Numerical Investigation on the Principle of Energy Separation in the Vortex Tube
Abstract
:1. Introduction
2. Numerical Methods
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Validation
3.2. Total Temperature Separation
3.3. Temperature Separation
4. Conclusions
 The axial pressure gradient in the nearaxis region was the major contributor to an increase in temperature in the axial direction. Due to narrowing the hot exit area by the throttle valve, the pressure increased in the nearaxis region, and the temperature increased in the axial direction due to reversible compression.
 The higher the cold mass fraction, the higher the hot exit temperature was, which was attributed to the fact that, as the pressure in the nearaxis region at the hot exit section increased, the return of flow from the hot exit section toward the cold exit section became large.
 The viscous dissipation effect was significant only in the region adjacent to the stagnation point.
 The tendency of the cold exit temperature with respect to the cold mass fraction was explained as follows:
 When the cold mass fraction was low and the negative pressure zone was too large, a partial backflow of atmospheric air through the cold exit occurred. In that condition, the decrease in cold exit temperature decreased with a decrease in the cold mass fraction.
 When the cold mass fraction was large such that a partial backflow did not occur through the cold exit, the cold exit temperature decreased with an increase in the cold mass fraction. The reason was that the core vortex flow moving toward the cold exit served to transport the hot air in the hot exit region to the cold exit region. It was interesting that, for a high cold mass fraction, the temperature in the nearaxis region tended to be higher than that in the periphery region.
Author Contributions
Funding
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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Ref.  Dim.  Main Concern and Summary 

[32]  2D  Transient flow behavior 
[33]  2D  Turbulence model, working fluid 
[34]  3D  Flow structure, inlet shape, and aspect ratio 
[35]  2D  Temperature separation analysis based on heat transfer and shear work 
[36]  2D  Turbulence mode, flow structure, and working fluid 
[24]  2D  Turbulence model Temperature separation analysis based on heat transfer and shear work 
[37]  2D  Turbulence model 
[38]  2D  The increase in temperature in the radial direction was due to compression. 
[39]  3D  Turbulence model 
[12]  2D  Turbulence model 
[40]  3D  Flow structure based on LES 
[9]  2D  Flow structure based on LES 
[41]  3D  Flow structure based on LES 
[42]  3D  Flow structure based on LES 
[30]  3D  Flow structure based on LES 
[43]  2D 

[44]  3D  Variable fluid properties 
[8]  3D  The interaction of angular momentum transaction and kinetic energy transfer were found to be responsible for the temperature difference between the cold and hot fluids. 
[45]  3D  Gas compressibility 
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Park, S.Y.; Yoon, S.H.; Yu, S.S.; Kim, B.J. Numerical Investigation on the Principle of Energy Separation in the Vortex Tube. Appl. Sci. 2022, 12, 10142. https://doi.org/10.3390/app121910142
Park SY, Yoon SH, Yu SS, Kim BJ. Numerical Investigation on the Principle of Energy Separation in the Vortex Tube. Applied Sciences. 2022; 12(19):10142. https://doi.org/10.3390/app121910142
Chicago/Turabian StylePark, Seol Yeon, Sang Hee Yoon, Sang Seok Yu, and Byoung Jae Kim. 2022. "Numerical Investigation on the Principle of Energy Separation in the Vortex Tube" Applied Sciences 12, no. 19: 10142. https://doi.org/10.3390/app121910142