Next Issue
Volume 12, July
Previous Issue
Volume 12, May
 
 

Brain Sci., Volume 12, Issue 6 (June 2022) – 128 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The Asymmetric Laplace Gaussian (ALG) distribution is a four-parametric statistical model emerging as the convolution of well-known Laplacian and Gaussian distributions. ALG presents a comprehensive statistical model of human brain inhibition distributions and enables psychiatrists and clinicians to categorize a spectrum of clinical conditions in terms of their statistical features. VIew this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
15 pages, 503 KiB  
Review
Surpass Evolve Flow Diverter for the Treatment of Intracranial Aneurysm: A Systematic Review
by Rania Issa, Zahrah Al-Homedi, Dawood Hasan Syed, Waseem Aziz and Basem Al-Omari
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(6), 810; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12060810 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3292
Abstract
Purpose: This systematic review aims to summarize the evidence investigating the effectiveness and safety of the Surpass Evolve-Flow Diverter (SE-FD) to treat brain aneurysms. Method: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library from January 2019 to 29 March 2022. [...] Read more.
Purpose: This systematic review aims to summarize the evidence investigating the effectiveness and safety of the Surpass Evolve-Flow Diverter (SE-FD) to treat brain aneurysms. Method: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library from January 2019 to 29 March 2022. Terms related to the “intracranial aneurysm” and “surpass evolve flow diverter” concepts were used to search the databases; Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and reference hand search were also utilized. Results: The searches primarily identified 1586 documents. A total of five studies (four case series and one cohort) were included in this review. In the included studies, 192 (74 male and 118 females) patients with 198 aneurysms were involved. In total, 153 SE-FDs were used to treat 145 aneurysms. Complete occlusion was achieved in 69/145 (48%) cases and near-complete occlusion in 24/145 (17%) cases from aneurysms treated with SE-FD. Reported postoperative complications included stent thrombosis (n = 4 patients), hemorrhage (n = 5 patients), ischemia (n = 9 patients), and neurological complications (n = 12 patients). In total, four deaths were reported with only one related to the SE-FD procedure. Conclusion: The results of this review are based on observational data, due to the absence of clinical trials. The findings of the included studies suggest that the effectiveness of the SE-FD procedure is lower than previous FDs but the safety is similar. The included studies also suggested that SE-FD has navigability and resistance to twisting, which makes the procedure an easier method to treat aneurysms that are proximal and distal to the circle of Willis deployment. This review highlights the urgency to conduct clinical trials to confirm these suggestions. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 27973 KiB  
Article
Source Localization of Audiovisual Multisensory Neural Generators in Young Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
by Heather S. McCracken, Bernadette A. Murphy, Ushani Ambalavanar, Cheryl M. Glazebrook and Paul C. Yielder
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(6), 809; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12060809 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1941
Abstract
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that exhibits unique neurological and behavioural characteristics. Our previous work using event-related potentials demonstrated that adults with ADHD process audiovisual multisensory stimuli somewhat differently than neurotypical controls. This study utilised an audiovisual multisensory two-alternative forced-choice discrimination [...] Read more.
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that exhibits unique neurological and behavioural characteristics. Our previous work using event-related potentials demonstrated that adults with ADHD process audiovisual multisensory stimuli somewhat differently than neurotypical controls. This study utilised an audiovisual multisensory two-alternative forced-choice discrimination task. Continuous whole-head electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded. Source localization (sLORETA) software was utilised to determine differences in the contribution made by sources of neural generators pertinent to audiovisual multisensory processing in those with ADHD versus neurotypical controls. Source localization techniques elucidated that the controls had greater neural activity 164 ms post-stimulus onset when compared to the ADHD group, but only when responding to audiovisual stimuli. The source of the increased activity was found to be Brodmann Area 2, postcentral gyrus, right-hemispheric parietal lobe referenced to Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) coordinates of X = 35, Y = −40, and Z = 70 (p < 0.05). No group differences were present during either of the unisensory conditions. Differences in the integration areas, particularly in the right-hemispheric parietal brain regions, were found in those with ADHD. These alterations may correspond to impaired attentional capabilities when presented with multiple simultaneous sensory inputs, as is the case during a multisensory condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensory and Motor Neuroscience)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 272 KiB  
Review
Effects of Long-Term Exposure to High Altitude Hypoxia on Cognitive Function and Its Mechanism: A Narrative Review
by Yuan Li and Yan Wang
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(6), 808; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12060808 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3329
Abstract
Cognitive function is affected by low pressure and hypoxia in high-altitude environments, and is regulated by altitude and exposure time. With the economic development in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the increase in work and study activities, as well as the development of plateau tourism, [...] Read more.
Cognitive function is affected by low pressure and hypoxia in high-altitude environments, and is regulated by altitude and exposure time. With the economic development in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the increase in work and study activities, as well as the development of plateau tourism, mountaineering, and other activities, the number of plateau immigrants is increasing daily. Long-term hypoxia challenges human physical and mental health, restricts work efficiency, and thus affects plateau economic development and human wellbeing. Therefore, it is of scientific and social significance to study how long-term exposure to the hypoxic plateau environment affects the physical and mental health of lowlanders as part of the ongoing development of the current plateau region. In this paper, we reviewed the research progress and mechanism of the effects of long-term (≥1 year) high-altitude (>2500 m) hypoxia exposure on the cognitive function of lowlanders, and suggested that the scope and sample size of the research should be expanded in the future, and that follow-up studies should be carried out to explore the time threshold of cognitive impairment and its compensatory or repair mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Neuroscience)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

10 pages, 1240 KiB  
Article
Unexpected Effect of IL-1β on the Function of GABAA Receptors in Pediatric Focal Cortical Dysplasia
by Veronica Alfano, Alessia Romagnolo, James D. Mills, Pierangelo Cifelli, Alessandro Gaeta, Alessandra Morano, Angelika Mühlebner, Eleonora Aronica, Eleonora Palma and Gabriele Ruffolo
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(6), 807; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12060807 - 19 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1867
Abstract
Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) type II is an epileptogenic malformation of the neocortex, as well as a leading cause of drug-resistant focal epilepsy in children and young adults. The synaptic dysfunctions leading to intractable seizures in this disease appear to have a tight [...] Read more.
Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) type II is an epileptogenic malformation of the neocortex, as well as a leading cause of drug-resistant focal epilepsy in children and young adults. The synaptic dysfunctions leading to intractable seizures in this disease appear to have a tight relationship with the immaturity of GABAergic neurotransmission. The likely outcome would include hyperpolarizing responses upon activation of GABAARs. In addition, it is well-established that neuroinflammation plays a relevant role in the pathogenesis of FCD type II. Here, we investigated whether IL-1β, a prototypical pro-inflammatory cytokine, can influence GABAergic neurotransmission in FCD brain tissues. To this purpose, we carried out electrophysiological recordings on Xenopus oocytes transplanted with human tissues and performed a transcriptomics analysis. We found that IL-1β decreases the GABA currents amplitude in tissue samples from adult individuals, while it potentiates GABA responses in samples from pediatric cases. Interestingly, these cases of pediatric FCD were characterized by a more depolarized EGABA and an altered transcriptomics profile, that revealed an up-regulation of chloride cotransporter NKCC1 and IL-1β. Altogether, these results suggest that the neuroinflammatory processes and altered chloride homeostasis can contribute together to increase the brain excitability underlying the occurrence of seizures in these children. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 1977 KiB  
Article
The Prophylactic and Multimodal Activity of Two Isatin Thiosemicarbazones against Alzheimer’s Disease In Vitro
by Barbara Mavroidi, Archontia Kaminari, Dimitris Matiadis, Dimitra Hadjipavlou-Litina, Maria Pelecanou, Athina Tzinia and Marina Sagnou
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(6), 806; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12060806 - 19 Jun 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1843
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a multifactorial disorder strongly involving the formation of amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers, which subsequently aggregate into the disease characteristic insoluble amyloid plaques, in addition to oxidative stress, inflammation and increased acetylcholinesterase activity. Moreover, Aβ oligomers interfere with the expression and [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a multifactorial disorder strongly involving the formation of amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers, which subsequently aggregate into the disease characteristic insoluble amyloid plaques, in addition to oxidative stress, inflammation and increased acetylcholinesterase activity. Moreover, Aβ oligomers interfere with the expression and activity of Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) and Protein kinase B (PKB), also known as AKT. In the present study, the potential multimodal effect of two synthetic isatin thiosemicarbazones (ITSCs), which have been previously shown to prevent Aβ aggregation was evaluated. Both compounds resulted in fully reversing the Aβ-mediated toxicity in SK-NS-H cells treated with exogenous Aβ peptides at various pre-incubation time points and at 1 μM. Cell survival was not recovered when compounds were applied after Aβ cell treatment. The ITSCs were non-toxic against wild type and 5xFAD primary hippocampal cells. They reversed the inhibition of Akt and GSK-3β phosphorylation in 5xFAD cells. Finally, they exhibited good antioxidant potential and moderate lipoxygenase and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity. Overall, these results suggest that isatin thiosemicarbazone is a suitable scaffold for the development of multimodal anti-AD agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Mechanisms and Treatments of Neurodegenerative Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 3312 KiB  
Article
Identifying the Hub Genes of Glioma Peritumoral Brain Edema Using Bioinformatical Methods
by Yuxi Wu, Zesheng Peng, Haofei Wang and Wei Xiang
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(6), 805; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12060805 - 19 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1862
Abstract
Glioma peritumoral brain edema (GPTBE) is a frequent complication in patients with glioma. The severity of peritumoral edema endangers patients’ life and prognosis. However, there are still questions concerning the process of GPTBE formation and evolution. In this study, the patients were split [...] Read more.
Glioma peritumoral brain edema (GPTBE) is a frequent complication in patients with glioma. The severity of peritumoral edema endangers patients’ life and prognosis. However, there are still questions concerning the process of GPTBE formation and evolution. In this study, the patients were split into two groups based on edema scoring findings in the cancer imaging archive (TCIA) comprising 186 TCGA-LGG patients. Using mRNA sequencing data, differential gene (DEG) expression analysis was performed, comparing the two groups to find the key genes affecting GPTBE. A functional enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes was performed. Then, a protein–protein interaction (PPI) network was established, and important genes were screened. Gene set variation analysis (GSVA) scores were calculated for major gene sets and comparatively correlated with immune cell infiltration. Overall survival (OS) was analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier curve. A total of 59 DEGs were found, with 10 of them appearing as important genes. DEGs were shown to be closely linked to inflammatory reactions. According to the network score, IL10 was in the middle of the network. The presence of the IL10 protein in glioma tissues was verified using the human protein atlas (HPA). Furthermore, the gene sets’ GSVA scores were favorably linked with immune infiltration, particularly, with macrophages. The high-edema group had higher GSVA scores than the low-edema group. Finally, Kaplan–Meier analysis revealed no differences in OS between the two groups, and eight genes were found to be related to prognosis, whereas two genes were not. GPTBE is linked to the expression of inflammatory genes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Neuro-oncology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 339 KiB  
Article
No Sex Differences in Self-Reported Childhood Maltreatment in Major Depressive and Bipolar Disorders: A Retrospective Study
by Daniela Caldirola, Tatiana Torti, Francesco Cuniberti, Silvia Daccò, Alessandra Alciati, Koen Schruers, Giovanni Martinotti, Domenico De Berardis and Giampaolo Perna
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(6), 804; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12060804 - 19 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2358
Abstract
Background: We investigated, for the first time, whether there are any sex differences in retrospective self-reported childhood maltreatment (CM) in Italian adult patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BD). Furthermore, the potential impacts of patients’ age on the CM self-report [...] Read more.
Background: We investigated, for the first time, whether there are any sex differences in retrospective self-reported childhood maltreatment (CM) in Italian adult patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BD). Furthermore, the potential impacts of patients’ age on the CM self-report were investigated. Methods: This retrospective study used the data documented in the electronic medical records of patients who were hospitalized for a 4-week psychiatric rehabilitation program. CM was assessed using the 28-item Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), which evaluates emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, as well as emotional and physical neglect. The linear and logistic regression models were used (α = 0.01). Results: Three hundred thirty-five patients with MDD (255 women and 80 men) and 168 with BD (97 women and 71 men) were included. In both samples, considerable CM rates were identified, but no statistically significant sex differences were detected in the variety of CTQ-based CM aspects. There was a significant association, with no sex differences, between increasing patients’ age and a decreasing burden of CM. Conclusion: Both women and men with MDD or BD experienced a similar and considerable CM burden. Our findings support routine CM assessment in psychiatric clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Diagnosis and Treatments in Psychiatry)
10 pages, 811 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Post-Stroke Cognitive Impairment and Severe Dysphagia: A Retrospective Cohort Study
by Jia Qiao, Zhi-Min Wu, Qiu-Ping Ye, Yong Dai and Zu-Lin Dou
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(6), 803; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12060803 - 19 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2306
Abstract
Objective: To investigate the relationship between post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) and severe post-stroke dysphagia (PSD) and explore the risk factors related to PSCI combined with severe PSD. Methods: Data from patients were collated from the rehabilitation-specific disease database. The Mini-Mental State [...] Read more.
