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Antioxidants, Volume 11, Issue 11 (November 2022) – 223 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Olfactory receptors, which are ectopically expressed in extra-nasal tissues, have tissue-specific functions. These ectopic olfactory receptors may play critical roles in organs that are constantly exposed to various odorants, such as skin. Our findings demonstrated that the human olfactory receptor, OR2AT4, attenuated oxidative stress-induced cellular senescence. Sandalore, an agonist for OR2AT4, stimulated the calcium–CaMKKβ–AMPK–mTORC1–autophagy pathway and recovered the cell proliferation capacity of H2O2-induced premature senescent human keratinocytes. OR2AT4 may be a novel therapeutic target for anti-aging in human keratinocytes. View this paper
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11 pages, 3764 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammation and Antiaging Activities of Artocarpus altilis Methanolic Extract on Urban Particulate Matter-Induced HaCaT Keratinocytes Damage
by Chun-Yin Yang, Cheng-Chang Pan, Chih-Hua Tseng and Feng-Lin Yen
Antioxidants 2022, 11(11), 2304; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11112304 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2472
Abstract
Particulate matter (PM) is one of the reasons that exacerbate skin diseases. Impaired barrier function is a common symptom in skin diseases, including atopic dermatitis, eczema and psoriasis. Herbal extracts rich in antioxidants are thought to provide excellent pharmacological activities; however, the anti-pollution [...] Read more.
Particulate matter (PM) is one of the reasons that exacerbate skin diseases. Impaired barrier function is a common symptom in skin diseases, including atopic dermatitis, eczema and psoriasis. Herbal extracts rich in antioxidants are thought to provide excellent pharmacological activities; however, the anti-pollution activity of Artocarpus altilis extract (AAM) has not been investigated yet. The present study demonstrated that 5 μg/mL of AAM was considered to be a safe dose for further experiments without cytotoxicity. Next, we evaluated the anti-pollution activity of AAM through the PM-induced keratinocytes damage cell model. The results showed that AAM could reduce PM-induced overproduction of intracellular ROS and the final product of lipid peroxidation, 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE). In addition, AAM not only reduced the inflammatory protein expressions, including tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), but also balanced the aging protein ratio of matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMPs) through downregulating the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. For skin barrier protection, AAM could repair PM-induced barrier function proteins damage, including filaggrin, loricrin and aquaporin 3 for providing anti-aging bioactivity. In conclusion, AAM has the potential to be developed as an anti-pollution active ingredient for topical skin products to prevent skin oxidation, inflammation and aging, and restore the skin barrier function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants: Multiple Mechanisms for Skin Protection)
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14 pages, 1180 KiB  
Article
Do Volatiles Affect Bacteria and Plants in the Same Way? Growth and Biochemical Response of Non-Stressed and Cd-Stressed Arabidopsis thaliana and Rhizobium E20-8
by Carina Sá, Diana Matos, Paulo Cardoso and Etelvina Figueira
Antioxidants 2022, 11(11), 2303; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11112303 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1446
Abstract
Plant roots are colonized by rhizobacteria, and these soil microorganisms can not only stimulate plant growth but also increase tolerance to stress through the production of volatile organic compounds. However, little is known about the effect that these plant beneficial volatiles may have [...] Read more.
Plant roots are colonized by rhizobacteria, and these soil microorganisms can not only stimulate plant growth but also increase tolerance to stress through the production of volatile organic compounds. However, little is known about the effect that these plant beneficial volatiles may have on bacteria. In this study, the effects on growth and oxidative status of different concentrations of three volatiles already reported to have a positive influence on plant growth (2-butanone, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 2,3-butanediol) were determined in A. thaliana and Rhizobium sp. strain E20-8 via airborne exposure in the presence and absence of Cd. It was expected to ascertain if the plant and the bacterium are influenced in the same way by the volatiles, and if exposure to stress (Cd) shifts the effects of volatiles on plants and bacteria. Results showed the antioxidant activity of the volatiles protecting the plant cell metabolism from Cd toxicity and increasing plant tolerance to Cd. Effects on bacteria were less positive. The two alcohols (3-methyl-1-butanol and 2,3-butanediol) increased Cd toxicity, and the ketone (2-butanone) was able to protect Rhizobium from Cd stress, constituting an alternative way to protect soil bacterial communities from stress. The application of 2-butanone thus emerges as an alternative way to increase crop production and crop resilience to stress in a more sustainable way, either directly or through the enhancement of PGPR activity. Full article
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21 pages, 701 KiB  
Review
Myeloperoxidase: Regulation of Neutrophil Function and Target for Therapy
by Salma A. Rizo-Téllez, Meriem Sekheri and János G. Filep
Antioxidants 2022, 11(11), 2302; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11112302 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 5744
Abstract
Neutrophils, the most abundant white blood cells in humans, are critical for host defense against invading pathogens. Equipped with an array of antimicrobial molecules, neutrophils can eradicate bacteria and clear debris. Among the microbicide proteins is the heme protein myeloperoxidase (MPO), stored in [...] Read more.
Neutrophils, the most abundant white blood cells in humans, are critical for host defense against invading pathogens. Equipped with an array of antimicrobial molecules, neutrophils can eradicate bacteria and clear debris. Among the microbicide proteins is the heme protein myeloperoxidase (MPO), stored in the azurophilic granules, and catalyzes the formation of the chlorinating oxidant HOCl and other oxidants (HOSCN and HOBr). MPO is generally associated with killing trapped bacteria and inflicting collateral tissue damage to the host. However, the characterization of non-enzymatic functions of MPO suggests additional roles for this protein. Indeed, evolving evidence indicates that MPO can directly modulate the function and fate of neutrophils, thereby shaping immunity. These actions include MPO orchestration of neutrophil trafficking, activation, phagocytosis, lifespan, formation of extracellular traps, and MPO-triggered autoimmunity. This review scrutinizes the multifaceted roles of MPO in immunity, focusing on neutrophil-mediated host defense, tissue damage, repair, and autoimmunity. We also discuss novel therapeutic approaches to target MPO activity, expression, or MPO signaling for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Full article
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24 pages, 8228 KiB  
Article
Hot-Melt Extrusion Enhances Antioxidant Effects of Mulberry on Probiotics and Pathogenic Microorganisms
by Eun Ji Go, Byeong Ryeol Ryu, Gyeong Ju Gim, Ha Yeon Lee, Han Sol You, Hyun Bok Kim, Hyun Tai Lee, Ji Young Lee, Man Sop Shim, Jong-Suep Baek and Jung Dae Lim
Antioxidants 2022, 11(11), 2301; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11112301 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2109
Abstract
Mulberry is a rich source of anthocyanins (ACNs) known to possess biological activities. However, these ACNs are unstable in high pH, heat, and aqueous environments with a low bioavailability. In this study, a colloidal dispersion was prepared by hot melt extrusion with proper [...] Read more.
