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Brain Sci., Volume 5, Issue 1 (March 2015) – 6 articles , Pages 1-91

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262 KiB  
Article
Neuroplasticity beyond Sounds: Neural Adaptations Following Long-Term Musical Aesthetic Experiences
by Mark Reybrouck and Elvira Brattico
Brain Sci. 2015, 5(1), 69-91; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci5010069 - 23 Mar 2015
Cited by 44 | Viewed by 13216
Abstract
Capitalizing from neuroscience knowledge on how individuals are affected by the sound environment, we propose to adopt a cybernetic and ecological point of view on the musical aesthetic experience, which includes subprocesses, such as feature extraction and integration, early affective reactions and motor [...] Read more.
Capitalizing from neuroscience knowledge on how individuals are affected by the sound environment, we propose to adopt a cybernetic and ecological point of view on the musical aesthetic experience, which includes subprocesses, such as feature extraction and integration, early affective reactions and motor actions, style mastering and conceptualization, emotion and proprioception, evaluation and preference. In this perspective, the role of the listener/composer/performer is seen as that of an active “agent” coping in highly individual ways with the sounds. The findings concerning the neural adaptations in musicians, following long-term exposure to music, are then reviewed by keeping in mind the distinct subprocesses of a musical aesthetic experience. We conclude that these neural adaptations can be conceived of as the immediate and lifelong interactions with multisensorial stimuli (having a predominant auditory component), which result in lasting changes of the internal state of the “agent”. In a continuous loop, these changes affect, in turn, the subprocesses involved in a musical aesthetic experience, towards the final goal of achieving better perceptual, motor and proprioceptive responses to the immediate demands of the sounding environment. The resulting neural adaptations in musicians closely depend on the duration of the interactions, the starting age, the involvement of attention, the amount of motor practice and the musical genre played. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Music and Neural Plasticity)
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151 KiB  
Article
Lead Excretion in Spanish Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
by Milagros Fuentes-Albero, Carmen Puig-Alcaraz and Omar Cauli
Brain Sci. 2015, 5(1), 58-68; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci5010058 - 16 Feb 2015
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 7503
Abstract
Among epigenetic factors leading to increased prevalence of juvenile neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder, exposure to metals, such as lead (Pb) have led to conflicting results. The aim of the present study was to determine the levels of Pb in the urine [...] Read more.
Among epigenetic factors leading to increased prevalence of juvenile neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder, exposure to metals, such as lead (Pb) have led to conflicting results. The aim of the present study was to determine the levels of Pb in the urine of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with typically developing children (TD) age- and sex-matched, and to analyze any association between core symptoms of ASD, special diets, supplements intake or prescription drugs and the concentration of Pb. The study was performed in a group of children with ASD (n = 35, average age 7.4 ± 0.5 years) and TD (n = 34, average age 7.7 ± 0.9 years). Measurement of lead in urine was performed by atomic absorption spectrometry; symptoms of ASD were analyzed by diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DMS-IV) using the questionnary ADI-R. Careful clinical evaluation was also undertaken and statistical analysis was done taking into account any possible confounding factor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autism Spectrum Disorder)
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132 KiB  
Review
Multisensory Integration and Child Neurodevelopment
by Emmanuelle Dionne-Dostie, Natacha Paquette, Maryse Lassonde and Anne Gallagher
Brain Sci. 2015, 5(1), 32-57; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci5010032 - 11 Feb 2015
Cited by 57 | Viewed by 13302
Abstract
A considerable number of cognitive processes depend on the integration of multisensory information. The brain integrates this information, providing a complete representation of our surrounding world and giving us the ability to react optimally to the environment. Infancy is a period of great [...] Read more.
A considerable number of cognitive processes depend on the integration of multisensory information. The brain integrates this information, providing a complete representation of our surrounding world and giving us the ability to react optimally to the environment. Infancy is a period of great changes in brain structure and function that are reflected by the increase of processing capacities of the developing child. However, it is unclear if the optimal use of multisensory information is present early in childhood or develops only later, with experience. The first part of this review has focused on the typical development of multisensory integration (MSI). We have described the two hypotheses on the developmental process of MSI in neurotypical infants and children, and have introduced MSI and its neuroanatomic correlates. The second section has discussed the neurodevelopmental trajectory of MSI in cognitively-challenged infants and children. A few studies have brought to light various difficulties to integrate sensory information in children with a neurodevelopmental disorder. Consequently, we have exposed certain possible neurophysiological relationships between MSI deficits and neurodevelopmental disorders, especially dyslexia and attention deficit disorder with/without hyperactivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cognition in Infants)
266 KiB  
Article
Microarray Analysis Reveals Higher Gestational Folic Acid Alters Expression of Genes in the Cerebellum of Mice Offspring—A Pilot Study
by Subit Barua, Salomon Kuizon, Kathryn K. Chadman, W. Ted Brown and Mohammed A. Junaid
Brain Sci. 2015, 5(1), 14-31; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci5010014 - 26 Jan 2015
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 8060
Abstract
Folate is a water-soluble vitamin that is critical for nucleotide synthesis and can modulate methylation of DNA by altering one-carbon metabolism. Previous studies have shown that folate status during pregnancy is associated with various congenital defects including the risk of aberrant neural tube [...] Read more.