Objective: To investigate the relationship between post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) and severe post-stroke dysphagia (PSD) and explore the risk factors related to PSCI combined with severe PSD. Methods: Data from patients were collated from the rehabilitation-specific disease database. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Videofluoroscopy Swallowing Study (VFSS), Penetration-aspiration Scale (PAS), and Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS) were used to evaluate cognitive and swallowing functions. Differences between groups were determined by the Pearson chi-square test (χ2) or Fisher exact test. PAS and FOIS data were analyzed with the use of the Wilcoxon rank-sum or Kruskal–Wallis test in the prespecified subgroup analysis. Risk factors were investigated by multivariate logistic regression. Results: A total of 1555 patients were identified with PSCI. The results indicated that patients with PSCI had a higher incidence rate of severe PSD as compared to patients without PSCI (p < 0.001). Patients with severe PSCI were more likely to clinically manifest oral phase dysfunction (p = 0.024), while mild PSCI patients mainly manifested pharyngeal phase dysfunction (p < 0.001). There was a significant difference in FOIS score changes between subgroups during the hospitalization period (severe PSCI vs. moderate PSCI and severe PSCI vs. mild PSCI) (all p < 0.001). In addition, multivariate logistic regression revealed pneumonia (p < 0.001), tracheotomy (p < 0.001), and dysarthria (p = 0.006) were related to PSCI, combined with severe PSD. Conclusion: PSCI may be related to severe PSD. Patients with severe PSCI were more likely to manifest oral phase dysfunction, while mild PSCI manifested pharyngeal phase dysfunction. Pneumonia, tracheotomy, and dysarthria were risk factors related to PSCI combined with severe PSD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Neurodegenerative Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 1493 KiB  
Case Report
High Myoinositol on Proton MR Spectroscopy Could Be a Potential Signature of Papillary Tumors of the Pineal Region—Case Report of Two Patients
by Albert Pons-Escoda, Juan Jose Sánchez Fernández, Àlex de Vilalta, Noemí Vidal and Carles Majós
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(6), 802; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12060802 - 19 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1563
Abstract
Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR) is an uncommon entity in which a presurgical suspicion may be crucial for patient management. Maximal safe neurosurgical resection is of choice when PTPR is suspected, whereas non-surgical approaches can be considered in other tumors of [...] Read more.
Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR) is an uncommon entity in which a presurgical suspicion may be crucial for patient management. Maximal safe neurosurgical resection is of choice when PTPR is suspected, whereas non-surgical approaches can be considered in other tumors of the pineal region, such as pineocytoma or concrete subtypes of germ-cell tumors. In general terms, imaging features of tumors of the pineal region have been reported to be unspecific. Nevertheless, in this report, we describe two pathology-confirmed PTPRs in which presurgical proton MR spectroscopy demonstrated extremely high myoinositol, a pattern which drastically differs from that of other pineal tumors. We hypothesize that this high myoinositol may be related to PTPR’s known ependymal component, and that it could be used as a specific non-invasive diagnostic signature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Neuro-oncology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 561 KiB  
Article
Effects of Music Therapy in the Reduction of Pre-Meal Anxiety in Patients Suffering from Anorexia Nervosa
by Enrico Ceccato and Cristina Roveran
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(6), 801; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12060801 - 19 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2404
Abstract
Literature reviews appear to indicate that Music Therapy (MT) may instil a sense of empowerment and generate feelings of renewed self-confidence, distracting subjects who follow this type of intervention from negative thoughts and, generally, helping patients suffering from Anorexia Nervosa (AN) to redevelop [...] Read more.
Literature reviews appear to indicate that Music Therapy (MT) may instil a sense of empowerment and generate feelings of renewed self-confidence, distracting subjects who follow this type of intervention from negative thoughts and, generally, helping patients suffering from Anorexia Nervosa (AN) to redevelop or rediscover their identity. The purpose of the study reported in this paper is to investigate whether MT proposed before an evening meal is capable of decreasing pre-meal anxiety in adolescents suffering from AN who follow the Day-hospital Treatment Programme at the San Bortolo Hospital of Vicenza (Italy). A total of 24 patients participated voluntarily in once-weekly sessions of group-based MT conducted by a qualified music therapist over a period of six months. Before evening meals on Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday, pre-meal anxiety was measured using a self-report scale, and the MT group session occurred every Wednesday before the evening meal was consumed. MT activities were both active and receptive. It has been found that with respect to Mondays and Tuesdays, pre-meal anxiety was significantly lower on Wednesdays following participation in the MT group. MT is evidently capable of reducing pre-meal anxiety and may be adopted as a supportive element in treatment plans relating to patients with AN in a day-hospital treatment programme. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 403 KiB  
Article
IL-10 Gene Polymorphisms and IL-10 Serum Levels in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis in Lithuania
by Ugne Masilionyte, Greta Gedvilaite, Kriste Kaikaryte, Alvita Vilkeviciute, Loresa Kriauciuniene, Brigita Glebauskiene, Renata Balnyte and Rasa Liutkeviciene
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(6), 800; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12060800 - 18 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1599
Abstract
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system with features of demyelination and axonal degeneration at a young age. Genetic factors may play an important role in the development of multiple sclerosis. (1) Objective: To investigate IL-10 rs1800871, [...] Read more.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system with features of demyelination and axonal degeneration at a young age. Genetic factors may play an important role in the development of multiple sclerosis. (1) Objective: To investigate IL-10 rs1800871, rs1800872, rs1800896, and IL-10 serum levels in patients with multiple sclerosis. (2) Methods: Our study included patients with multiple sclerosis (n = 127) and healthy volunteers (n = 195). The subjects’ DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes and genotyped by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results were analyzed using the program “IBM SPSS Statistics 27.0”. (3) Results: The IL-10 SNPs were analyzed between the MS and control groups; however, no statistically significant results were found. The serum levels of IL-10 in the groups of MS and healthy subjects were not statistically significantly different (median (IQR): 0.828 (1.533) vs. 0.756 (0.528), p = 0.872). (4) Conclusions: IL-10 rs1800871, rs1800872, and rs1800896 and serum IL-10 levels are not likely to be associated with MS development. However, individuals carrying the rare haplotypes of rs1800871, rs1800872, and rs1800896 were associated with increased odds of MS (p = 0.006). Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Olfactory Function in Neurodegenerative Disorders)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 4982 KiB  
Protocol
Dissection of Mouse Hippocampus with Its Dorsal, Intermediate and Ventral Subdivisions Combined with Molecular Validation
by Aneta Jaszczyk, Adrian M. Stankiewicz and Grzegorz R. Juszczak
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(6), 799; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12060799 - 18 Jun 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5424
Abstract
Many research methods applied in molecular neuroscience require the collection of hippocampal samples, but a still poorly recognized problem is contamination with the choroid plexus during brain dissection. Because of a distinct pattern of gene expression, its inclusion in brain samples can obscure [...] Read more.