Mulberry is a rich source of anthocyanins (ACNs) known to possess biological activities. However, these ACNs are unstable in high pH, heat, and aqueous environments with a low bioavailability. In this study, a colloidal dispersion was prepared by hot melt extrusion with proper excipients. In this process, a hydrophilic polymer matrix was used to confirm the stability of the compound in high pH, high temperature, and aqueous media. It was confirmed that the particle size and the polydispersity index value were reduced, thereby improving the solubility. In vitro release studies revealed that the extrudate had a sustained release compared to a non-extruded product. As a result of measuring changes of intestinal microorganisms (Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus), contents of probiotics were found to be increased whereas contents of pathogenic microorganisms were decreased. Thus, hot-melt extrusion could enhance the stability of ACN with prolonged release. The processed formulation exhibited probiotic properties and antimicrobial activities against pathogenic intestinal microflora. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthocyanins: Antioxidant Capacity and Health Effects)
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16 pages, 1490 KiB  
Article
Dietary Supplementation of Silybum marianum Seeds Improved Growth Performance and Upregulated Associated Gene Expression of Muscovy Ducklings (Cairina moschata)
by Osama El-Garhy, Fathia A. Soudy, Yousef M. Alharbi, Fahad A. Alshanbari, Mona S. Almujaydil, Raghad M. Alhomaid, Omar A. Ahmed-Farid, Shereen A. Mohamed, Hoda A. S. El-Garhy, Hassan Barakat and Ayman G. EL Nagar
Antioxidants 2022, 11(11), 2300; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11112300 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1543
Abstract
The effect of feeding on diets supplemented with Silybum marianum L. dry seeds (SMS) on growth performance, mortality percentage, biochemical parameters, the expression profile of related genes, and genotoxic effect in Muscovy ducklings was evaluated during a brooding period of 4 weeks. Two [...] Read more.
The effect of feeding on diets supplemented with Silybum marianum L. dry seeds (SMS) on growth performance, mortality percentage, biochemical parameters, the expression profile of related genes, and genotoxic effect in Muscovy ducklings was evaluated during a brooding period of 4 weeks. Two hundred and forty one-day-old Muscovy ducks were randomly assigned to four treatment groups (60 ducklings/group), the first group fed on basal diet with no additives (control), and the second (4 g kg−1), third (8 g kg−1), and fourth (12 g kg−1) groups fed the basal diet supplemented with 0, 4, 8, and 12 g kg−1 diet SMS, respectively. A substantial improvement in live body weight (LBW), body weight gain (BWG), and growth rate (GR), and a decrease in feed conversion ratios (FCR) and mortality rate were shown in ducks fed a diet supplemented with either 8 g kg−1 or 12 g kg−1 SMS compared to the other groups. Relevant improvements in liver function, oxidative stress markers, purinergic cell energy, and brain appetite were recorded on ducklings fed diets supplemented with SMS. Moreover, diets which included 8 or 12 g kg−1 SMS positively upregulated the expression of growth hormone gene (GH) and antioxidant genes (SOD1, SOD2, and CAT). These results are consistent with the increase in liver activity SOD and CAT enzymes, resulting in less DNA fragmentation. Consequently, all the aforementioned improvements in biochemical parameters and gene expression profiling may explain the superiority of the treated ducklings compared with the control group. Conclusively, the SMS could be used as a natural feed additive to promote health status and improve the growth performance of small grower ducks during the brooding period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress, Reactive Oxygen Species and Animal Nutrition)
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18 pages, 1574 KiB  
Article
Reduced Fitness and Elevated Oxidative Stress in the Marine Copepod Tigriopus japonicus Exposed to the Toxic Dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi
by Hongju Chen, Jing Wang, Yunyun Zhuang, Wenzhuo Yu and Guangxing Liu
Antioxidants 2022, 11(11), 2299; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11112299 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1636
Abstract
Blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi cause devastation to marine life, including declines of fitness and population recruitment. However, little is known about the effects of them on benthic copepods. Here, we assessed the acute and chronic effects of K. mikimotoi on [...] Read more.
Blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi cause devastation to marine life, including declines of fitness and population recruitment. However, little is known about the effects of them on benthic copepods. Here, we assessed the acute and chronic effects of K. mikimotoi on the marine benthic copepod Tigriopus japonicus. Results showed that adult females maintained high survival (>85%) throughout 14-d incubation, but time-dependent reduction of survival was detected in the highest K. mikimotoi concentration, and nauplii and copepodites were more vulnerable compared to adults. Ingestion of K. mikimotoi depressed the grazing of copepods but significantly induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), total antioxidant capacity, activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase), and acetylcholinesterase. Under sublethal concentrations for two generations, K. mikimotoi reduced the fitness of copepods by prolonging development time and decreasing successful development rate, egg production, and the number of clutches. Our findings suggest that the bloom of K. mikimotoi may threaten copepod population recruitment, and its adverse effects are associated with oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Marine Environment - 2nd Edition)
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16 pages, 867 KiB  
Systematic Review
Impact of N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) on Tuberculosis (TB) Patients—A Systematic Review
by Daniel Adon Mapamba, Elingarami Sauli, Lucy Mrema, Julieth Lalashowi, David Magombola, Joram Buza, Willyhelmina Olomi, Robert S. Wallis and Nyanda Elias Ntinginya
Antioxidants 2022, 11(11), 2298; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11112298 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2648
Abstract
Sustained TB infection overproduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a host defense mechanism. Research shows ROS is destructive to lung tissue. Glutathione (GSH) neutralizes ROS, although it is consumed. NAC is a precursor of GSH synthesis, and administering an appropriate dose of NAC [...] Read more.
Sustained TB infection overproduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a host defense mechanism. Research shows ROS is destructive to lung tissue. Glutathione (GSH) neutralizes ROS, although it is consumed. NAC is a precursor of GSH synthesis, and administering an appropriate dose of NAC to patients with respiratory conditions may enhance lung recovery and replenish GSH. The present review searched for articles reporting on the effects of NAC in TB treatment from 1960 to 31 May 2022. The PICO search strategy was used in Google Scholar, PubMed, SciFinder, and Wiley online library databases. The COVIDENCE tool was used to delete inappropriate content. We eventually discovered five clinical trials, one case report, seven reviews, in vitro research, and four experimental animal studies from the twenty-four accepted articles. The use of NAC resulted in increased GSH levels, decreased treatment time, and was safe with minimal adverse events. However, the evidence is currently insufficient to estimate the overall effects of NAC, thus the study warrants more NAC clinical trials to demonstrate its effects in TB treatment. Full article
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16 pages, 4876 KiB  
Article
Gold Nanoparticles Supported on Ceria Nanoparticles Modulate Leukocyte–Endothelium Cell Interactions and Inflammation in Type 2 Diabetes
by Pedro Díaz-Pozo, Francisco Canet, Abdessamad Grirrane, Sandra Lopez-Domenech, José Raul Herance, Nadezda Apostolova, Clara Luna-Marco, Susana Rovira-Llopis, Miguel Marti, Carlos Morillas, Milagros Rocha, Hermenegildo Garcia and Victor M. Victor
Antioxidants 2022, 11(11), 2297; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11112297 - 20 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2133
Abstract
Gold-ceria nanoparticles (Au/CeO2) are known to have antioxidant properties. However, whether these nanoparticles can provide benefits in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) remains unknown. This work aimed to study the effects of Au/CeO2 nanoparticles at different rates of gold purity [...] Read more.
