Fewer Dimensions for Higher Thermal Performance: A Review on 2D Nanofluids
2. Types of 2D Nanofluids
2.1. Hexagonal Boron Nitride
2.2. Graphene/Graphene Oxide
- Multi-layer Gr, which is a two-dimensional carbon nanomaterial composed of a small number of well-defined, stacked Gr layers.
- Gr quantum dots, which contain one or few layers of Gr nanosheets mainly used in photoluminescence situations. In general, Gr quantum dots usually have transverse sizes of less than 10 nm.
- Gr nanoplatelets, containing a two-dimensional honeycomb Gr lattice.
- GO, which is a Gr modified chemically and produced by exfoliation and oxidation together with the general modification of the basal plane by oxidation. The GO reveals a monolayer material with an elevated content of oxygen.
- rGO, which is a GO prepared through chemical, thermal, microwave, photo-thermal, and bacterial green methods for reducing the content of oxygen.
2.3. Carbon Nanotubes
2.4. Tungsten Disulfide
- The maximum enhancement in the agglomerate sizes were of 172%, 245%, and 261% with 0.005% WS2 and 2% SDS, 0.01% WS2 and 2% SDS, and 0.02% WS2 and 0.05% SDS, respectively. Collectively, the zeta potential saw an improvement of 554%, whereas the mean particle size presented an enhancement of up to 411% mainly caused by the adsorption of the surfactant molecules. This would entail a long-term agglomeration risk, resulting in the clustering and sedimentation of nanoparticles.
- The maximum TC increases were approximately 2.8%, 1.9%, and 4.5% for combinations of 0.05% SDS and 0.005% WS2 at temperature values of 25 °C, 50 °C, and 70 °C, respectively. The authors argued that the TC reduced with increasing concentrations of the SDS. Alongside the 0.005% of WS2 filler concentration, the higher fractions of 0.01% and 0.02% of WS2 also exhibited higher TC enhancements with lower concentrations of surfactant.
- The high-temperature condition revealed a pendular behavior concerning the TC. The reason behind this response may be the eventual detachment of the surfactant molecules and further interaction with the WS2 nanosheets.
- The rheological analysis confirmed the formation of a nanostructured network inside the nanofluids with WS2 nanosheets and depicted the transition of the nanofluids from viscous to elastic behavior with the inclusion of surfactants. Such transition suggests that a higher pumping power was required to initiate the flow of the working fluid. The maximum decrease in viscosity of 8.2% was found at the minimum concentration of 0.005% vol. of WS2, confirming the superior fluidity of the developed nanofluids. This reduction was amplified at a concentration of 0.05% vol. of SDS, enlarging the referred value by approximately 10.5%.
- The developed nanofluids evolved from non-Newtonian to Newtonian behavior under a 10 s−1 shear rate.
2.5. Molybdenum Disulfide
2.6. Titanium Carbide MXene
3. Application of 2D Nanofluids
3.1. Heat Exchangers
3.2. Thermal Management of Electronics
3.3. PV/T Systems
- The enhancement in the volume fraction of the Gr nanoparticles from 0.1% vol. to 0.15% vol. resulted in a poorer performance of the system because of the agglomeration and settling of the nanoparticles in the distilled water. The agglomeration lowered the heat transfer capability since the Brownian motion of the nanoparticles was restricted.
- The exergy losses and entropy generation were decreased by the increasing flow rates in the PV/PCM (phase change material) system. Consequently, the increase in the flow rates of the operating fluid promoted the extraction of energy.
- The sustainability index increased with increasing flow rate and a maximum of 1.17 was reported for the system with PCM and 0.10% vol. concentration of Gr nanoparticles. The same system presented a minimum improvement potential by demonstrating that this configuration was most efficient.
- The electrical exergy contributed more to the overall exergy efficiency than the thermal exergy. This fact can be interpreted based on the inferior thermal energy produced by the PVT/PCM system.
3.4. Concentrated Solar Power
- The inclusion of 0.01 wt.% of exfoliated h-BN nanoparticles resulted in a more stable solution and possessed the most improved cooling and insulation properties.