Many research methods applied in molecular neuroscience require the collection of hippocampal samples, but a still poorly recognized problem is contamination with the choroid plexus during brain dissection. Because of a distinct pattern of gene expression, its inclusion in brain samples can obscure or even confound conclusions drawn from molecular studies. Therefore, we tested our dissection method designed for removal of tissue contamination using expression of the transthyretin gene (Ttr) as a marker of the choroid plexus. Additionally, we also validated dissection of the entire hippocampus into its dorsal, intermediate and ventral subdivisions using the expression of Trhr and Lct genes as molecular markers of anatomical subdivisions. The PCR analysis showed that Ttr is expressed at a residual level in hippocampal samples that display an mRNA level several hundred lower than the adjacent control tissue colocalized with the choroid plexus. This indicates that the applied method for dissecting the hippocampus from a fresh brain allows for replicable removal of the majority of choroid plexus from hippocampal samples. In turn, differences in expression of Lct and Trhr confirmed the proper dissection of dorsal, intermediate and ventral subdivisions from fresh brain tissue. Therefore, a special emphasis on the removal of tissue contamination and avoidance of tissue distortions makes our protocol especially suitable for molecular experiments performed either on the entire hippocampus or its subdivisions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Neurosurgery and Neuroanatomy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 285 KiB  
Article
Brain Asymmetry and Its Effects on Gait Strategies in Hemiplegic Patients: New Rehabilitative Conceptions
by Luca Vismara, Veronica Cimolin, Francesca Buffone, Matteo Bigoni, Daniela Clerici, Serena Cerfoglio, Manuela Galli and Alessandro Mauro
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(6), 798; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12060798 - 18 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2375
Abstract
Brain asymmetry is connected with motor performance, suggesting that hemiparetic patients have different gait patterns depending on the side of the lesion. This retrospective cohort study aims to further investigate the difference between right and left hemiplegia in order to assess whether the [...] Read more.
Brain asymmetry is connected with motor performance, suggesting that hemiparetic patients have different gait patterns depending on the side of the lesion. This retrospective cohort study aims to further investigate the difference between right and left hemiplegia in order to assess whether the injured side can influence the patient’s clinical characteristics concerning gait, thus providing insights for new personalized rehabilitation strategies. The data from 33 stroke patients (17 with left and 16 with right hemiplegia) were retrospectively compared with each other and with a control group composed of 20 unaffected age-matched individuals. The 3D gait analysis was used to assess kinematic data and spatio-temporal parameters. Compared to left hemiplegic patients, right hemiplegic patients showed worse spatio-temporal parameters (p < 0.05) and better kinematic parameters (p < 0.05). Both pathological groups were characterized by abnormal gait parameters in comparison with the control group (p < 0.05). These findings show an association between the side of the lesion—right or left—and the different stroke patients’ gait patterns: left hemiplegic patients show better spatio-temporal parameters, whereas right hemiplegic patients show better segmentary motor performances. Therefore, further studies may develop and assess new personalized rehabilitation strategies considering the injured hemisphere and brain asymmetry. Full article
15 pages, 2321 KiB  
Article
SwinBTS: A Method for 3D Multimodal Brain Tumor Segmentation Using Swin Transformer
by Yun Jiang, Yuan Zhang, Xin Lin, Jinkun Dong, Tongtong Cheng and Jing Liang
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(6), 797; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12060797 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 61 | Viewed by 7121
Abstract
Brain tumor semantic segmentation is a critical medical image processing work, which aids clinicians in diagnosing patients and determining the extent of lesions. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have demonstrated exceptional performance in computer vision tasks in recent years. For 3D medical image tasks, [...] Read more.
Brain tumor semantic segmentation is a critical medical image processing work, which aids clinicians in diagnosing patients and determining the extent of lesions. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have demonstrated exceptional performance in computer vision tasks in recent years. For 3D medical image tasks, deep convolutional neural networks based on an encoder–decoder structure and skip-connection have been frequently used. However, CNNs have the drawback of being unable to learn global and remote semantic information well. On the other hand, the transformer has recently found success in natural language processing and computer vision as a result of its usage of a self-attention mechanism for global information modeling. For demanding prediction tasks, such as 3D medical picture segmentation, local and global characteristics are critical. We propose SwinBTS, a new 3D medical picture segmentation approach, which combines a transformer, convolutional neural network, and encoder–decoder structure to define the 3D brain tumor semantic segmentation job as a sequence-to-sequence prediction challenge in this research. To extract contextual data, the 3D Swin Transformer is utilized as the network’s encoder and decoder, and convolutional operations are employed for upsampling and downsampling. Finally, we achieve segmentation results using an improved Transformer module that we built for increasing detail feature extraction. Extensive experimental results on the BraTS 2019, BraTS 2020, and BraTS 2021 datasets reveal that SwinBTS outperforms state-of-the-art 3D algorithms for brain tumor segmentation on 3D MRI scanned images. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Computational Neuroscience and Neuroinformatics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 260 KiB  
Review
Hypogonadism in Male Patients with Pituitary Adenoma and Its Related Mechanism: A Review of Literature
by Zisheng Yan and Ting Lei
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(6), 796; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12060796 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1799
Abstract
Maintaining normal gonadal axis hormone levels is important for improving the condition of male patients with pituitary adenoma. The current literature is somewhat divided on the results of evaluations of gonadal axis function in male patients with pituitary adenoma before and after treatment, [...] Read more.
Maintaining normal gonadal axis hormone levels is important for improving the condition of male patients with pituitary adenoma. The current literature is somewhat divided on the results of evaluations of gonadal axis function in male patients with pituitary adenoma before and after treatment, and the increasing demand for better quality of life has provided motivation for this research to continue. In this article, we summarize the feasibility of using testosterone as an indicator for assessing male function and discuss the changes reported in various studies for gonadal hormones before and after treatment in male patients with pituitary adenoma. It is important for clinicians to understand the advantages of each treatment option and the effectiveness of assessing gonadal function. The rationale behind the theory that pituitary adenomas affect gonadal function and the criteria for evaluating pituitary–gonadal axis hormones should be explored in more depth. Full article
13 pages, 1645 KiB  
Article
Behavior of Rats in a Self-Paced Risky Decision-Making Task Based on Definite Probability
by Minzhe Yang, Qiangpei Fu, Xu Hu, Baoming Li and Chaolin Ma
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(6), 795; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12060795 - 17 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1617
Abstract
Risky decision-making (RDM) is when individuals make choices based on the definite cognition for the probabilities of the options. Risk is embodied in the certainty of reward, and the smaller the probability is, the greater the risk will be. As simulated in human [...] Read more.