Gold-ceria nanoparticles (Au/CeO2) are known to have antioxidant properties. However, whether these nanoparticles can provide benefits in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) remains unknown. This work aimed to study the effects of Au/CeO2 nanoparticles at different rates of gold purity (10, 4.4, 1.79 and 0.82) on leukocyte–endothelium interactions and inflammation in T2D patients. Anthropometric and metabolic parameters, leukocyte–endothelium interactions, ROS production and NF-κB expression were assessed in 57 T2D patients and 51 healthy subjects. T2D patients displayed higher Body Mass Index (BMI) and characteristic alterations in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. ROS production was increased in leukocytes of T2D patients and decreased by Au/CeO2 at 0.82% gold. Interestingly, Au/CeO2 0.82% modulated leukocyte–endothelium interactions (the first step in the atherosclerotic process) by increasing leukocyte rolling velocity and decreasing rolling flux and adhesion in T2D. A static adhesion assay also revealed diminished leukocyte–endothelium interactions by Au/CeO2 0.82% treatment. NF-κB (p65) levels increased in T2D patients and were reduced by Au/CeO2 treatment. Cell proliferation, viability, and apoptosis assays demonstrated no toxicity produced by Au/CeO2 nanoparticles. These results demonstrate that Au/CeO2 nanoparticles at 0.82% exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions in the leukocyte–endothelium interaction of T2D patients, suggesting a protective role against the appearance of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases when this condition exists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Diabetes and Complications)
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15 pages, 1495 KiB  
Review
Glymphatic Dysfunction Induced Oxidative Stress and Neuro-Inflammation in Major Depression Disorders
by Simeng Gu, Yumeng Li, Yao Jiang, Jason H. Huang and Fushun Wang
Antioxidants 2022, 11(11), 2296; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11112296 - 20 Nov 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3071
Abstract
Major Depression disorder (MDD) is a potentially life-threatening mental illness, however, many patients have a poor response to current treatments. Recent studies have suggested that stress- or trauma-induced oxidative stress and inflammation could be important factors involved in the development of MDD, but [...] Read more.
Major Depression disorder (MDD) is a potentially life-threatening mental illness, however, many patients have a poor response to current treatments. Recent studies have suggested that stress- or trauma-induced oxidative stress and inflammation could be important factors involved in the development of MDD, but the mechanisms remain unclear. We showed that the glymphatic system is a recently discovered structure in the brain that may be involved in the clearance of large molecular and cell debris in extracellular space. In addition, the glymphatic system can help with the removal of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytokines such as IL-1β and HIF-1α. Glymphatic impairment can lead to ROS accumulation in the microenvironment, inducing cellular injury signaling and activating NLRP3 in microglia to induce inflammation and, thus, many brain diseases, including psychiatric disorders. Therefore, trauma-induced glymphatic impairment could induce oxidative stress and inflammation, and thus MDD. This paper will review recent advances with regard to stress-induced glymphatic system impairment and ROS-mediated inflammation in MDD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Psychiatric Research)
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16 pages, 1321 KiB  
Article
Conventional vs. Green Extraction Using Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents—Differences in the Composition of Soluble Unbound Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity
by Milica Martinović, Nemanja Krgović, Ivana Nešić, Ana Žugić and Vanja Milija Tadić
Antioxidants 2022, 11(11), 2295; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11112295 - 20 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2353
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the use of green solvents, natural deep eutectic solvents (NaDES), in comparison with conventional solvents on the extraction of free unbound phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity of extracts of dried bilberry [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the use of green solvents, natural deep eutectic solvents (NaDES), in comparison with conventional solvents on the extraction of free unbound phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity of extracts of dried bilberry fruit, bilberry leaves and green tea leaves. After preparation of the extracts via ultrasound-assisted extraction using NaDES and conventional solvents (water and ethanol), spectrophotometric determination of total phenolic and flavonoid content, HPLC analysis of extracted polyphenols and antioxidant determination using FRAP, DPPH and ABTS assays were conducted. The results showed that NaDES have a great potential as agents for the extraction of phenolic compounds with potent antioxidant activity; the highest values of phenolic content and antioxidant activity were detected in the samples obtained by extraction using the NaDES combination betaine + urea. The bilberry leaves exhibited the highest flavonoid content among all extracts and turned out to be more active than bilberry fruits, to which they are often just a by-product during processing. The most active extract of all was the betaine-urea green tea leaves extract. Further research into the most active NaDES extracts should be performed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soluble and Insoluble-Bound Antioxidants)
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17 pages, 2172 KiB  
Article
Association of Polyphenols Consumption with Risk for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Preeclampsia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Gonzalo Jorquera, Romina Fornes, Gonzalo Cruz and Samanta Thomas-Valdés
Antioxidants 2022, 11(11), 2294; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11112294 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2110
Abstract
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) and preeclampsia (PE) affects 6–25% of pregnancies and are characterized by an imbalance in natural prooxidant/antioxidant mechanisms. Due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, polyphenols consumption during the pregnancy might exert positive effects by preventing GDM and PE development. [...] Read more.
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) and preeclampsia (PE) affects 6–25% of pregnancies and are characterized by an imbalance in natural prooxidant/antioxidant mechanisms. Due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, polyphenols consumption during the pregnancy might exert positive effects by preventing GDM and PE development. However, this association remains inconclusive. This systematic review and metanalysis is aimed to analyze the association between polyphenol-rich food consumption during pregnancy and the risk of GDM and PE. A systematic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science (Clarivate Analytics, London, United Kingdom) for articles dated between 1 January 1980 and July 2022 was undertaken to identify randomized controlled trials and observational studies evaluating polyphenol-rich food consumption and the risk of GDM and PE. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to evaluate the quality of these included studies. Twelve studies were included, of which eight articles evaluated GDM and four studied PE. A total of 3785 women presented with GDM (2.33%). No association between polyphenol consumption and GDM was found (ES = 0.85, 95% CI 0.71–1.01). When total polyphenol intake was considered, a lower likelihood to develop GDM was noted (ES = 0.78, 95% CI 0.69–0.89). Furthermore, polyphenol consumption was not associated with PE development (ES = 0.90, 95% CI 0.57–1.41). In conclusion, for both outcomes, pooled analyses showed no association with polyphenol-rich food consumption during pregnancy. Therefore, association of polyphenol intake with a decreased risk of GDM and PE remains inconclusive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress)
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14 pages, 324 KiB  
Review
Coenzyme Q10: Role in Less Common Age-Related Disorders
by David Mantle and Iain P. Hargreaves
Antioxidants 2022, 11(11), 2293; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11112293 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2683
Abstract
In this article we have reviewed the potential role of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) in the pathogenesis and treatment of a number of less common age-related disorders, for many of which effective therapies are not currently available. For most of these disorders, mitochondrial dysfunction, [...] Read more.
In this article we have reviewed the potential role of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) in the pathogenesis and treatment of a number of less common age-related disorders, for many of which effective therapies are not currently available. For most of these disorders, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and inflammation have been implicated in the disease process, providing a rationale for the potential therapeutic use of CoQ10, because of its key roles in mitochondrial function, as an antioxidant, and as an anti-inflammatory agent. Disorders reviewed in the article include multi system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, sporadic adult onset ataxia, and pulmonary fibrosis, together with late onset versions of Huntington’s disease, Alexander disease, lupus, anti-phospholipid syndrome, lysosomal storage disorders, fibromyalgia, Machado-Joseph disease, acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, and Leber’s optic neuropathy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CoQ10 and Aging and Age-Related Diseases)
19 pages, 1274 KiB  
Review
The Role of DNA Damage and Repair in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis
by Jiahui Zhu, Lexin Liu, Xiaodi Ma, Xinyu Cao, Yu Chen, Xiangping Qu, Ming Ji, Huijun Liu, Chi Liu, Xiaoqun Qin and Yang Xiang
Antioxidants 2022, 11(11), 2292; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11112292 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2256
Abstract
The mortality rate of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) increases yearly due to ineffective treatment. Given that the lung is exposed to the external environment, it is likely that oxidative stress, especially the stimulation of DNA, would be of particular importance in pulmonary fibrosis. [...] Read more.