- The high aspect ratio and enhanced surface charges in h-BN were the main factors contributing to the higher TC of the mineral oil-based h-BN nanofluid. The higher moisture content in the mineral oil and nanofluids reduced the AC breakdown voltage. Nonetheless, the exfoliated h-BN nanoparticles possess low affinity towards moisture and increase the AC breakdown voltage in reference to mineral oil and other nanofluid fillers.
- The 0.05% wt. Gr nanofluid exhibited a viscosity and density superior by 2.5% and 16.6% to that of the conventional transformer oil base fluid.
- The 0.05% wt. Gr nanofluid showed a maximum surface tension decrease of 10.1%. The increasing temperature and enhanced weight fraction of the Gr nanoparticles improved the Brownian motion, contributing to a more uniform temperature distribution in the working fluid caused by the decrease in the forces of cohesion (because of the high temperature and increased vibration) between the nanoparticles. This resulted in surface tension reduction and to the improvement of the heat transfer rate compared with that of the transformer oil.
- The specific resistance for all weight fractions of the nanofluids was reduced and a 79% decrease compared with the transformer oil was found for the maximum concentration of 0.05% at a temperature of 90 °C. The use of 2D nanofluids also decreased the specific resistance and enhanced the electrical conductivity and, consequently, the breakdown voltage.
3.6. Cold Thermal Energy Storage
3.7. Geothermal Heat Recovery
- The temperature of the working fluid at the outlet increased in heating mode, while the required pipe length decreased when using the nanofluids compared with the water alone.
- The outlet temperature difference was reduced with the flow rate enhancement of the operating nanofluids.
- The effect of the increase in the GHE efficiency using the nanofluid decreased with the increasing flow rate of the operating fluid and the decrease in the difference between the soil and inlet fluid temperature values. The efficiency of the system was improved with the increases in the pipe and borehole radii and total depth.
- The reduction in the fluid temperature at the outlet was obtained with MWCNTs and Gr nanoparticles of approximately 65% with an increase in the flow rate of 0.4 L/s.
- The reduction in the pipe length was obtained with MWCNTs of approximately 32.9% with an increase of 0.4 L/s in the flow rate. The homologous value for the Gr nanoparticles was approximately 37.1% with the same enhancement in the flow rate.
- The maximum outlet fluid temperature difference and GHE length reduction were 11.4% and 53.4%, respectively, using MWCNTs and when the pipe diameter was changed from 20 to 50 mm. The homologous values for the Gr nanoparticles were 12.06% and 50.2% with the same pipe diameter enhancement.
- An augmentation of 14% in the outlet temperature and a reduction of approximately 20% in the pipe length were achieved when the borehole size was increased from 70 to 110 mm for the MWCNTs. The homologous values for the Gr nanoparticles were 18.9% and approximately 20% with the same increase in the borehole size.
- The maximum increase in the fluid temperature at the outlet and pipe length reduction were obtained with the MWCNTs and Gr nanoparticles at approximately 68% and 61.7%, respectively, with the increase in the difference between the temperature of the inlet and that of the soil (16 °C) from 7 °C to 15 °C.
4. Environmental Impact of the 2D Nanofluids
5. Life Cycle Assessment
5.2. Carbon Nanotubes
5.3. Tungsten Disulfide
5.4. Molybdenum Disulfide
6. Limitations and Future Prospects
- The measurement of the thermophysical properties of 2D nanofluids should be further improved. For instance, the actual TC data may be erroneous since incoming data from identical thickness samples differ appreciably from each other, which is not surprising given the lateral sides and the operating conditions considerably, hindering an accurate measurement and the comparison of results.
- The results on the TC of 2D nanofluids show that the maximum TC enhancement did not correspond to the maximum zeta potential. Hence, a precise concentration level optimization is the main factor for achieving the optimal heat transfer nanofluid.
- Regarding the tungsten disulfide nanofluids with the addition of surfactants (e.g., SDS), the enhanced amount of SDS reduced the TC of 2D nanofluids. However, under high temperature values the behavior oscillates. The reason behind this fact could be the detachment of the molecules of the surfactant and the consequent interaction between the WS2 nanosheets. Thus, further studies are required to better understand this high-temperature behavior.