Risky decision-making (RDM) is when individuals make choices based on the definite cognition for the probabilities of the options. Risk is embodied in the certainty of reward, and the smaller the probability is, the greater the risk will be. As simulated in human behavior paradigms, RDM scenarios in real life are often guided by external cues that inform the likelihood of receiving certain rewards. There are few studies on the neural basis of RDM behavior guided by external cues, which is related to the relative paucity of the animal behavioral paradigms. Here, we established a cue-guided RDM task to detect the behavior of rats making a decision between a small certain reward and a large uncertain reward in a naturalistic manner. The reward of the risk option could be adjusted to observe the change of choice. Our results showed that: (1) rats were able to master the operation of the cue-guided RDM task; (2) many rats were inclined to choose risk rather than the safe option when the reward expectations were equal; (3) rats were able to adjust the decision strategy in time upon a change in risk, suggesting that they have the ability to perceive risk indicated by the external cues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurobiology of Choice Behavior)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 3456 KiB  
Article
A Single Session of SMR-Neurofeedback Training Improves Selective Attention Emerging from a Dynamic Structuring of Brain–Heart Interplay
by Pierre Bouny, Laurent M. Arsac, Yvan Pratviel, Alexis Boffet, Emma Touré Cuq and Veronique Deschodt-Arsac
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(6), 794; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12060794 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1989
Abstract
Research on sensorimotor rhythms (SMR) based on neurofeedback (NFb) emphasizes improvements in selective attention associated with SMR amplification. However, the long-term training proposed in most studies posed the question of acceptability, which led to the evaluation of the potential of a single NFb [...] Read more.
Research on sensorimotor rhythms (SMR) based on neurofeedback (NFb) emphasizes improvements in selective attention associated with SMR amplification. However, the long-term training proposed in most studies posed the question of acceptability, which led to the evaluation of the potential of a single NFb session. Based on cognitive and autonomic controls interfering with attention processes, we hypothesized changes in selective attention after a single SMR-NFb session, along with changes in brain–heart interplay, which are reflected in the multifractality of heartbeat dynamics. Here, young healthy participants (n = 35, 20 females, 21 ± 3 years) were randomly assigned either to a control group (Ctrl) watching a movie or to a neurofeedback (NFb) group performing a single session of SMR-NFb. A headset with EEG electrodes (positioned on C3 and C4) connected to a smartphone app served to guide and to evaluate NFb training efficacy. A Stroop task was performed for 8 min by each group before and after the intervention (movie vs. SMR-NFb) while collecting heart rate variability and C4-EEG for 20 min. When compared to Ctrl, the NFb group exhibited better Stroop performance, especially when facing incongruent trials. The multifractality and NFb training efficacy were identified as strong predictors of the gain in global Stroop performance, while multifractality was the only predictor regarding incongruent trials. We conclude that a single session of SMR-NFb improves selective attention in healthy individuals through the specific reorganization of brain–heart interplay, which is reflected in multifractal heartbeat dynamics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Behavioral Neuroscience)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 1962 KiB  
Article
Binge-like Prenatal Ethanol Exposure Causes Impaired Cellular Differentiation in the Embryonic Forebrain and Synaptic and Behavioral Defects in Adult Mice
by Shivakumar Subbanna and Balapal S. Basavarajappa
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(6), 793; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12060793 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2749
Abstract
An embryo’s in-utero exposure to ethanol due to a mother’s alcohol drinking results in a range of deficits in the child that are collectively termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Prenatal ethanol exposure is one of the leading causes of preventable intellectual disability. [...] Read more.
An embryo’s in-utero exposure to ethanol due to a mother’s alcohol drinking results in a range of deficits in the child that are collectively termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Prenatal ethanol exposure is one of the leading causes of preventable intellectual disability. Its neurobehavioral underpinnings warrant systematic research. We investigated the immediate effects on embryos of acute prenatal ethanol exposure during gestational days (GDs) and the influence of such exposure on persistent neurobehavioral deficits in adult offspring. We administered pregnant C57BL/6J mice with ethanol (1.75 g/kg) (GDE) or saline (GDS) intraperitoneally (i.p.) at 0 h and again at 2 h intervals on GD 8 and GD 12. Subsequently, we assessed apoptosis, differentiation, and signaling events in embryo forebrains (E13.5; GD13.5). Long-lasting effects of GDE were evaluated via a behavioral test battery. We also determined the long-term potentiation and synaptic plasticity-related protein expression in adult hippocampal tissue. GDE caused apoptosis, inhibited differentiation, and reduced pERK and pCREB signaling and the expression of transcription factors Pax6 and Lhx2. GDE caused persistent spatial and social investigation memory deficits compared with saline controls, regardless of sex. Interestingly, GDE adult mice exhibited enhanced repetitive and anxiety-like behavior, irrespective of sex. GDE reduced synaptic plasticity-related protein expression and caused hippocampal synaptic plasticity (LTP and LTD) deficits in adult offspring. These findings demonstrate that binge-like ethanol exposure at the GD8 and GD12 developmental stages causes defects in pERK–pCREB signaling and reduces the expression of Pax6 and Lhx2, leading to impaired cellular differentiation during the embryonic stage. In the adult stage, binge-like ethanol exposure caused persistent synaptic and behavioral abnormalities in adult mice. Furthermore, the findings suggest that combining ethanol exposure at two sensitive stages (GD8 and GD12) causes deficits in synaptic plasticity-associated proteins (Arc, Egr1, Fgf1, GluR1, and GluN1), leading to persistent FASD-like neurobehavioral deficits in mice. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 374 KiB  
Review
Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: A Literature Review
by Barbara Carpita, Lavinia Migli, Ilaria Chiarantini, Simone Battaglini, Clara Montalbano, Claudia Carmassi, Ivan Mirko Cremone and Liliana Dell’Osso
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(6), 792; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12060792 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4377
Abstract
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are a group of conditions associated with the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and characterized by somatic and neuropsychological alterations. On the other hand, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by a multifaceted neurobehavioral syndrome. Since alcohol can [...] Read more.