The mortality rate of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) increases yearly due to ineffective treatment. Given that the lung is exposed to the external environment, it is likely that oxidative stress, especially the stimulation of DNA, would be of particular importance in pulmonary fibrosis. DNA damage is known to play an important role in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis initiation, so DNA repair systems targeting damage are also crucial for the survival of lung cells. Although many contemporary reports have summarized the role of individual DNA damage and repair pathways in their hypotheses, they have not focused on idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. This review, therefore, aims to provide a concise overview for researchers to understand the pathways of DNA damage and repair and their roles in IPF. Full article
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17 pages, 2724 KiB  
Article
Selenium and Redox Enzyme Activity in Pregnant Women Exposed to Methylmercury
by Vasco Branco, Luís Carvalho, Cássia Barboza, Eduarda Mendes, Afonso Cavaco and Cristina Carvalho
Antioxidants 2022, 11(11), 2291; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11112291 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1462
Abstract
Selenium (Se) is a micronutrient with essential physiological functions achieved through the production of selenoproteins. Adequate Se intake has health benefits and reduces mercury (Hg) toxicity, which is important due to its neurotoxicity. This study determined the Se status and redox enzyme, including [...] Read more.
Selenium (Se) is a micronutrient with essential physiological functions achieved through the production of selenoproteins. Adequate Se intake has health benefits and reduces mercury (Hg) toxicity, which is important due to its neurotoxicity. This study determined the Se status and redox enzyme, including selenoproteins’, activity in pregnant women highly exposed to Hg (between 1 to 54 µg Hg/L blood) via fish consumption. A cross-sectional study enrolling 513 women between the first and third trimester of pregnancy from Madeira, Portugal was conducted, encompassing collection of blood and plasma samples. Samples were analyzed for total Se and Hg levels in whole blood and plasma, and plasma activity of redox-active proteins, such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and thioredoxin (Trx). Enzyme activities were related to Se and Hg levels in blood. Se levels in whole blood (65.0 ± 13.1 µg/L) indicated this population had a sub-optimal Se status, which translated to low plasma GPx activity (69.7 ± 28.4 U/L). The activity of TrxR (12.3 ± 5.60 ng/mL) was not affected by the low Se levels. On the other hand, the decrease in Trx activity with an increase in Hg might be a good indicator to prevent fetal susceptibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Importance of Thioredoxin System for Redox Regulation and Health)
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19 pages, 1746 KiB  
Article
Tissue Oxidative Ecology along an Aridity Gradient in a Mammalian Subterranean Species
by Paul J. Jacobs, Daniel W. Hart, Hana N. Merchant, Andries K. Janse van Vuuren, Chris G. Faulkes, Steven J. Portugal, Barry Van Jaarsveld and Nigel C. Bennett
Antioxidants 2022, 11(11), 2290; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11112290 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1555
Abstract
Climate change has caused aridification which can alter habitat vegetation, soil and precipitation profiles potentially affecting resident species. Vegetation and soil profiles are important for subterranean mole-rats as increasing aridity causes soils to become harder and geophytes less evenly distributed, and the inter-geophyte [...] Read more.
Climate change has caused aridification which can alter habitat vegetation, soil and precipitation profiles potentially affecting resident species. Vegetation and soil profiles are important for subterranean mole-rats as increasing aridity causes soils to become harder and geophytes less evenly distributed, and the inter-geophyte distance increases. Mole-rats obtain all water and dietary requirements from geophytes, and thus digging in harder soils may amplify stressors (hyperthermia, dehydration- or exercise-induced damage). This study assessed the oxidative status of the wild common mole-rat along an aridity gradient (arid, semi-arid and mesic). Kidney and liver oxidative markers, including total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), oxidative stress index (OSI), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured. Liver oxidative status did not demonstrate any significance with the degree of the aridity gradient. Aridity affected the TAC and OSI of the kidney, with individuals in the most arid habitats possessing the highest TAC. The evolution of increased group size to promote survival in African mole-rats in arid habitats may have resulted in the additional benefit of reduced oxidative stress in the kidneys. The SOD activity of the kidneys was higher than that of the liver with lower oxidative damage, suggesting this species pre-emptively protects its kidneys as these are important for water balance and retention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Redox Metabolism in Ecophysiology and Evolution)
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15 pages, 2057 KiB  
Article
Multi-Modal Synergistic 99mTc-TRODAT-1 SPECT and MRI for Evaluation of the Efficacy of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in CO-Induced Delayed Parkinsonian and Non-Parkinsonian Syndromes
by Skye Hsin-Hsien Yeh, Chuang-Hsin Chiu, Hung-Wen Kao, Ching-Po Lin, Yu-Hus Lai and Wen-Sheng Huang
Antioxidants 2022, 11(11), 2289; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11112289 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1447
Abstract
Background: Delayed neuropsychiatric syndrome (DNS) is characterized by motor dysfunction after acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. We examined the relationship between dopamine transporter (DAT) loss using kit-based Tc-99m-TRODAT-1 (DAT single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT) radioligand) and globus pallidus necrosis on MRI, DAT availability before [...] Read more.
Background: Delayed neuropsychiatric syndrome (DNS) is characterized by motor dysfunction after acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. We examined the relationship between dopamine transporter (DAT) loss using kit-based Tc-99m-TRODAT-1 (DAT single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT) radioligand) and globus pallidus necrosis on MRI, DAT availability before and after hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), and feasibility of Tc-99m-TRODAT-1 as an index for parkinsonian syndrome in CO poisoning. Methods: Twenty-one CO-intoxicated patients (mean ± SD age, 38.6 ± 11.4; range, 20–68 years) with DNS underwent Tc-99m-TRODAT-1 SPECT and MRI before HBOT and follow-up Tc-99m-TRODAT-1 SPECT to assess DAT recovery. Neurological examinations for Parkinsonism were performed after development of DNS. Results: Over 70% (15/21) of DNS patients showed globus pallidus necrosis on MRI. Significantly lower bilateral striatal DAT availability was associated with globus pallidus necrosis (p < 0.005). Moreover, 68.4% (13/19) of DNS subjects with Parkinsonian syndrome had lower bilateral striatal DAT availability vs. non-parkinsonian subjects pre- or post-HBOT. The SURs for both striata increased by ~11% post-HBOT in the Parkinsonian group; however, the left striatum presented a significantly higher DAT recovery rate than the right (*** p < 0.005). Conclusions: Coupled Tc-99m TRODAT-1 SPECT and MRI could assist evaluation of Parkinsonism risk and indicate DAT availability after HBOT in CO-poisoned patients with DNS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress-Related Biomarkers in Toxicology and Risk Assessment)
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16 pages, 1121 KiB  
Article
Safety Assessment of 3S, 3’S Astaxanthin Derived from Metabolically Engineered K. marxianus
by Sabrina Yeo Samuel, Hui-Min David Wang, Meng-Yuan Huang, Yu-Shen Cheng, Juine-Ruey Chen, Wen-Hsiung Li and Jui-Jen Chang
Antioxidants 2022, 11(11), 2288; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11112288 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2030
Abstract
Previous reviews have already explored the safety and bioavailability of astaxanthin, as well as its beneficial effects on human body. The great commercial potential in a variety of industries, such as the pharmaceutical and health supplement industries, has led to a skyrocketing demand [...] Read more.
