenolic acids (protocatechuic, chlorogenic, and gallic acids), followed by flavonoids, particularly quercetin derivatives. Caffeine was found in higher concentrations than phenolic compounds. The antioxidant capacity was increased throughout the digestive process. The coffee pulp matrix influenced phytochemicals’ behavior during gastrointestinal digestion. Whereas individual phenolic compounds generally decreased during digestion, caffeine remained stable. Then, phenolic acids and caffeine were highly bioaccessible, while flavonoids were mainly degraded. As a result, caffeine and protocatechuic acid were the main compounds absorbed in the intestine after digestion. Non-absorbed phenolic compounds might undergo colonic biotransformation yielding small and potentially more adsorbable phenolic metabolites. These results contribute to establishing the coffee pulp as an antioxidant food ingredient since it contains bioaccessible and potentially bioavailable phytochemicals with potential health-promoting properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Foods and Cardiometabolic Health - 2nd Edition)
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13 pages, 945 KiB  
Article
Knockout and Inhibition of Ape1: Roles of Ape1 in Base Excision DNA Repair and Modulation of Gene Expression
by Zhouyiyuan Xue and Bruce Demple
Antioxidants 2022, 11(9), 1817; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11091817 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2319
Abstract
Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox effector-1 (Ape1/Ref-1) is the major apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease in mammalian cells. It functions mainly in the base excision repair pathway to create a suitable substrate for DNA polymerases. Human Ape1 protein can activate some transcription factors to varying degrees, dependent [...] Read more.
Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox effector-1 (Ape1/Ref-1) is the major apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease in mammalian cells. It functions mainly in the base excision repair pathway to create a suitable substrate for DNA polymerases. Human Ape1 protein can activate some transcription factors to varying degrees, dependent on its N-terminal, unstructured domain, and some of the cysteines within it, apparently via a redox mechanism in some cases. Many cancer studies also suggest that Ape1 has potential for prognosis in terms of the protein level or intracellular localization. While homozygous disruption of the Ape1 structural gene APEX1 in mice causes embryonic lethality, and most studies in cell culture indicate that the expression of Ape1 is essential, some recent studies reported the isolation of viable APEX1 knockout cells with only mild phenotypes. It has not been established by what mechanism the Ape1-null cell lines cope with the endogenous DNA damage that the enzyme normally handles. We review the enzymatic and other activities of Ape1 and the recent studies of the properties of the APEX1 knockout lines. The APEX1 deletions in CH12F3 and HEK293 FT provide an opportunity to test for possible off-target effects of Ape1 inhibition. For this work, we tested the Ape1 endonuclease inhibitor Compound 3 and the redox inhibitor APX2009. Our results confirmed that both APEX1 knockout cell lines are modestly more sensitive to killing by an alkylating agent than their Ape1-proficient cells. Surprisingly, the knockout lines showed equal sensitivity to direct killing by either inhibitor, despite the lack of the target protein. Moreover, the CH12F3 APEX1 knockout was even more sensitive to Compound 3 than its APEX1+ counterpart. Thus, it appears that both Compound 3 and APX2009 have off-target effects. In cases where this issue may be important, it is advisable that more specific endpoints than cell survival be tested for establishing mechanism. Full article
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13 pages, 2401 KiB  
Article
Modulating Nitric Oxide Dioxygenase and Nitrite Reductase of Cytoglobin through Point Mutations
by John Ukeri, Michael T. Wilson and Brandon J. Reeder
Antioxidants 2022, 11(9), 1816; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11091816 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1397
Abstract
Cytoglobin is a hexacoordinate hemoglobin with physiological roles that are not clearly understood. Previously proposed physiological functions include nitric oxide regulation, oxygen sensing, or/and protection against oxidative stress under hypoxic/ischemic conditions. Like many globins, cytoglobin rapidly consumes nitric oxide under normoxic conditions. Under [...] Read more.
Cytoglobin is a hexacoordinate hemoglobin with physiological roles that are not clearly understood. Previously proposed physiological functions include nitric oxide regulation, oxygen sensing, or/and protection against oxidative stress under hypoxic/ischemic conditions. Like many globins, cytoglobin rapidly consumes nitric oxide under normoxic conditions. Under hypoxia, cytoglobin generates nitric oxide, which is strongly modulated by the oxidation state of the cysteines. This gives a plausible role for this biochemistry in controlling nitric oxide homeostasis. Mutations to control specific properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin, including nitric oxide binding/scavenging and the nitrite reductase activity of various globins, have been reported. We have mapped these key mutations onto cytoglobin, which represents the E7 distal ligand, B2/E9 disulfide, and B10 heme pocket residues, and examined the nitric oxide binding, nitric oxide dioxygenase activity, and nitrite reductase activity. The Leu46Trp mutation decreases the nitric oxide dioxygenase activity > 10,000-fold over wild type, an effect 1000 times greater than similar mutations with other globins. By understanding how particular mutations can affect specific reactivities, these mutations may be used to target specific cytoglobin activities in cell or animal models to help understand the precise role(s) of cytoglobin under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Globin Associated Oxidative Stress)
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