Folate is a water-soluble vitamin that is critical for nucleotide synthesis and can modulate methylation of DNA by altering one-carbon metabolism. Previous studies have shown that folate status during pregnancy is associated with various congenital defects including the risk of aberrant neural tube closure. Maternal exposure to a methyl supplemented diet also can alter DNA methylation and gene expression, which may influence the phenotype of offspring. We investigated if higher gestational folic acid (FA) in the diet dysregulates the expression of genes in the cerebellum of offspring in C57BL/6 J mice. One week before gestation and throughout the pregnancy, groups of dams were supplemented with FA either at 2 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg of diet. Microarray analysis was used to investigate the genome wide gene expression profile in the cerebellum from day old pups. Our results revealed that exposure to the higher dose FA diet during gestation dysregulated expression of several genes in the cerebellum of both male and female pups. Several transcription factors, imprinted genes, neuro-developmental genes and genes associated with autism spectrum disorder exhibited altered expression levels. These findings suggest that higher gestational FA potentially dysregulates gene expression in the offspring brain and such changes may adversely alter fetal programming and overall brain development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autism Spectrum Disorder)
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Article
Lipo-oxytocin-1, a Novel Oxytocin Analog Conjugated with Two Palmitoyl Groups, Has Long-Lasting Effects on Anxiety-Related Behavior and Social Avoidance in CD157 Knockout Mice
by Akira Mizuno, Stanislav M. Cherepanov, Yusuke Kikuchi, Azam AKM Fakhrul, Shirin Akther, Kisaburo Deguchi, Toru Yoshihara, Katsuhiko Ishihara, Satoshi Shuto and Haruhiro Higashida
Brain Sci. 2015, 5(1), 3-13; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci5010003 - 20 Jan 2015
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 11306
Abstract
Oxytocin (OT) is a nonapeptide hormone that is secreted into the brain and blood circulation. OT has not only classical neurohormonal roles in uterine contraction and milk ejection during the reproductive phase in females, but has also been shown to have new pivotal [...] Read more.
Oxytocin (OT) is a nonapeptide hormone that is secreted into the brain and blood circulation. OT has not only classical neurohormonal roles in uterine contraction and milk ejection during the reproductive phase in females, but has also been shown to have new pivotal neuromodulatory roles in social recognition and interaction in both genders. A single administration of OT through nasal spray increases mutual recognition and trust in healthy subjects and psychiatric patients, suggesting that OT is a potential therapeutic drug for autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, and some other psychiatric disorders. Although the mechanism is not well understood, it is likely that OT can be transported into the brain where it activates OT receptors to exert its function in the brain. However, the amount transported into the brain may be low. To ensure equivalent effects, an OT analog with long-lasting and effective blood-brain barrier penetration properties would be beneficial for use as a therapeutic drug. Here, we designed and synthesized a new oxytocin analog, lipo-oxytocin-1 (LOT-1), in which two palmitoyl groups are conjugated at the amino group of the cysteine9 residue and the phenolic hydroxyl group of the tyrosine8 residue of the OT molecule. To determine whether LOT-1 actually has an effect on the central nervous system, we examined its effects in a CD157 knockout model mouse of the non-motor psychiatric symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Similar to OT, this analog rescued anxiety-like behavior and social avoidance in the open field test with the social target in a central arena 30 min after intraperitoneal injection in CD157 knockout mice. When examined 24 h after injection, the mice treated with LOT-1 displayed more recovery than those given OT. The results suggest that LOT-1 has a functional advantage in recovery of social behavioral impairment, such as those caused by neurodegenerative diseases, autism spectrum disorders, and schizophrenia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autism Spectrum Disorder)
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Editorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Brain Sciences in 2014
by Brain Sciences Editorial Office
Brain Sci. 2015, 5(1), 1-2; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci5010001 - 8 Jan 2015
Viewed by 4166
Abstract
The editors of Brain Sciences would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2014:[...] Full article
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