Previous reviews have already explored the safety and bioavailability of astaxanthin, as well as its beneficial effects on human body. The great commercial potential in a variety of industries, such as the pharmaceutical and health supplement industries, has led to a skyrocketing demand for natural astaxanthin. In this study, we have successfully optimized the astaxanthin yield up to 12.8 mg/g DCW in a probiotic yeast and purity to 97%. We also verified that it is the desired free-form 3S, 3’S configurational stereoisomer by NMR and FITR that can significantly increase the bioavailability of astaxanthin. In addition, we have proven that our extracted astaxanthin crystals have higher antioxidant capabilities compared with natural esterified astaxanthin from H. pluvialis. We also screened for potential adverse effects of the pure astaxanthin crystals extracted from the engineered probiotic yeast by dosing SD rats with 6, 12, and 24 mg/kg/day of astaxanthin crystals via oral gavages for a 13-week period and have found no significant biological differences between the control and treatment groups in rats of both genders, further confirming the safety of astaxanthin crystals. This study demonstrates that developing metabolically engineered microorganisms provides a safe and feasible approach for the bio-based production of many beneficial compounds, including astaxanthin. Full article
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23 pages, 3259 KiB  
Review
New Insights into the Gut Microbiota in Neurodegenerative Diseases from the Perspective of Redox Homeostasis
by Yu Wang, Zhe Zhang, Bowen Li, Bo He, Lei Li, Edouard C. Nice, Wei Zhang and Jia Xu
Antioxidants 2022, 11(11), 2287; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11112287 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3525
Abstract
An imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in the body can lead to oxidative stress, which is one of the major causes of neurodegenerative diseases. The gut microbiota contains trillions of beneficial bacteria that play an important role in maintaining redox homeostasis. In the [...] Read more.
An imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in the body can lead to oxidative stress, which is one of the major causes of neurodegenerative diseases. The gut microbiota contains trillions of beneficial bacteria that play an important role in maintaining redox homeostasis. In the last decade, the microbiota–gut–brain axis has emerged as a new field that has revolutionized the study of the pathology, diagnosis, and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Indeed, a growing number of studies have found that communication between the brain and the gut microbiota can be accomplished through the endocrine, immune, and nervous systems. Importantly, dysregulation of the gut microbiota has been strongly associated with the development of oxidative stress-mediated neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, a deeper understanding of the relationship between the gut microbiota and redox homeostasis will help explain the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases from a new perspective and provide a theoretical basis for proposing new therapeutic strategies for neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we will describe the role of oxidative stress and the gut microbiota in neurodegenerative diseases and the underlying mechanisms by which the gut microbiota affects redox homeostasis in the brain, leading to neurodegenerative diseases. In addition, we will discuss the potential applications of maintaining redox homeostasis by modulating the gut microbiota to treat neurodegenerative diseases, which could open the door for new therapeutic approaches to combat neurodegenerative diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Redox Regulation and Proteostasis in Ageing and Associated Diseases)
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21 pages, 2088 KiB  
Article
Radiation Type- and Dose-Specific Transcriptional Responses across Healthy and Diseased Mammalian Tissues
by Eftychia Sagkrioti, Gökay Mehmet Biz, Işıl Takan, Seyedehsadaf Asfa, Zacharenia Nikitaki, Vassiliki Zanni, Rumeysa Hanife Kars, Christine E. Hellweg, Edouard I. Azzam, Stella Logotheti, Athanasia Pavlopoulou and Alexandros G. Georgakilas
Antioxidants 2022, 11(11), 2286; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11112286 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2080
Abstract
Ionizing radiation (IR) is a genuine genotoxic agent and a major modality in cancer treatment. IR disrupts DNA sequences and exerts mutagenic and/or cytotoxic properties that not only alter critical cellular functions but also impact tissues proximal and distal to the irradiated site. [...] Read more.
Ionizing radiation (IR) is a genuine genotoxic agent and a major modality in cancer treatment. IR disrupts DNA sequences and exerts mutagenic and/or cytotoxic properties that not only alter critical cellular functions but also impact tissues proximal and distal to the irradiated site. Unveiling the molecular events governing the diverse effects of IR at the cellular and organismal levels is relevant for both radiotherapy and radiation protection. Herein, we address changes in the expression of mammalian genes induced after the exposure of a wide range of tissues to various radiation types with distinct biophysical characteristics. First, we constructed a publicly available database, termed RadBioBase, which will be updated at regular intervals. RadBioBase includes comprehensive transcriptomes of mammalian cells across healthy and diseased tissues that respond to a range of radiation types and doses. Pertinent information was derived from a hybrid analysis based on stringent literature mining and transcriptomic studies. An integrative bioinformatics methodology, including functional enrichment analysis and machine learning techniques, was employed to unveil the characteristic biological pathways related to specific radiation types and their association with various diseases. We found that the effects of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation on cell transcriptomes significantly differ from those caused by low LET and are consistent with immunomodulation, inflammation, oxidative stress responses and cell death. The transcriptome changes also depend on the dose since low doses up to 0.5 Gy are related with cytokine cascades, while higher doses with ROS metabolism. We additionally identified distinct gene signatures for different types of radiation. Overall, our data suggest that different radiation types and doses can trigger distinct trajectories of cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic pathways that hold promise to be manipulated toward improving radiotherapy efficiency and reducing systemic radiotoxicities. Full article
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17 pages, 3899 KiB  
Article
Chenodeoxycholic Acid (CDCA) Promoted Intestinal Epithelial Cell Proliferation by Regulating Cell Cycle Progression and Mitochondrial Biogenesis in IPEC-J2 Cells
by Lei Xu, Yanpin Li, Zixi Wei, Rong Bai, Ge Gao, Wenjuan Sun, Xianren Jiang, Junjun Wang, Xilong Li and Yu Pi
Antioxidants 2022, 11(11), 2285; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11112285 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2235
Abstract
Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), a primary bile acid (BA), has been demonstrated to play an important role as a signaling molecule in various physiological functions. However, the role of CDCA in regulating intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) function remains largely unknown. Herein, porcine intestinal epithelial [...] Read more.
Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), a primary bile acid (BA), has been demonstrated to play an important role as a signaling molecule in various physiological functions. However, the role of CDCA in regulating intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) function remains largely unknown. Herein, porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) were used as an in vitro model to investigate the effects of CDCA on IEC proliferation and explore the underlying mechanisms. IPEC-J2 cells were treated with CDCA, and flow cytometry and transcriptome analysis were adopted to investigate the effects and potential molecular mechanisms of CDCA on the proliferation of IECs. Our results indicated that adding 50 μmol/L of CDCA in the media significantly increased the proliferation of IPEC-J2 cells. In addition, CDCA treatment also hindered cell apoptosis, increased the proportion of G0/G1 phase cells in the cell cycle progression, reduced intracellular ROS, and MDA levels, and increased mitochondrial membrane potential, antioxidation enzyme activity (T-AOC and CAT), and intracellular ATP level (p < 0.05). RNA-seq results showed that CDCA significantly upregulated the expression of genes related to cell cycle progression (Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), cyclin G2 (CCNG2), cell-cycle progression gene 1 (CCPG1), Bcl-2 interacting protein 5 (BNIP5), etc.) and downregulated the expression of genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis (ND1, ND2, COX3, ATP6, etc.). Further KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed that CDCA significantly enriched the signaling pathways of DNA replication, cell cycle, and p53. Collectively, this study demonstrated that CDCA could promote IPEC-J2 proliferation by regulating cell cycle progression and mitochondrial function. These findings provide a new strategy for promoting the intestinal health of pigs by regulating intestinal BA metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Livestock and Poultry)
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17 pages, 2478 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Activity of Rhaponticoides iconiensis Flowers: Effects on Key Enzymes Linked to Type 2 Diabetes In Vitro, In Silico and on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats In Vivo
by Leyla Paşayeva, Hanifa Fatullayev, Ismail Celik, Gokhan Unal, Nuh Mehmet Bozkurt, Osman Tugay and Magda H. Abdellattif
Antioxidants 2022, 11(11), 2284; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11112284 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2789
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the globally worst killer diseases. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo antidiabetic activity and antioxidant capacity were determined and the phytochemical analyses were carried out on flower extract and sub-extracts of Rhaponticoides iconiensis. [...] Read more.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the globally worst killer diseases. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo antidiabetic activity and antioxidant capacity were determined and the phytochemical analyses were carried out on flower extract and sub-extracts of Rhaponticoides iconiensis. The in vitro antidiabetic activity was tested with α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzyme inhibition methods and an in vivo OGTT test in healthy and alloxan-induced rats. Although, the antioxidant activity was investigated with DPPH, ABTS●+ and FRAP tests, the phytochemical composition analysis was carried out by LC-MS/MS. The highest α-glucosidase and α-amylase activity even from positive control acarbose were found in the ethyl acetate sub-extract of R. iconiensis (IC50 = 11.737 ± 0.823 µg/mL and 84.247 ± 0.721 µg/mL, respectively). This sub-extract also was active according to the results of in vivo tests. Moreover, the highest antioxidant activity on DPPH (IC50 = 0.126 ± 0.002 mg/mL), FRAP (at a concentration of 1 mg/mL equivalent to 3112.052 ± 2.023 mmol Fe2+) and ABTS+● (at a concentration of 0.5 mg/mL equivalent to 0.608 ± 0.005 µM Trolox) tests. In addition, LC-MS/MS analyses of the active sub-extract revealed mainly the presence of patuletin, patuletin 3,7-diglucoside, naringin and 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid detected in the active sub-extract. In silico molecular docking and dynamics simulations studies were performed on these compounds with α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes for protein–ligand interactions and stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Antioxidant Ingredients from Natural Products)
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15 pages, 2427 KiB  
Article
Dimethylthiourea Alleviates Drought Stress by Suppressing Hydrogen Peroxide-Dependent Abscisic Acid-Mediated Oxidative Responses in an Antagonistic Interaction with Salicylic Acid in Brassica napus Leaves
by Bok-Rye Lee, Van Hien La, Sang-Hyun Park, Md Al Mamun, Dong-Won Bae and Tae-Hwan Kim
Antioxidants 2022, 11(11), 2283; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11112283 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1567
Abstract
In plants, prolonged drought induces oxidative stress, leading to a loss of reducing potential in redox components. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a representative hormonal signal regulating stress responses. This study aimed to investigate the physiological significance of dimethylthiourea (DMTU, an H2O [...] Read more.
In plants, prolonged drought induces oxidative stress, leading to a loss of reducing potential in redox components. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a representative hormonal signal regulating stress responses. This study aimed to investigate the physiological significance of dimethylthiourea (DMTU, an H2O2 scavenger) in the hormonal regulation of the antioxidant system and redox control in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) leaves under drought stress. Drought treatment for 10 days provoked oxidative stress, as evidenced by the increase in O2•− and H2O2 concentrations, and lipid peroxidation levels, and a decrease in leaf water potential. Drought-induced oxidative responses were significantly alleviated by DMTU treatment. The accumulation of O2•− and H2O2 in drought-treated plants coincided with the enhanced expression of the NADPH oxidase and Cu/Zn-SOD genes, leading to an up-regulation in oxidative signal-inducible 1 (OXI1) and mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 (MAPK6), with a concomitant increase in ABA levels and the up-regulation of ABA-related genes. DMTU treatment under drought largely suppressed the drought-responsive up-regulation of these genes by depressing ABA responses through an antagonistic interaction with salicylic acid (SA). DMTU treatment also alleviated the drought-induced loss of reducing potential in GSH- and NADPH-based redox by the enhanced expression of glutathione reductase 1 (GR1) and up-regulation of oxidoreductase genes (TRXh5 and GRXC9). These results indicate that DMTU effectively alleviates drought-induced oxidative responses by suppressing ABA-mediated oxidative burst signaling in an antagonistic regulation of SA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Antioxidant Enzyme Systems)
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16 pages, 3439 KiB  
Article
Effects of Different Dietary β-Glucan Levels on Antioxidant Capacity and Immunity, Gut Microbiota and Transcriptome Responses of White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) under Low Salinity
by Yanbing Qiao, Li Zhou, Yayu Qu, Kunyu Lu, Fenglu Han and Erchao Li
Antioxidants 2022, 11(11), 2282; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11112282 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2318
Abstract
β-Glucan could significantly improve the antioxidant capacity of aquatic animals. The effects of different dietary levels (0 (control), 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 or 0.4%) of β-glucan on the growth, survival, antioxidant capacity, immunity, intestinal microbiota and transcriptional responses of Litopenaeus vannamei under low salinity [...] Read more.
β-Glucan could significantly improve the antioxidant capacity of aquatic animals. The effects of different dietary levels (0 (control), 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 or 0.4%) of β-glucan on the growth, survival, antioxidant capacity, immunity, intestinal microbiota and transcriptional responses of Litopenaeus vannamei under low salinity (≤3) were investigated. The dietary growth trial lasted 35 days (initial shrimp 0.26 ± 0.01 g). The results indicated that the growth performance of the 0.1% and 0.2% groups was significantly better than that of the control group. A second-order polynomial regression analysis of growth performance against dietary β-glucan indicated that the optimal dietary β-glucan level was 0.2% of dry matter. The digestive enzyme activity of the hepatopancreas was enhanced with increasing β-glucan levels. The antioxidant and nonspecific immunity capacities of the hepatopancreas were also enhanced in the 0.1% group. The α-diversity index analysis of the intestinal microbiota showed that the intestinal microbial richness of L. vannamei increased in the 0.1% group. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria decreased in the 0.1% group compared with the control group. The transcriptome results indicate that the prebiotic mechanisms of β-glucan include upregulating the expression of nonspecific immune genes and osmoregulation genes and activating KEGG pathways associated with carbohydrate metabolism under low-salinity stress. These results suggested that dietary supplementation with β-glucan markedly increased growth performance and alleviated the negative effects of low-salinity stress by contributing to the activity of biochemical enzymes and enriching carbohydrate metabolism in L. vannamei. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Aquatic Organisms)
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14 pages, 2182 KiB  
Review
Post-Translational Modifications Evoked by Reactive Carbonyl Species in Ultraviolet-A-Exposed Skin: Implication in Fibroblast Senescence and Skin Photoaging
by Anne Negre-Salvayre and Robert Salvayre
Antioxidants 2022, 11(11), 2281; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11112281 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2282
Abstract
Photoaging is an accelerated form of aging resulting from skin exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. UV-A radiation deeply penetrates the dermis and triggers the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which promotes damage to DNA, lipids and proteins. Lipid peroxidation results from the [...] Read more.