- Further experimental evaluation studies of 2D nanofluids are recommended to stablish a database with the stability over time, specific heat, TC, and rheological characteristics for comparison purposes.
- More experimental and numerical works on the size reduction possibility when using 2D nanofluids in heat transfer equipment and in systems such as PV/T are required such as those analyzed in the work conducted by Sreekumar et al. .
- Despite the extremely high intrinsic TC of Gr, the verified increases in the TC of Gr nanofluids were up only by 50%. This fact should be further investigated with the aid of numerical modeling and in-depth theoretical studies to achieve a better TC.
- Since it was already reported that the viscosity of the Gr nanofluids is higher than that of other metals and metallic oxide nanofluids that may result in enhanced flow friction and pumping power needs, an accurate investigation of the friction, pressure drop, and pumping power needs is recommended to fully interpret the tradeoff between the improved TC and the augmented friction and pumping requirements.
- The economic feasibility of Gr nanofluids should be further evaluated to identify the balanced commitment between the technical and economic feasibility of Gr nanofluid solutions. Most of the economic challenges are associated with current Gr synthesis procedures, which are expensive, material intensive, and energy demanding. Consequently, welcome advancements in Gr manufacturing would relieve the technical and economic limitations for the practical application of Gr nanofluids.
- Further hybrid evaluation methods should be implemented through the combined usage of molecular dynamic numerical simulations and fluid dynamic laboratory experiments to achieve a better understanding the behavior of 2D nanofluids.
- Studies on the impact of the hybrid approach of the inclusion of metal (e.g., copper, gold) or metal oxides (e.g., iron oxide) into Gr nanosheets should be undertaken in order to improve the thermal characteristics of Gr nanofluids.
- More research on the stability, TC, and viscosity of WS2 nanoparticles suspended in ethylene glycol nanofluids with the addition of surfactants should be conducted. Playing the role of stabilizers and rheological modifiers, the careful use of surfactants such as SDBS and CTAB can improve suspension stability over time and reduce the viscosity of 2D nanofluids.
- Further studies are recommended to evaluate as accurately as possible the real electronic contribution of phonon transport to the TC of Gr. Definitive laboratory data supporting the electronic contribution are still missing.
- Further experiments should be conducted on the interfacial thermal conductance of 2D nanofluids and nanomaterials. Apart from the common acceptance that interfacial coupling increases interfacial thermal conductance, precise laboratory measurements of this property are scarce.
- Future research should be conducted in the field of PV/T systems regarding heat transfer media, as it is possible to replace the commonly used phase change materials with stable nano-scaled PCMs to achieve a significant improvement in the heat transfer performance of PV cells. The thermophysical properties of the working fluid can be enhanced with 2D nanofluid usage.
- In certain potential applications, such as enhanced oil recovery, the wettability of 2D nanofluids and nanomaterials is of great importance. Nevertheless, the already published findings regarding the wettability and contact angle measurements of the included nanoparticles are not consistent with each other. Consequently, further in-depth investigations are needed to clarify this matter and to achieve well-accepted values and trends.
- The employment of 2D nanofluids can improve the thermal performance of heat transfer systems and devices. Hence, the dimensions of heat changers, heat pipes, and thermosyphons, among others, can be noticeably reduced, resulting in greater efficiency, reliability, reproducibility, and less associated EI.
- The results of the TC measurement of 2D nanofluids with the addition of nanosheets revealed that the maximum TC enhancement did not coincide with the zeta potential maximum. Consequently, an accurate concentration of the nanoparticles is one of the most important factors for achieving the optimal heat transfer performance when employing 2D nanofluids.
- The size reduction in heat transfer and storage equipment and systems using 2D nanofluids is an issue of relevance and has been studied previously. For instance, in the study performed by Sreekumar et al.  it was demonstrated that, from the same thermal output of a PV/T system, the MXene 2D nanofluids achieved a reduction in the solar collector area between 4.5 and 14.5%, depending on the concentration of the MXene in reference to a water-based operating PV/T system.
- The rheological analysis suggested the formation of a structured network in the nanofluids of the WS2 nanoparticles and showed that there was a transition from the viscous behavior to the elastic behavior in WS2 nanofluids with the addition of surfactants. This transition usually requires a higher initial pumping power in the system.
