Study on Stress–Strain Relationship of Coir Fiber-Reinforced Red Clay Based on Duncan–Chang Model
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Test Materials
2.2. Test Methods
2.3. Sample Preparation
3. Experimental Results and Analyses
3.1. Stress–Strain Relationship
- Under different confining pressures and different fiber contents, the stress–strain relationship curves of plain soil and coir fiber-reinforced soil have similar trends, both of which are hyperbolic. With the increase in axial strain, the rate of increase in deviatoric stress decreases gradually, and the final deviatoric stress tends to a stable value. The stress–strain curve shows a typical strain-hardening type.
- Compared with plain soil, the peak deviatoric stress of five coir fiber-reinforced soil samples with different levels of fiber content increased substantially, indicating that the addition of coir fiber can affect the strength and deformation resistance of soil.
- Under low confining pressure (100 kPa, 200 kPa), the peak deviatoric stress of reinforced soil with different levels of coir fiber content shows little difference, indicating that the deviatoric stress is less affected by confining pressure under low confining pressure. Under high confining pressure (300 kPa, 400 kPa), the peak deviatoric stress of coir fiber-reinforced soil increases first and then decreases with the increase in fiber content, that is, there is an optimal coir fiber content. When the fiber content is 0.3%, the peak deviatoric stress reaches the maximum, and the reinforcement effect is the best. When the fiber content is too much, the fiber in the soil will be gathered together, such that the degree of occlusion and friction between the soil and the fiber becomes low, and it is easy to form penetrating cracks in the sample, which destroys the integrity of the soil due to the existence of potential failure surfaces.
- When the axial strain of the soil is small (ε1 < 1%), the stress and strain curves of the plain soil and the coir fiber-reinforced soil are basically equivalent, indicating that the coir fiber cannot play a good role under a small strain. This is mainly because when the soil deformation is small, the external force is also small, the occlusal friction between the soil and the fiber is weak, the cohesion of the soil itself is not much enhanced, and the degree of fiber bending in the soil is not enough, and the spatial constraint effect on the soil is weak, so the reinforcement effect is not obvious. With the increase in axial strain ε1, the deviatoric stress of coir fiber-reinforced soil increases rapidly, and the greater the confining pressure, the greater the increase in the deviatoric stress, indicating that in the case of a certain small strain, coir fiber can play an early role in inhibiting the deformation of the soil, and the reinforcement effect of fiber soil is obviously reflected. When the axial strain reaches a certain value (ε1 > 4%), under the same fiber content, the greater the confining pressure, the greater the corresponding deviatoric stress. This is because there are more voids in the soil. The larger the confining pressure, the faster the void closure, the stronger the lateral restraint force, and the greater the deviatoric stress. From Figure 6, it can be seen that the pore pressure of the coir fiber-reinforced red clay sample increases to varying degrees compared with the plain soil. According to the effective stress principle of Terzaghi, σ = σ′ + u, it can be known through calculation that although the pore water pressure u is increasing, the total stress is increasing faster, thus the effective stress σ′ is still increasing from the overall point of view, and, therefore, the deformation of the specimen is constrained.
- Under the same fiber content, the deviatoric stress of soil increases obviously with the increase in confining pressure. Taking fiber content of 0.3% as an example, the deviatoric stress of soil under confining pressure of 100 kPa, 200 kPa, 300 kPa, and 400 kPa is 115 kPa, 234 kPa, 345 kPa, and 457 kPa, respectively. The deviatoric stress of 400 kPa is 297.39% higher than that of 100 kPa, which indicates that increasing confining pressure can improve the failure strength of the soil.
3.2. Shear Strength Parameters
3.3. Failure Characteristics of Coir Fiber-Reinforced Soil
4. Duncan–Chang Model and Parameter Analysis of Coir Fiber-Reinforced Red Clay
4.1. Establishment of the Model
4.2. Parameter Analysis
- The strength characteristics of red clay can be effectively improved by adding coir fiber to the soil. Under the optimal fiber content, the failure strength of the sample is nearly three times that of plain soil.
- When the axial strain is small, the stress–strain relationship curves of the plain soil and the coir fiber-reinforced red clay are consistent, indicating that the reinforcement effect is not obvious at this time. With the increase in axial strain, the occlusal friction between the soil and the fiber and the tensile resistance of the fiber gradually play a role, which improves the shear strength of the soil and increases the deviatoric stress of different samples.
- Compared with plain soil, the cohesion of red clay mixed with fiber increases by 4.9~9.13 kPa, and reaches the maximum when the fiber content is 0.3%, while the internal friction angle of red clay mixed with fiber is not much different from that of plain soil.
- Under the same fiber content, the parameters a and b gradually decrease with the increase in confining pressure, and the initial deformation modulus Ei and ultimate deviator stress of the sample increase with the increase in confining pressure. Additionally, the initial tangent modulus Ei increases first and then decreases with the continuous increase in fiber content. The rule of change is in line with the test situation and has guiding significance.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Optimum Moisture Content|
|Plastic Limit ωP/%||Plasticity Index|
|Fiber Content (%)||Confining Pressure (kPa)||Parameter a||Parameter b||Ei|
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Jiang, X.; Guo, J.; Yang, H.; Bao, S.; Wen, C.; Chen, J. Study on Stress–Strain Relationship of Coir Fiber-Reinforced Red Clay Based on Duncan–Chang Model. Appl. Sci. 2023, 13, 556. https://doi.org/10.3390/app13010556
Jiang X, Guo J, Yang H, Bao S, Wen C, Chen J. Study on Stress–Strain Relationship of Coir Fiber-Reinforced Red Clay Based on Duncan–Chang Model. Applied Sciences. 2023; 13(1):556. https://doi.org/10.3390/app13010556Chicago/Turabian Style
Jiang, Xueliang, Jiahui Guo, Hui Yang, Shufeng Bao, Changping Wen, and Jiayu Chen. 2023. "Study on Stress–Strain Relationship of Coir Fiber-Reinforced Red Clay Based on Duncan–Chang Model" Applied Sciences 13, no. 1: 556. https://doi.org/10.3390/app13010556