Photoaging is an accelerated form of aging resulting from skin exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. UV-A radiation deeply penetrates the dermis and triggers the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which promotes damage to DNA, lipids and proteins. Lipid peroxidation results from the oxidative attack of polyunsaturated fatty acids which generate a huge amount of lipid peroxidation products, among them reactive carbonyl species (RCS) such as α, β-unsaturated hydroxyalkenals (e.g., 4-hydroxynonenal), acrolein or malondialdehyde. These highly reactive agents form adducts on free NH2 groups and thiol residues on amino acids in proteins and can also modify DNA and phospholipids. The accumulation of RCS-adducts leads to carbonyl stress characterized by progressive cellular and tissular dysfunction, inflammation and toxicity. RCS-adducts are formed in the dermis of skin exposed to UV-A radiation. Several RCS targets have been identified in the dermis, such as collagen and elastin in the extracellular matrix, whose modification could contribute to actinic elastosis lesions. RCS-adducts may play a role in fibroblast senescence via the modification of histones, and the sirtuin SIRT1, leading to an accumulation of acetylated proteins. The cytoskeleton protein vimentin is modified by RCS, which could impair fibroblast motility. A better identification of protein modification and carbonyl stress in the dermis may help to develop new treatment approaches for preventing photoaging. Full article
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14 pages, 3304 KiB  
Article
Cytokine Adsorber Use during DCD Heart Perfusion Counteracts Coronary Microvascular Dysfunction
by Lars Saemann, Fabio Hoorn, Adrian-Iustin Georgevici, Sabine Pohl, Sevil Korkmaz-Icöz, Gábor Veres, Yuxing Guo, Matthias Karck, Andreas Simm, Folker Wenzel and Gábor Szabó
Antioxidants 2022, 11(11), 2280; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11112280 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1565
Abstract
Microvascular dysfunction (MVD) in cardiac allografts is associated with an impaired endothelial function in the coronary microvasculature. Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) deteriorates endothelial function. Hearts donated after circulatory death (DCD) are exposed to warm ischemia before initiating ex vivo blood perfusion (BP). The impact [...] Read more.
Microvascular dysfunction (MVD) in cardiac allografts is associated with an impaired endothelial function in the coronary microvasculature. Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) deteriorates endothelial function. Hearts donated after circulatory death (DCD) are exposed to warm ischemia before initiating ex vivo blood perfusion (BP). The impact of cytokine adsorption during BP to prevent MVD in DCD hearts is unknown. In a porcine DCD model, we assessed the microvascular function of hearts after BP with (DCD-BPCytoS, n = 5) or without (DCD-BP, n = 5) cytokine adsorption (CytoSorb®). Microvascular autoregulation was assessed by increasing the coronary perfusion pressure, while myocardial microcirculation was measured by Laser-Doppler-Perfusion (LDP). We analyzed the immunoreactivity of arteriolar oxidative stress markers nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), endothelial injury indicating cell adhesion molecules CD54, CD106 and CD31, and eNOS. We profiled the concentration of 13 cytokines in the perfusate. The expression of 84 genes was determined and analyzed using machine learning and decision trees. Non-DCD hearts served as a control for the gene expression analysis. Compared to DCD-BP, relative LDP was improved in the DCD-BPCytoS group (1.51 ± 0.17 vs. 1.08 ± 0.17). Several pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were reduced in the DCD-BPCytoS group. The expression of eNOS significantly increased, and the expression of nitrotyrosine, HNE, CD54, CD106, and CD31, markers of endothelial injury, majorly decreased in the DCD-BPCytoS group. Three genes allowed exact differentiation between groups; regulation of HIF1A enabled differentiation between perfusion (DCD-BP, DCD-BPCytoS) and non-perfusion groups. CAV1 allowed differentiation between BP and BPCytoS. The use of a cytokine adsorption device during BP counteracts preload-dependent MVD and preserves the microvascular endothelium by preventing oxidative stress and IRI of coronary arterioles of DCD hearts. Full article
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11 pages, 1890 KiB  
Article
Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Attenuate Mast Cell Activation
by Tzou-Yien Lin, Tsong-Min Chang and Huey-Chun Huang
Antioxidants 2022, 11(11), 2279; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11112279 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2029
Abstract
The therapeutic potential of extracellular vesicles isolated from stem cells have been reported in several clinical diseases. Preclinical studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of extracellular vesicles in the treatment of heart, kidney, liver, brain, and skin injuries. To address the putative therapeutic [...] Read more.
The therapeutic potential of extracellular vesicles isolated from stem cells have been reported in several clinical diseases. Preclinical studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of extracellular vesicles in the treatment of heart, kidney, liver, brain, and skin injuries. To address the putative therapeutic effects and mechanisms of extracellular vesicles derived from human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells on allergic activation in mast cells, we isolated extracellular vesicles from human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs) by tangential-flow filtration methods. The characteristics and identification of UCMSC-derived extracellular vesicles were examined via nanoparticle tracking analysis, transmission electron microscopy and protein marker analysis. Cytokines and tryptase in the cultured supernatant of KU812 cells were analyzed using an ELISA kit. Proteins in the MAPK and STAT5 signaling pathways were detected by Western blotting. This study showed that different doses of UCMSC-derived extracellular vesicles abolish IgE-stimulated KU812 cell activation and reduce the level of NF-κB, which subsequently leads to cell degranulation and the release of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6. Additionally, UCMSC-derived extracellular vesicles treatment blunted the IgE-induced signaling proteins p-P38, p-JNK and p-STAT5. Our results revealed a mechanism for anti-inflammation in which extracellular vesicles can affect the activation of mast cells and thus function in allergy regulation. Full article
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16 pages, 2771 KiB  
Article
Controlled Atmosphere Improves the Quality, Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Content of Yellow Peach during the Shelf Life
by Xinrui Dong, Yi He, Chushan Yuan, Xiaomei Cheng, Gaoyang Li, Yang Shan and Xiangrong Zhu
Antioxidants 2022, 11(11), 2278; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11112278 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1538
Abstract
Controlled atmosphere (CA) has been demonstrated to maintain the shelf-life quality of fruits, but its effect on the antioxidant activities and phenolic content of yellow peach is not comprehensive. This study analyzed the role of CA on the quality of shelf period, phenolic [...] Read more.