- Gr nanofluids revealed a higher TC at much lower concentrations in comparison to those of the metallic and metallic oxides, such as silver, copper, alumina, and silica, exhibiting enhancements between 40% and 50% at only 0.1% wt. weight fraction. However, Gr nanofluids possess a higher density and viscosity, with the latter reported to be higher than that of the other mentioned nanofluids even at lower concentrations.
- The improved thermophysical characteristics of the rGO are related to its monolayer or multi-layered nanostructures. Nonetheless, the adjacent rGO nanosheets cause them to aggregate into macro-scaled carbon allotropism. Consequently, the assurance of a homogeneous dispersion of the nanosheets is pivotal for the synthesis of rGO 2D nanofluids.
- Two-dimensional nanofluids with the incorporation of Gr nanosheets are commonly found to exhibit higher convective heat transfer parameters than GO nanosheets. The difference may be related to the diverse order of the molecules in the base fluid in the proximity of the Gr nanosheets, parallel structure, and π–π plan stacking.
- It is important to prevent the agglomeration and sedimentation of 2D nanoparticles in base fluids by modifying the charge distribution of their surface. The scientific community have used different technological solutions to tackle this limitation, including covalent functionalization by the modification of the chemical structure, non-covalent functionalization with the incorporation of surfactants, and plasma functionalization. Plasma functionalization usually involves very complex processes and overall costs.
- The possibility of studying the thermal characteristics and mechanisms rarely detected in the bulk nanomaterials is one of the most remarkable characteristics of 2D nanomaterials and corresponding nanofluids. One example is the electronic contribution of the TC of the ballistic and hydrodynamic phonon transport in Gr. This contribution is as high as 10% and is important in thermoelectric applications.
- Regarding 2D hybrid nanoparticles, the thermal contact resistance between the different components may limit the heat transfer capability in thermal management applications. This is the case in CNT/Gr nanofluids, where the thermal contact resistance between the individual Gr nanoflakes and the CNTs remains a problem that should be solved.
- The incorporation of surfactants to improve the colloidal stability of 2D nanofluids should be carefully performed, given that it may be, in some cases, a counterproductive measure due to the absorption of the surfactant molecules on the surface of the 2D nanostructures, which can induce phonon scattering, impacting negatively on the heat transfer capability of 2D nanofluids.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Reference||Authors/Year||Concentration||Base Fluid||Main Findings||Remarks|
|||Zhi et al., 2011||6% vol.||Water||2.6-fold enhancement of the TC.||Relatively low viscosity increase.|
|||Fang et al., 2014||1, 2, 5, and 10% wt.||Paraffin phase change materials||60% increase in the TC.||Minor decrease in the latent heat capacity.|
|||Ilhan et al., 2016||From 0.03 to 3% vol.||Water, water ethylene glycol mixture, and ethylene glycol||TC increases of 26%, 22%, and 16% at 3% vol. for the different base fluids, respectively.||Use of SDS and PVP surfactants.|
Viscosity increases of 22%, 66%, and 33% for the different base fluids, respectively.
|||Ilhan and Erturk, 2017||0.1, 0.5 and 1.0% vol.||Water||Heat transfer enhancements of 7, 10, and 15%, respectively.||Formation of percolating structures and branching network.|
|||Hou et al., 2018||5, 10, 15, 20, and 25% vol.||Water||298% increase in the TC at 25% vol.||Considerable increase in the viscosity.|
|||Hussein et al., 2020||Hybrid Gr-h-BN at 0.05, 0.08 and 1% wt.||Water||85% increase in the solar collector efficiency.||Use of Tween 80 surfactant.|
|||Zhang et al., 2021||0.8% wt.||Solar Salt||16% increase in the specific heat capacity.||Excellent thermal and long-term stabilities after 7200 min.|
The viscosity of the solar salt increased by 2 to 3 times with the addition of the h-BN.
|||Farbod and Rafati, 2022||1% vol.||Ethylene glycol||24% increase in the TC and|
30% increase in the heat transfer rate.