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are a group of conditions associated with the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and characterized by somatic and neuropsychological alterations. On the other hand, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by a multifaceted neurobehavioral syndrome. Since alcohol can affect every stage of brain development, some authors hypothesized that in utero alcohol exposure might be linked to an increased risk of ASD in subjects with genetic vulnerability. The present review aimed to summarize the available literature on the possible association between FASD and ASD, also focusing on the reported clinical overlaps and on the possible shared pathogenic mechanisms. Studies in this field have stressed similarities and differences between the two conditions, leading to controversial results. The available literature also highlighted that both the disorders are often misdiagnosed or underdiagnosed, stressing the need to broaden the perspective, paying specific attention to milder presentations and sub-syndromic traits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Psychiatric Diseases)
11 pages, 769 KiB  
Article
Association of High Ratio of CSF/Plasma HIV-1 RNA with Central Nervous System Co-Infection in HIV-1-Positive Treatment-Naive Patients
by Qian Liu, Wendan Tao, Honghong Yang, Yushan Wu, Qing Yu and Min Liu
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(6), 791; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12060791 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1544
Abstract
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) ribonucleic acid (RNA) at higher levels than in plasma has been observed in HIV-1-positive patients and defined as CSF/plasma discordance or CSF escape. Discordance is particularly seen in untreated patients with antiretroviral agents. Quantitative data regarding [...] Read more.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) ribonucleic acid (RNA) at higher levels than in plasma has been observed in HIV-1-positive patients and defined as CSF/plasma discordance or CSF escape. Discordance is particularly seen in untreated patients with antiretroviral agents. Quantitative data regarding its association with blood–brain barrier (BBB) damage and intracranial co-infection with other pathogens are limited. Therefore, we used the CSF to plasma HIV-1 RNA ratio (HRR) to determine its relation to central nervous system (CNS) co-infection in HIV-1-positive treatment-naïve individuals. We retrospectively recruited the subjects with HIV-1-positive and potential neurological deficits. A lumbar puncture was performed before the antiretroviral therapy. The paired CSF/plasma HIV-1 RNA samples were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models and multiple spine regression analyses were performed to assess the association between the HRR and CNS co-infection. A total of 195 patients with 78% males (median age: 49 years) were included in this study, of whom 98 (50.2%) had CNS co-infection with other pathogens. The receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the optimal cutoff value for the HRR to predict the CNS co-infection was 1.00. Higher HRR (≥1) was significantly associated with tuberculous meningitis (OR 6.50, 95% CI 2.08–20.25, p = 0.001), cryptococcus meningitis (OR 7.58, 95% CI 2.10–27.32, p = 0.001), and multiple co-infection (OR 4.04, 95% CI 1.02–16.04, p = 0.047). Higher HRR (≥1) (OR 3.01, 95% CI 1.09–8.73, p = 0.032) was independently associated with the CNS co-infection after adjusting for covariates. No significant nonlinear association was found between the HRR and CNS co-infection in the multivariate spline regression (p > 0.05) and a positive relationship was found between the HRR and CNS co-infection when the HRR was ≥0.78. Higher HRR was associated with an increased risk of CNS co-infection in HIV-1-positive patients. The relationship between the HRR and CNS co-infection may be related to the BBB disturbance and warrants further investigation with a large, longitudinal cohort. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 360 KiB  
Review
Vitamin D Status and Parkinson’s Disease
by Michela Barichella, Federica Garrì, Serena Caronni, Carlotta Bolliri, Luciano Zocchi, Maria Carmela Macchione, Valentina Ferri, Daniela Calandrella and Gianni Pezzoli
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(6), 790; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12060790 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3345
Abstract
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a complex and progressive neurodegenerative disease, characterized by resting tremor, rigidity, slowness of movement, and postural instability. Furthermore, PD is associated with a wide spectrum of non-motor symptoms that add to overall disability. In recent years, some investigations, from [...] Read more.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a complex and progressive neurodegenerative disease, characterized by resting tremor, rigidity, slowness of movement, and postural instability. Furthermore, PD is associated with a wide spectrum of non-motor symptoms that add to overall disability. In recent years, some investigations, from basic science to clinical applications, have focused on the role of vitamin D in PD, often with controversial findings. Vitamin D has widespread effects on several biological processes in the central nervous system, including neurotransmission in dopaminergic neural circuits. Various studies have recorded lower levels of vitamin D in PD patients than in healthy controls. Low vitamin D status has also been correlated with the risk for PD and motor severity, whereas less is known about the effects vitamin D has on cognitive function and other non-motor symptoms. This review aims to better characterize the correlation between vitamin D and PD, clarify the role of vitamin D in PD prevention and treatment, and discuss avenues for future research in this field. Full article
24 pages, 4422 KiB  
Article
Synaptic Dysfunction by Mutations in GRIN2B: Influence of Triheteromeric NMDA Receptors on Gain-of-Function and Loss-of-Function Mutant Classification
by Marwa Elmasri, James S. Lotti, Wajeeha Aziz, Oliver G. Steele, Eirini Karachaliou, Kenji Sakimura, Kasper B. Hansen and Andrew C. Penn
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(6), 789; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12060789 - 15 Jun 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3683
Abstract
GRIN2B mutations are rare but often associated with patients having severe neurodevelopmental disorders with varying range of symptoms such as intellectual disability, developmental delay and epilepsy. Patient symptoms likely arise from mutations disturbing the role that the encoded NMDA receptor subunit, GluN2B, plays [...] Read more.
GRIN2B mutations are rare but often associated with patients having severe neurodevelopmental disorders with varying range of symptoms such as intellectual disability, developmental delay and epilepsy. Patient symptoms likely arise from mutations disturbing the role that the encoded NMDA receptor subunit, GluN2B, plays at neuronal connections in the developing nervous system. In this study, we investigated the cell-autonomous effects of putative gain- (GoF) and loss-of-function (LoF) missense GRIN2B mutations on excitatory synapses onto CA1 pyramidal neurons in organotypic hippocampal slices. In the absence of both native GluN2A and GluN2B subunits, functional incorporation into synaptic NMDA receptors was attenuated for GoF mutants, or almost eliminated for LoF GluN2B mutants. NMDA-receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (NMDA-EPSCs) from synaptic GoF GluN1/2B receptors had prolonged decays consistent with their functional classification. Nonetheless, in the presence of native GluN2A, molecular replacement of native GluN2B with GoF and LoF GluN2B mutants all led to similar functional incorporation into synaptic receptors, more rapidly decaying NMDA-EPSCs and greater inhibition by TCN-201, a selective antagonist for GluN2A-containing NMDA receptors. Mechanistic insight was gained from experiments in HEK293T cells, which revealed that GluN2B GoF mutants slowed deactivation in diheteromeric GluN1/2B, but not triheteromeric GluN1/2A/2B receptors. We also show that a disease-associated missense mutation, which severely affects surface expression, causes opposing effects on NMDA-EPSC decay and charge transfer when introduced into GluN2A or GluN2B. Finally, we show that having a single null Grin2b allele has only a modest effect on NMDA-EPSC decay kinetics. Our results demonstrate that functional incorporation of GoF and LoF GluN2B mutants into synaptic receptors and the effects on EPSC decay times are highly dependent on the presence of triheteromeric GluN1/2A/2B NMDA receptors, thereby influencing the functional classification of NMDA receptor variants as GoF or LoF mutations. These findings highlight the complexity of interpreting effects of disease-causing NMDA receptor missense mutations in the context of neuronal function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dimensions of Synaptic Diseases: From Neurobiology to Therapy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 3837 KiB  
Review
A Brief Introduction to Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and Its Clinical Applications
by Alfred Lenin Fred, Subbiahpillai Neelakantapillai Kumar, Ajay Kumar Haridhas, Sayantan Ghosh, Harishita Purushothaman Bhuvana, Wei Khang Jeremy Sim, Vijayaragavan Vimalan, Fredin Arun Sedly Givo, Veikko Jousmäki, Parasuraman Padmanabhan and Balázs Gulyás
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(6), 788; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12060788 - 15 Jun 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 5571
Abstract
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis of brain disorders. In this review, we have investigated potential MEG applications for analysing brain disorders. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNRMEG = 2.2 db, SNREEG < 1 db) and spatial resolution (SRMEG [...] Read more.