Controlled atmosphere (CA) has been demonstrated to maintain the shelf-life quality of fruits, but its effect on the antioxidant activities and phenolic content of yellow peach is not comprehensive. This study analyzed the role of CA on the quality of shelf period, phenolic content and antioxidant activity of “Jinxiu” yellow peach. Yellow peach was left under specific aeration conditions (3.5–4% CO2, 2–3% O2, 92–95.5% N2, 1 ± 0.5 °C) and the control (1 ± 0.5 °C) for 21 d, to observe changes in physiological parameters of the fruit during 10 d of the shelf life (25 ± 1 °C). The result showed that CA reduced the weight loss rate (WLR), decay rate (DR), and browning index (BI) of yellow peaches. Furthermore, the CA held a high level of total flavonoid content (TFC), total phenol content (TPC) and phenolic content in the fruit. Antioxidant analysis showed that polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme activity was lower and free radical scavenging capacity (DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP) and antioxidant enzyme activities (POD and PAL) were higher in the CA group. Combining the results of significance analysis, correlation analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) clearly identified the differences between the CA group and the control group. The results showed that the CA could maintain higher phenolic content and reduce the oxidation of yellow peach fruit and enhance fruit quality by affecting the antioxidant activities of yellow peach. Full article
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13 pages, 4003 KiB  
Article
Irregular Expression of Cellular Stress Response Markers in the Placenta of Women with Chronic Venous Disease
by Cielo García-Montero, Oscar Fraile-Martinez, Sonia Rodriguez-Martín, Rosa M. Funes Moñux, Jose V. Saz, Coral Bravo, Juan A. De Leon-Luis, María Ruiz-Minaya, Leonel Pekarek, Miguel A. Saez, Alberto García-Lledo, Melchor Alvarez-Mon, Julia Bujan, Natalio García-Honduvilla and Miguel A. Ortega
Antioxidants 2022, 11(11), 2277; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11112277 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1431
Abstract
Pregnancy comprises a period in a woman’s life in which the circulatory system is subjected to hemodynamical and biochemical changes. During this period, while restructuring blood vessels and exchanging maternal-fetal products there is an increased risk of developing chronic venous disease (CVD), which [...] Read more.
Pregnancy comprises a period in a woman’s life in which the circulatory system is subjected to hemodynamical and biochemical changes. During this period, while restructuring blood vessels and exchanging maternal-fetal products there is an increased risk of developing chronic venous disease (CVD), which may have an echo in life after childbirth for both mother and child. Previously, we investigated that pregnancy-associated CVD involves changes in placental architecture at angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and villi morphology compared with healthy controls (HC) with no history of CVD. We aimed to more deeply investigate the oxidative stress response in placenta from women with CVD versus HC through several markers (NRF2, KEAP1, CUL3, GSK-3β). An observational, analytical, and prospective cohort study was conducted on 114 women in their third trimester of pregnancy (32 weeks). A total of 62 participants were clinically diagnosed with CVD. In parallel, 52 controls with no history of CVD (HC) were studied. Gene and protein expressions of NRF2, KEAP1, CUL3, GSK-3β were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemistry. Nrf2 gene and protein expression was significantly greater in placental villi of women with CVD, while Keap1, CUL-3 and GSK-3β gene and protein expressions were significantly lower. Our results defined an aberrant gene and protein expression of Nrf2 and some of their main regulators Keap1, CUL-3 and GSK-3 β in the placenta of women with CVD, which could be an indicator of an oxidative environment observed in this tissue. Full article
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15 pages, 1582 KiB  
Article
High Dietary Histamine Induces Digestive Tract Oxidative Damage in Juvenile Striped Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)
by Yu Liu, Xinlangji Fu, Huajing Huang, Jiongting Fan, Hang Zhou, Junming Deng and Beiping Tan
Antioxidants 2022, 11(11), 2276; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11112276 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1419
Abstract
A 56-day feeding trial investigated the effects of dietary histamine on the antioxidant capacity, gastric and intestinal barrier functions, and growth performance of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus). Seven isonitrogenous (34.0% crude protein) and isolipidic (10.5% crude lipid) diets were formulated with [...] Read more.
A 56-day feeding trial investigated the effects of dietary histamine on the antioxidant capacity, gastric and intestinal barrier functions, and growth performance of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus). Seven isonitrogenous (34.0% crude protein) and isolipidic (10.5% crude lipid) diets were formulated with supplemental 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, and 480 mg/kg of histamine, named H0, H15, H30, H60, H120, H240, and H480 group, respectively. Results showed that the weight gain rate, specific growth rate, relative intestinal length in the H240 and H480 groups, and the condition factors in the H480 group were significantly lower than those in the H0 group. Intestinal total antioxidant capacity, peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activities in the H480 group were significantly lower than those in the H0 group, whereas intestinal malondialdehyde content exhibited the opposite trend. Intestinal complement 3, complement 4, immunoglobulin M, and Recombinant Mucin 2 in the H480 group were significantly lower than those in the H0 group, in contrast to intestinal lipopolysaccharide content. Intestinal IL-10 gene expression in the H480 group was significantly lower than that in the H0 group, whereas the TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, and IL-8 gene expression exhibited opposite results. Scanning and transmission electron microscopic observation of the gastrointestinal tract revealed severe damage to the gastric mucosa and intestinal epithelium in the H480 group. The abundance of Treponema in the histamine groups was significantly higher than that in the H0 group. These results indicated that high dietary histamine decreases intestinal immunity and antioxidant capacity, inducing digestive tract oxidative damage and ultimately decreasing the growth of striped catfish. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Aquatic Organisms)
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24 pages, 1791 KiB  
Review
Systematic Review of the Therapeutic Role of Apoptotic Inhibitors in Neurodegeneration and Their Potential Use in Schizophrenia
by Constanza Morén, Nina Treder, Albert Martínez-Pinteño, Natàlia Rodríguez, Néstor Arbelo, Santiago Madero, Marta Gómez, Sergi Mas, Patricia Gassó and Eduard Parellada
Antioxidants 2022, 11(11), 2275; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11112275 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2282
Abstract
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a deleterious brain disorder affecting cognition, emotion and reality perception. The most widely accepted neurochemical-hypothesis is the imbalance of neurotransmitter-systems. Depleted GABAergic-inhibitory function might produce a regionally-located dopaminergic and glutamatergic-storm in the brain. The dopaminergic-release may underlie the positive psychotic-symptoms [...] Read more.
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a deleterious brain disorder affecting cognition, emotion and reality perception. The most widely accepted neurochemical-hypothesis is the imbalance of neurotransmitter-systems. Depleted GABAergic-inhibitory function might produce a regionally-located dopaminergic and glutamatergic-storm in the brain. The dopaminergic-release may underlie the positive psychotic-symptoms while the glutamatergic-release could prompt the primary negative symptoms/cognitive deficits. This may occur due to excessive synaptic-pruning during the neurodevelopmental stages of adolescence/early adulthood. Thus, although SZ is not a neurodegenerative disease, it has been suggested that exaggerated dendritic-apoptosis could explain the limited neuroprogression around its onset. This apoptotic nature of SZ highlights the potential therapeutic action of anti-apoptotic drugs, especially at prodromal stages. If dysregulation of apoptotic mechanisms underlies the molecular basis of SZ, then anti-apoptotic molecules could be a prodromal therapeutic option to halt or prevent SZ. In fact, risk alleles related in apoptotic genes have been recently associated to SZ and shared molecular apoptotic changes are common in the main neurodegenerative disorders and SZ. PRISMA-guidelines were considered. Anti-apoptotic drugs are commonly applied in classic neurodegenerative disorders with promising results. Despite both the apoptotic-hallmarks of SZ and the widespread use of anti-apoptotic targets in neurodegeneration, there is a strikingly scarce number of studies investigating anti-apoptotic approaches in SZ. We analyzed the anti-apoptotic approaches conducted in neurodegeneration and the potential applications of such anti-apoptotic therapies as a promising novel therapeutic strategy, especially during early stages. Full article
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