|No increase in the friction factor in turbulent regime.|
|Reference||Authors/Year||Concentration||Base Fluid||Main Findings||Remarks|
|||Ahammed et al., 2016||Gr at 0.05%, 0.10%, and 0.15% vol.||Water||Viscosity increased by approximately 47% at 0.15% vol.||Surface tension decrease of approximately 19% at 0.15% vol.|
|||Das et al., 2019||Gr at 0.1% wt.||Water||17% increase in the TC.||Considerable increase in the viscosity.|
|||Dong et al., 2021||Gr at 0.2% wt.||Propylene glycol–water Mixture||The TC increased with increasing concentrations until 0.2% wt.||The HTC almost remained unchanged for concentrations above 9.2% wt.|
|||Borode et al., 2021||Gr at 0.25% wt. and different surfactants||Water||TC increased from 5.5% to approximately 9%, depending on the added surfactant.||Viscosity increased from approximately 6% to 23%, depending on the added surfactant.|
|||Kanti et al., 2022||GO from 0.05% to 1.0% vol.||Water||14.4% increase in the TC at 1.0% vol.||Good stability over time with the PVP surfactant.|
|||Kanti et al., 2022||Gr from 0.05% to 1.0% vol.||Ionic Liquid||27.6% increase in the TC at 0.5% vol. and at 60 °C.||The viscosity of the ionic nanofluids was lower than that of the ionic liquid alone.|
|||Huminic et al., 2022||Go-Si at 0.25% wt.||Water||A new correlation was proposed for the viscosity.||Improved efficiency in laminar and turbulent flows.|
|||Ali, 2022||Gr at from 0.01 to 0.1% vol.||Water||125.7% increase in the TC.||5% decrease in the viscosity.|
Stable after 45 days with the addition of SDS.
|||Rahman et al., 2022||Gr functionalized with apple cider vinegar at 0.1% wt.||Clove||24.4% increase in the TC in reference to water.||The TC of the nanofluids was slightly lower than that of the conventional Gr nanofluids.|
|Reference||Authors/Year||Concentration||Base Fluid||Main Findings||Remarks|
|||Kumaresan and Verlaj, 2012||MWCNTs at 0.15%, 0.30%, and 0.45% vol.||Water and ethylene glycol mixtures||Approximate 19.8% increase in the TC.||Maximum specific heat capacity increase at 0.15% vol.|
|||Glory et al., 2013||MWCNTs from 0.01% to 3% wt.||Water||64% increase in the TC at 3% wt.||The TC increase was temperature independent up to 2% wt. of MWCNTs.|
|||Fadhillahanafi et al., 2013||MWCNTs at 0.5% wt.||Water||22.2% increase in the TC.||Addition of 0.01% wt. of PVP surfactant.|
|||Tong et al., 2015||MWCNTs at 0.25% wt.||Water||4% increase in the efficiency of an enclosed-type U-tube solar collector.||Considerable decrease in CO2 emissions.|
|||Delfani et al., 2016||MWCNTs at 25, 50, and 100 p.p.m.||Water and ethylene glycol mixtures||From 10% to 29% increase in a direct absorption solar collector.||The efficiency of the collector increased with an increasing concentration and flow rate.|
|||Esfe et al., 2017||MWCNTs-SiO2 at 0.05% to 1.95% wt.||Ethylene glycol||Increase of 22.2% in the TC at 1.94% wt. and at 50 °C.||A correlation was proposed based on the temperature and concentration for the TC of the hybrid nanofluids.|
|||Mahbubul et al., 2018||SWCNTs at 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.2% vol.||Water||10% increase in the efficiency of a tube solar collector in reference to the water alone.||Critical solar irradiance of 900 W/m2, after that no considerable enhancement was verified.|
|||Hammed et al., 2019||MWCNTs at 0.1% wt.||Kapok seed oil||Approximate 6.2% increase in the TC.||TC accurately predicted by the Khanafer and Vafai model.|
|Reference||Authors/Year||Concentration||Base Fluid||Main Findings||Remarks|
|||Shah et al., 2022||MoS2 at 0.005%, 0.0075%, and 0.01% vol.||Ethylene Glycol||11% increase in the TC.||Approximately 14.7% maximum decrease in the viscosity at 50 °C and at 0.005% wt.|
|||Arani and Sadripour, 2021||MoS2 at up to 4% wt.||Water||The performance evaluation criterion of a solar collector at 3% wt. and brick-shaped nanoparticles was of 1.269.||Higher pressure losses for the nanoplatelets than for the brick-shaped nanoparticles.|
|||Martínez-Merino et al., 2019||MoS2||Byphenil and diphenyl oxide mixture||46% increase in the TC.|
4.7% increase in the specific heat capacity.