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis of brain disorders. In this review, we have investigated potential MEG applications for analysing brain disorders. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNRMEG = 2.2 db, SNREEG < 1 db) and spatial resolution (SRMEG = 2–3 mm, SREEG = 7–10 mm) is higher for MEG than EEG, thus MEG potentially facilitates accurate monitoring of cortical activity. We found that the direct electrophysiological MEG signals reflected the physiological status of neurological disorders and play a vital role in disease diagnosis. Single-channel connectivity, as well as brain network analysis, using MEG data acquired during resting state and a given task has been used for the diagnosis of neurological disorders such as epilepsy, Alzheimer’s, Parkinsonism, autism, and schizophrenia. The workflow of MEG and its potential applications in the diagnosis of disease and therapeutic planning are also discussed. We forecast that computer-aided algorithms will play a prominent role in the diagnosis and prediction of neurological diseases in the future. The outcome of this narrative review will aid researchers to utilise MEG in diagnostics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Neuroimaging and Neurophysiology in Psychiatry)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 583 KiB  
Review
Neurosurgical Clinical Trials for Glioblastoma: Current and Future Directions
by Ashish H. Shah and John D. Heiss
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(6), 787; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12060787 - 15 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2314
Abstract
The mainstays of glioblastoma treatment, maximal safe resection, radiotherapy preserving neurological function, and temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy have not changed for the past 17 years despite significant advances in the understanding of the genetics and molecular biology of glioblastoma. This review highlights the neurosurgical [...] Read more.
The mainstays of glioblastoma treatment, maximal safe resection, radiotherapy preserving neurological function, and temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy have not changed for the past 17 years despite significant advances in the understanding of the genetics and molecular biology of glioblastoma. This review highlights the neurosurgical foundation for glioblastoma therapy. Here, we review the neurosurgeon’s role in several new and clinically-approved treatments for glioblastoma. We describe delivery techniques such as blood–brain barrier disruption and convection-enhanced delivery (CED) that may be used to deliver therapeutic agents to tumor tissue in higher concentrations than oral or intravenous delivery. We mention pivotal clinical trials of immunotherapy for glioblastoma and explain their outcomes. Finally, we take a glimpse at ongoing clinical trials and promising translational studies to predict ways that new therapies may improve the prognosis of patients with glioblastoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future of Clinical Trials in Surgical Neuro-Oncology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 2646 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Effect of Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation on the Downregulation of Negative Emotions: A Meta-Analysis
by Qingqing Zhang, Xiaoming Li, Xinying Liu, Shanshan Liu, Mengzhu Zhang, Yueling Liu, Chunyan Zhu and Kai Wang
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(6), 786; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12060786 - 15 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2717 | Correction
Abstract
(1) Background: Emotion regulation (ER) is regarded as a core treatment target for depression and other mental illnesses. In recent years, non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) has been extensively used as an intervention for mental illnesses, but there has been no systematic review conducted [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Emotion regulation (ER) is regarded as a core treatment target for depression and other mental illnesses. In recent years, non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) has been extensively used as an intervention for mental illnesses, but there has been no systematic review conducted regarding its effect on emotion regulation. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of NIBS for emotion regulation; (2) Methods: Systematic searches were conducted in Embase, Web of Science, PubMed, and Cochrane Library. We analyzed the effects of NIBS on tasks assessing emotion regulation using a random-effects model, and further explored the moderating role of the following factors on transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) studies by conducting subgroup analyses and meta-regression: target electrode placement, return electrode placement, current intensity, target electrode size, and duration of intervention; (3) Results: A total of 17 studies were included. Our meta-analysis indicated a small but significant effect of NIBS on the downregulation of negative emotions. Separate analyses indicated that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) had a medium and significant effect on the downregulation of negative emotions, whereas tDCS had no significant effect. Subgroup analyses showed that the effect of tDCS was moderated by target and return electrode placemen; (4) Conclusions: These results indicate that NIBS had a positive effect on the downregulation of negative emotions. The stimulation protocols should be carefully considered and the underlying mechanisms should be further explored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Psychiatric Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 760 KiB  
Communication
NAA/Glu Ratio Associated with Suicidal Ideation in Pilot Sample of Autistic Youth and Young Adults
by Iska Moxon-Emre, Paul E. Croarkin, Zafiris J. Daskalakis, Daniel M. Blumberger, Rachael E. Lyon, Hideaki Tani, Peter Truong, Meng-Chuan Lai, Pushpal Desarkar, Napapon Sailasuta, Peter Szatmari and Stephanie H. Ameis
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(6), 785; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12060785 - 15 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1880
Abstract
Suicidality is increased in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet effective interventions are lacking. Developing biologically based approaches for preventing and treating suicidality in ASD hinges on the identification of biomarkers of suicidal ideation (SI). Here, we assessed magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) markers of [...] Read more.
Suicidality is increased in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet effective interventions are lacking. Developing biologically based approaches for preventing and treating suicidality in ASD hinges on the identification of biomarkers of suicidal ideation (SI). Here, we assessed magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) markers of glutamatergic neurotransmission in ASD youth and young adults. Twenty-eight ASD participants (16–33 years) underwent 1H-MRS, and metabolites were quantified using LCModel. N-acetylaspartate (NAA), glutamate (Glu), and the NAA/Glu ratio from the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were compared between ASD SI+ (n = 13) and ASD SI− (n = 15) participants. We found that ASD SI+ participants had a higher NAA/Glu ratio compared ASD SI- participants. The NAA/Glu ratio also predicted SI and significantly discriminated between ASD SI+/SI− participants. All analyses including NAA and Glu alone were non-significant. Here, we provide preliminary evidence for the importance of NAA/Glu in ASD with SI, with implications for biomarker discovery. Further mechanistic research into risk and interventional approaches to address SI in ASD are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Psychiatric Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 1345 KiB  
Article
Topologic Efficiency Abnormalities of the Connectome in Asymptomatic Patients with Leukoaraiosis
by Shun Yao, Hong-Ying Zhang, Ren Wang, Ding-Sheng Cheng and Jing Ye
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(6), 784; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12060784 - 15 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1452
Abstract
Leukoaraiosis (LA) is commonly found in aging healthy people but its pathophysiological mechanism is not entirely known. Furthermore, there is still a lack of effective pathological biomarkers that can be used to identify the early stage of LA. Our aim was to investigate [...] Read more.
