# High Reliable Uplink Transmission Methods in GEO–LEO Heterogeneous Satellite Network

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

#### 1.1. Introduction of The Satellite Communication Network

#### 1.2. Literature Review

#### 1.3. Contributions of This Work

- By fully studying the characters of a heterogeneous satellite network, we find out that the beam-edge user and beam-center user still have channel gain difference, although the same equipment sets are assumed to be used by both users. Then, we propose uplink NOMA and derive analytical expressions of the outage probability with respect to NOMA and GEO–LEO cooperative OMA.
- Considering the realistic transmission condition of the beam-edge and beam-center users, the outage probability is also analyzed with channel gain ordering. Further, the diversity order is derived, which can help to assess the outage probability performance intuitively.
- Through the expressions of outage probability and adequate simulation results, we provide practical instructions on designing high reliable uplink transmission methods in heterogeneous GEO–LEO satellite networks.

## 2. System Model

#### 2.1. Descriptions of The Heterogeneous Satellite Network

#### 2.2. Uplink Transmission Model of NOMA Scheme

#### 2.3. Uplink Transmission Model of Cooperative OMA Scheme

## 3. Performance Evaluation

#### 3.1. Outage Probability of NOMA Method

**Theorem**

**1.**

**Proof.**

**Theorem**

**2.**

**Proof.**

#### 3.2. Outage Probability of Cooperative OMA

#### 3.3. Performance with Ordered Channel Gain

**Assumption**

**A1.**

## 4. Diversity Order Analysis

**Corollary**

**1.**

**Proof.**

**Remark**

**1.**

**Corollary**

**2.**

## 5. Simulation Results

#### 5.1. Outage Probability Without Channel Ordering

#### 5.2. Outage Probability With Ordered Channel Gain

## 6. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## Appendix A. Symbols and Acronyms

6G | Sixth Generation |

AS | Average Shadowing |

BER | Bit Error Rate |

BS | Base Station |

CSCG | Circularly Symmetric Complex Gaussian |

FDMA | Frequency Division Multiple Access |

FHS | Frequent Heavy Shadowing |

GEO | Geostationary Earth Orbit |

ILS | Infrequent Light Shadowing |

IP | Internet Protocol |

LEO | Low Earth Orbit |

LoS | Line of Sight |

Mbps | Megabits per Second |

MEO | Medium Earth Orbit |

NOMA | Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access |

NTN | Non-Terrestrial Network |

OMA | Orthogonal Multiple Access |

Probability Density Function | |

SATCOM | Satellite Communication |

SIC | Successive Interference Cancellation |

SINR | Signal-to-Interference-Noise Ratio |

SNR | Signal-to-Noise Ratio |

TDMA | Time Division Multiple Access |

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System Parameter | Value |
---|---|

Orbit height of GEO satellite ${d}_{g}$ | 36,000 km |

Orbit height of LEO satellite ${d}_{l}$ | 700 km |

Carrier frequency | 28 GHz |

Angle of 3 dB beam width at the LEO satellite ${\theta}_{3dB}$ | $2.{5}^{\circ}$ |

Beam gain of the GEO receive antenna ${G}_{s}$ | 54 dB |

Normal-direction beam gain of LEO receive antenna ${G}_{l}$ | 50 dB |

Transmit beam gain of user terminals ${G}_{i}$ | 45 dB |

Shadowing | b | m | $\mathsf{\Omega}$ |
---|---|---|---|

Frequent heavy shadowing (FHS) | $0.063$ | $0.739$ | $8.97\times {10}^{-4}$ |

Average shadowing (AS) | $0.126$ | $10.1$ | $0.835$ |

Infrequent light shadowing (ILS) | $0.158$ | $19.4$ | $1.29$ |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Li, G.; Li, T.; Yue, X.; Hou, T.; Dai, B.
High Reliable Uplink Transmission Methods in GEO–LEO Heterogeneous Satellite Network. *Appl. Sci.* **2023**, *13*, 8611.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app13158611

**AMA Style**

Li G, Li T, Yue X, Hou T, Dai B.
High Reliable Uplink Transmission Methods in GEO–LEO Heterogeneous Satellite Network. *Applied Sciences*. 2023; 13(15):8611.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app13158611

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Li, Guoyan, Tian Li, Xinwei Yue, Tianwei Hou, and Bin Dai.
2023. "High Reliable Uplink Transmission Methods in GEO–LEO Heterogeneous Satellite Network" *Applied Sciences* 13, no. 15: 8611.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app13158611