3.2% increase in the viscosity.
|21.3% increase in the efficiency of solar collectors.|
|Reference||Authors/Year||Concentration||Base Fluid||Main Findings||Remarks|
|||Wang et al., 2021||MXene at 5, 10, 20, 40, and 60 p.p.m.||Water||Maximum of 63.4% in the photothermal conversion efficiency at 20 p.p.m.||Near-zero spectral transmittance at 60 p.p.m.|
|||Bakthavatchalam et al., 2021||Mxene at 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, and 0.4% wt.||Diethylene Glycol and Ionic Liquid Mixtures||Increase of 78.5% in the PV/T thermal efficiency.||Increase of 6% in the PV/T heat transfer coefficient.|
|||Das et al., 2022||MXene-Al2O3 at 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.2% wt.||Therminol 55||61.8% increase in the TC.||Approximate 17.1% increase in the viscosity.|
|||Said et al., 2022||MXene at 0.05%, 0.08%, and 0.1% wt.||Silicone Oil||Approximate 70% increase in the TC at 25 °C and near 89% at 150 °C and at 0.1% wt.||Approximate 0.50% increase in the viscosity at 25 °C and near 2.4% at 150 °C and at 0.1% wt.|
|||Arifutzzaman et al., 2023||MXene-functionalized Gr at 0.02% wt.||Silicone Oil||Approximate 68% increase in the TC.||Thermal stability up to near 393 °C.|
The viscosity decreased by approximately 31 with the increase of 25 °C in the temperature.
|||Sundar et al., 2023||MXene at from 0.1% wt. to 1.0% wt.||Water and Ionic Liquid Mixture||56.6% increase in the TC at 1.0% wt.||Approximate 18% increase in the viscosity at 1.0% wt.|
|||Qu et al., 2023||MXene at from 10 to 300 p.p.m.||Water||63.5% increase in the photothermal conversion efficiency at 220 p.p.m.||Approximate 12% increase in the temperature rise at 220 p.p.m.|
|Reference||Authors/Year||Concentration||Base Fluid||Main Findings||Remarks|
|||Ahammed et al., 2016||Gr–Al2O3 at 0.1% vol.||Water||Increase of approximately 63.1% in the HTC. |
Increase in the pressure drop of approximately 20.3%.
|Increase in the cooling capacity and coefficient of performance of a thermoelectric cooler by nearly 31.8%. |
Decrease in the total entropy generation in a heat exchanger of 19.6%.
|||Verma et al., 2018||MWCNTs-CuO and MWCNTs-MgO at 0.25% to 2% vol.||Water||Increases in the thermal efficiency of a flat plate solar collector for the MWCNTs-CuO was approximately 18% at 0.75% vol. and at mass rate of nearly 0.025 kg/s compared with the water alone, and nearly 20.5% for the MWCNTs-MgO.||Increase in the exergetic performance of the MWCNTs-CuO of 30.09% compared with the water alone. The homologous value for the MWCNTs-MgO was nearly 33.8% compared with the water itself.|
|||Omri et al., 2022||Gr–copper oxide at concentrations until 1% wt.||Water||HTC increases of approximately 23.7% and of nearly 79.7% at 0.2% wt. and 1% wt., respectively.||Use of a vertical helical coil heat exchanger.|
|||Mahamude et al., 2022||Gr–crystal nano cellulose at 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.5% vol.||Water and ethylene glycol mixture||194% increase in the TC.||Maximum efficiency of a flat plate solar collector of approximately 16.9% at 0.5% wt.|
|||Jin et al., 2022||Gr–MXene at 1.8% wt. Gr + 0.2% wt. MXene, 1.5% wt. Gr + 0.5% wt. MXene, and 1.0% wt. Gr + 1.0% wt. MXene||Water||Approximate 60% increase in the TC with the 1.8% wt. Gr + 0.2% wt. MXene.||The viscosity and viscosity increase in the Gr–MXene nanofluids decreased as MXene concentration increased.|
|Reference||Authors/Year||Nanomaterial/Concentration||Base Fluid||Heat Exchanger Type||Main Findings||Remarks|
|||Esfahani and Languri 2017||GO at 0.01% and 0.1% wt.||Water||Shell and tube||Increases of 8.7% and 18.9% in the TC at 0.01 wt.% and 0.1 wt.% and at 25 °C and 40 °C, respectively.||Decreases of 22% and 109% in the exergy loss at 0.01 and 0.1 wt.% under laminar regime.|
|||Poongavanam et al., 2019||MWCNTs at 0.2%, 0.4%, and 0.6% vol.||Solar glycol||Shot Peened Double Pipe||Increase of approximately 115% in the HTC at 0.6% vol. and at a mass flow rate of 0.04 kg/s. |
Increase of approximately 30.6% in the TC at 0.6% vol. and temperature values between 30 °C and 50 °C.
|Increase of 1.56 times in the pressure drop at 0.6% vol. and at mass flow rate of 0.08 kg/s.|
|||Fares et al., 2020||Gr at 0.2% wt.||Water||Shell and tube||Increase in the HTC of 29% at 0.2% wt.||Increase in the thermal efficiency of 13.7% at 0.2% wt.|
|||Sen and Variyenli, 2021||Gr–CuO at 0.5% vol.||Water||Concentric tube||Increase of 9.6% in the HTC.||Decrease of 55% in the total exergy loss.|
|||Abdalahh et al., 2021||Gr at 0.02%, 0.055%, and 0.06% wt.||Water||Double||Increase of 51.1% at a Reynolds number of 425 and at 0.06% wt. and 0.055% wt.||The pressure drop and pumping power were higher at 0.06% wt. than at the other concentrations.|
|Reference||Authors/Year||Nanomaterial/Concentration||Base Fluid||Main Findings||Remarks|
|||Hassan et al., 2020||Gr at 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.15% vol. and RT-35HC phase change material||Water||Decreases of 23.9 °C, 16.1 °C, and 11.9 °C in the PV temperature for nanofluid-based PVT/PCM system, water-based PVT/PCM system and PV/PCM system, respectively.|
Increase of 17.5% in the thermal efficiency of the hybrid PVT/PCM system in comparison to that of the water-based hybrid PVT/PCM system, and overall efficiency increase of 12%.
|Increases of 23.9%, 22.7%, and 9.1% in the electrical efficiency, respectively, in reference to the conventional PV system.|
|||Abdelrazik et al., 2020||rGO–Ag from 0.0005% to 0.05% wt.||Water||The hybrid solar PV/T system with rGO–Ag/water nanofluids obtained thermal efficiencies between 24% and 30%.||Improved performance at concentrations inferior to 0.0235% wt. compared to the PV system without the integration of optical filtration.|
|||Venkatesh et al., 2022||Gr at 0.3% vol.||Water||Increases of 23% and 13% in the energy efficiencies of the PV and PV/T systems, respectively.||Decrease of approximately 20 °C in the temperature of the panel at 0.3% vol. and at 0.085 kg/s.|
|||Sreekumar et al., 2022||MXene at 0.2% wt.||Water||Increase of approximately 21.4% in the HTC at 0.2% wt. and at a flow rate of 40 kgh−1||Decrease of 10% in the PV surface temperature compared with the water alone.|
|Reference||Authors/Year||Nanomaterial/Concentration||Base Fluid||Main Findings||Remarks|
|||Hordy et al., 2014||MWCNTs from 5.6 mg/L to 53 mg/L||Water, ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, and Therminol™ VP-1||Long-term stability even after eight months in the ethylene glycol and propylene glycol-based nanofluids.|
The MWCNTs were highly absorbent over most of the solar spectrum, allowing for nearly 100% solar energy absorption, even at low concentrations.
|Glycol-based nanofluids presented the best overall thermal performance.|
|||Hussein et al., 2020||Gr-h-BN at 0.10% wt.||Water||Increases of 12% and 64% in the TC at 20 °C and 60 °C, respectively, and at 0.10% wt.||Thermal efficiency of the system up to 85% at 0.10% wt. and 20% higher than that of the water alone.|
|||Hosseinghorbany et al., 2020||GO at 0.5%, 1%, and 2% wt.||Ionic liquid||Increase of 6.5% in the TC.|
Increase of 27% in the specific heat capacity.
|Increase of 7.2% in the HTC at 0.5% wt.|
|||Yan et al., 2022||h-BN at 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% wt.||Solar Salt||Increase of nearly 76.8% in the TC. |
Increase of 29.8% in the specific heat capacity.
|Decrease from 12.2 °C to 4.7 °C in the supercooling degree.|
|||Kumar and Tiwari, 2022||h-BN at 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, 1.0%, 1.25%, 1.5%, 1.75%, and 2.0% wt.||Water||Maximum energy efficiency of nearly 72.1% at 1.5% vol. and at 0.051 kg/s mass flow rate. |
The maximum increase in the energy efficiency of approximately 84% was obtained at 1.50 vol% and at 0.051 kg/s mass flow rate.
The maximum exergy efficiency of 13.1% was obtained at 1.25% vol. and at 0.017 kg/s of mass flow.
|The lowest value of entropy generation of 42.9 W/K was obtained at 1.25% vol.|
The entropy generation increased with increasing mass flow rate and decreasing concentration.
|||Zhu et al., 2022||h-BN-titanium nitrate at 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 p.p.m.||Water||Exergy efficiency of 83% at 80 p.p.m.||Maximum of 78% in the photothermal conversion efficiency at 80 p.p.m.|
|Reference||Authors/Year||Nanomaterial/Concentration||Base Fluid||Main Findings||Remarks|
|||Amiri et al., 2015||CNTs functionalized with hexylamine at 0.001% and 0.005% wt.||Transformer oil||Increase of 10% in the TC compared with that of the transformer oil alone at 0.005% wt.||Increases in the natural convection and forced convection HTC of 23% and 28%, respectively, at 0.005% wt.|
|||Amiri et al., 2017||Gr quantum dots at 0.001% wt.||Transformer oil||Increase in the HTC of 23.9%.||Negligible increase of 1.3% in the viscosity.|
|||Suhaimi et al., 2020||MWCNTs at up to 0.02 g/L||Disposed Transformer oil||Increases of approximately 212.6% and 40% in the AC breakdown strength and lightning impulse pattern indicated at 0.005 g/L concentration compared with the transformer oil alone.||The presence of the MWCNTs resulted in a decrease in the dissipation factor, and an increase in the permittivity and resistivity of the transformer oil alone.|
|||Alizadeh et al., 2022||MWCNTs functionalized with OH at 0.001% and 0.01% wt.||Transformer oil||Increases of approximately 26.2% and 30.1% in the HTC at 0.01% wt. and 0.001% wt., respectively.||Decrease of nearly 28.4% in the breakdown voltage at 0.01% wt.|
|||Suhaimi et al., 2022||CNTs from 0.01 g/L to 0.2 g/L||Mineral oil||Increases of nearly 118.3% in the breakdown voltage at 1% probability and at 0.01 g/L.||At 0.01 g/L, the nanofluid strongly impacted on the storage modulus, viscosity, and thermal behavior, which contributes to the breakdown performance.|
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Pereira, J.; Moita, A.; Moreira, A. Fewer Dimensions for Higher Thermal Performance: A Review on 2D Nanofluids. Appl. Sci. 2023, 13, 4070. https://doi.org/10.3390/app13064070
Pereira J, Moita A, Moreira A. Fewer Dimensions for Higher Thermal Performance: A Review on 2D Nanofluids. Applied Sciences. 2023; 13(6):4070. https://doi.org/10.3390/app13064070Chicago/Turabian Style
Pereira, José, Ana Moita, and António Moreira. 2023. "Fewer Dimensions for Higher Thermal Performance: A Review on 2D Nanofluids" Applied Sciences 13, no. 6: 4070. https://doi.org/10.3390/app13064070