Leukoaraiosis (LA) is commonly found in aging healthy people but its pathophysiological mechanism is not entirely known. Furthermore, there is still a lack of effective pathological biomarkers that can be used to identify the early stage of LA. Our aim was to investigate the white matter structural network in asymptomatic patients with the early stage of LA. Tractography data of 35 asymptomatic patients and 20 matched healthy controls (HCs) based on diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) were analysed by using graph theory approaches and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Diffusion parameters measured within the ALAs and HCs were compared. Decreased clustering coefficient and local efficiency values of the overall topological white matter network were observed in the ALAs compared with those of the HCs. Participants in the asymptomatic group also had lower nodal efficiency in the left triangular part of the inferior frontal gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus, right calcarine fissure and surrounding cortex, right temporal pole of the superior temporal gyrus and left middle temporal gyrus compared to the ALAs. Moreover, similar hub distributions were found within participants in the two groups. In this study, our data demonstrated a topologic efficiency abnormalities of the structural network in asymptomatic patients with leukoaraiosis. The structural connectome provides potential connectome-based measures that may be helpful for detecting leukoaraiosis before clinical symptoms evolve. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cortical Connectivity Pattern: Neuroimaging Advances with MRI)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 1376 KiB  
Review
Targeting the Cation-Chloride Co-Transporter NKCC1 to Re-Establish GABAergic Inhibition and an Appropriate Excitatory/Inhibitory Balance in Selective Neuronal Circuits: A Novel Approach for the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease
by Simona Capsoni, Ivan Arisi, Francesca Malerba, Mara D’Onofrio, Antonino Cattaneo and Enrico Cherubini
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(6), 783; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12060783 - 15 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3169
Abstract
GABA, the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult brain, depolarizes and excites immature neurons because of an initially higher intracellular chloride concentration [Cl]i due to the delayed expression of the chloride exporter KCC2 at birth. Depolarization-induced calcium rise via NMDA receptors [...] Read more.
GABA, the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult brain, depolarizes and excites immature neurons because of an initially higher intracellular chloride concentration [Cl]i due to the delayed expression of the chloride exporter KCC2 at birth. Depolarization-induced calcium rise via NMDA receptors and voltage-dependent calcium channels is instrumental in shaping neuronal circuits and in controlling the excitatory (E)/inhibitory (I) balance in selective brain areas. An E/I imbalance accounts for cognitive impairment observed in several neuropsychiatric disorders. The aim of this review is to summarize recent data on the mechanisms by which alterations of GABAergic signaling alter the E/I balance in cortical and hippocampal neurons in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and the role of cation-chloride co-transporters in this process. In particular, we discuss the NGF and AD relationship and how mice engineered to express recombinant neutralizing anti-NGF antibodies (AD11 mice), which develop a neurodegenerative pathology reminiscent of that observed in AD patients, exhibit a depolarizing action of GABA due to KCC2 impairment. Treating AD and other forms of dementia with bumetanide, a selective NKCC1 antagonist, contributes to re-establishing a proper E/I balance in selective brain areas, leading to amelioration of AD symptoms and the slowing down of disease progression. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 981 KiB  
Case Report
Neuronal Intranuclear Inclusion Disease-Related Neurotrophic Keratitis: A Case Report
by Pei Liu, Xuemei Lin, Xiangjun Chen, Tor Paaske Utheim, Wei Gao, Yan Yan and Songdi Wu
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(6), 782; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12060782 - 14 Jun 2022
Viewed by 2398
Abstract
Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID) is a rare and slowly progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the presence of eosinophilic neuronal intranuclear inclusions. The clinical manifestations of NIID are diverse, and the most common initial feature in cases of sporadic NIID is dementia. Herein, [...] Read more.
Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID) is a rare and slowly progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the presence of eosinophilic neuronal intranuclear inclusions. The clinical manifestations of NIID are diverse, and the most common initial feature in cases of sporadic NIID is dementia. Herein, we report an adult female with keratitis as the initial presentation with subsequent bilateral limb tremor, gait disturbances, overemotional behavior, sweating and constipation. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) showed hyperintensity in the bilateral fronto-parieto-occipital corticomedullary junction. Skin biopsy specimens revealed eosinophilic hyaline intranuclear inclusions in fibroblast cells, sweat gland cells and adipose cells. In vivo confocal microscopy of the cornea indicated the absence of corneal nerves in both affected eyes. The patient’s diagnosis of NIID was based on the presence of intranuclear inclusions in biopsied skin and the characteristic high-intensity signal in the corticomedullary junction obtained with DWI. This case report emphasizes that the clinical heterogeneity of NIID and an examination of the corneal nerves may offer valuable clues to its early diagnosis in some patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Neurodegenerative Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 3905 KiB  
Article
Selective Probiotic Treatment Positively Modulates the Microbiota–Gut–Brain Axis in the BTBR Mouse Model of Autism
by Angela Pochakom, Chunlong Mu, Jong M. Rho, Thomas A. Tompkins, Shyamchand Mayengbam and Jane Shearer
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(6), 781; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12060781 - 14 Jun 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3348
Abstract
Recent studies have shown promise for the use of probiotics in modulating behaviour through the microbiota–gut–brain axis. In the present study, we assessed the impact of two probiotic strains in mitigating autism-related symptomology in the BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J mouse model [...] Read more.
Recent studies have shown promise for the use of probiotics in modulating behaviour through the microbiota–gut–brain axis. In the present study, we assessed the impact of two probiotic strains in mitigating autism-related symptomology in the BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J mouse model of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Male juvenile BTBR mice were randomized into: (1) control, (2) Lr probiotic (1 × 109 CFU/mL Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus HA-114), and (3) Ls probiotic groups (1 × 109 CFU/mL Ligilactobacillus salivarius HA-118) (n = 18–21/group), receiving treatments in drinking water for 4 weeks. Gut microbiota profiling by 16S rRNA showed Lr, but not Ls supplementation, to increase microbial richness and phylogenetic diversity, with a rise in potential anti-inflammatory and butyrate-producing taxa. Assessing serum and brain metabolites, Lr and Ls supplementation produced distinct metabolic profiles, with Lr treatment elevating concentrations of potentially beneficial neuroactive compounds, such as 5-aminovaleric acid and choline. As mitochondrial dysfunction is often observed in ASD, we assessed mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. No differences were observed for either treatment. Both Lr and Ls treatment reduced behavioural deficits in social novelty preference. However, no changes in hyperactivity, repetitive behaviour, and sociability were observed. Results show Lr to impart positive changes along the microbiota–gut–brain axis, exhibiting beneficial effects on selected behaviour, gut microbial diversity, and metabolism in BTBR mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain–Microbiome Interactions)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop