# Effect of Buildings on the Radiation Characteristics of MF Broadcast Antennas

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. Antenna and Ground Modeling

#### 2.2. Current Distribution

#### 2.3. Building Modeling

#### 2.4. Scattering from a Wire Grid

#### 2.5. Radiation of the Antennas in the Presence of Buildings

## 3. Results

#### 3.1. Radiation Patterns of the Monopole

#### 3.2. Radiation Patterns of the Array

## 4. Discussion

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**Geometry of the antenna models. (

**a**) Equivalent dipole of length 2h and (

**b**) equivalent two-dipole array.

**Figure 2.**The orientation of a building with reference to the antenna. The building is modeled as a wire-grid rectangular parallelepiped.

**Figure 4.**Radiation patterns of the monopole in free space (black, solid curve) and in the presence of a building with $L=10\mathrm{m}\approx 0.05\lambda $ and $W=10\mathrm{m}\approx 0.05\lambda $. Three different heights H are considered (dashed and dotted curves, as indicated in the upper right corner). The distance between the antenna and the building is $R=100\mathrm{m}\approx 0.5\lambda $. (

**a**) $\phi $-plane and (

**b**) $\theta $-plane.

**Figure 5.**The same as Figure 4, except for the distance between the antenna and the building ($R=200\mathrm{m}\approx \lambda $). (

**a**) $\phi $-plane and (

**b**) $\theta $-plane.

**Figure 6.**Radiation patterns of the monopole in free space (black, solid curve) and in the presence of a building with $L=60\mathrm{m}\approx 0.3\lambda $ and $W=10\mathrm{m}\approx 0.05\lambda $. Three different heights H are considered (dashed and dotted curves, as indicated at the upper right corner). The distance between the antenna and the building is $R=100\mathrm{m}\approx 0.5\lambda $. (

**a**) $\phi $-plane and (

**b**) $\theta $-plane.

**Figure 7.**The same as Figure 6, except for the building size ($L=10\mathrm{m}\approx 0.05\lambda $ and $W=60\mathrm{m}\approx 0.3\lambda $). (

**a**) $\phi $-plane and (

**b**) $\theta $-plane.

**Figure 8.**$\theta $-plane of the radiation patterns of the monopole in free space (black, solid curve) and in the presence of two buildings $30\times 10\times H{\mathrm{m}}^{3}$. Three different heights H are considered (dashed and dotted curves, as indicated at the upper right corner). The distances between the antenna and each building are (

**a**) $R=100\mathrm{m}\approx 0.5\lambda $ and (

**b**) $R=200\mathrm{m}\approx \lambda $.

**Figure 9.**Radiation patterns of the array in free space (black, solid curve) and in the presence of a building with $L=50\mathrm{m}\approx 0.168\lambda $ and $W=10\mathrm{m}\approx 0.034\lambda $. Three different heights H are considered (dashed and dotted curves, as indicated at the upper right corner). The distance between the antenna and the building is $R=100\mathrm{m}\approx 0.336\lambda $. (

**a**) $\phi $-plane and (

**b**) $\theta $-plane.

Study | Frequency Range | Antenna Model | Building Model | Method | Purpose | Main Results-Conclusions |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

[12] | MF (990 kHz) | T-type, 60 m in height | λ/4 parasitic monopole or infinite-long PEC cylinder | Reciprocity or dyadic Green’s function technique | Impact of building on radiation pattern and field intensity | Decrease in field intensity up to 2.3 dB. The radiation pattern is mostly affected by the height of the building. |

[11] | MF (990 kHz) | λ/2 dipole | PEC, three different heights considered | Finite difference method | Impact of buildings on the far field | The reduction in field intensity around a building may be up to 8.4 dB (building 30 m high, 100 m from the antenna), while the field variation becomes negligible 400 m from the antenna. |

[2] | HF (2–30 MHz) | Logical periodic dipole antenna (LPDA) | Rectangular parallelepiped (mesh of metallic wire segments and triangles) | Full-wave simulation software package (FEKO) | Impact of buildings on radiation pattern, gain, VSWR. | Only the radiation pattern (among gain, VSWR, impedance) is affected by building blockage. The impact on patterns is greater if the size or height of the blockage is larger than λ/2. |

[15] | HF | 12-element (cross-loop antenna) circular array | Actual buildings (bodies of concrete or wood of appropriate size/shape) | Commercially available software (FEKO) | Impact of buildings on direction finding (DF) | The antenna response changes due to the presence of buildings, resulting in estimation error of the DF system (up to 1° for the azimuth and 7° for the elevation). |

[13] | - | 2-element broadside or endfire array | Infinite-long conductive or dielectric, rectangular cylinder | MoM and unimoment method | Impact of building on radiation pattern and field intensity | Deviation of the direction of the principal radiation lobe and production of side lobes, depending on the distance between the antenna and the building and the permittivity and size of the building. |

[6] | 2.45 GHz | Rectangular patch antenna | Complex wall structures | Commercially available software (CST Microwave Studio) | Impact of walls on the radiation characteristics of access-point antennas | The radiation pattern is distorted (compared to the free-space pattern) when the antenna is mounted on complex wall structures, especially corners. |

[29] | 30 MHz–1 GHz | Electric dipole inside the building | Wire-grid body | MoM | Derivation of EM field distribution in and around buildings | The calculated results were validated through measurements and the resonant characteristics of the building were determined. |

[4] | 0.75–5 GHz | Horn antenna | Single solid-metal cylinder or a set of such cylinders | Numerical simulation (by using the tool Ansoft HFSS) | Design of the appropriate cloak to reduce the blockage | The (uncloaked) objects produce strong sidelobes to the antenna’s radiation pattern (compared to free space) and decrease its directivity. |

Current study | MF (1494 kHz & 1008 kHz) | Monopole and 2-element array | Rectangular parallelepiped (wire-grid body) | Point-matching solution and custom computer code | Impact of buildings on radiation pattern | The height is the most important parameter that determines whether other parameters of the buildings affect the radiation pattern considerably. The impact on the radiation pattern is significant if the height of the building is greater than $0.3\lambda $. |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Liodakis, G.S.; Ioannidou, M.P.; Petrakis, N.S.; Baklezos, A.T.; Kapetanakis, T.N.; Nikolopoulos, C.D.; Vardiambasis, I.O.
Effect of Buildings on the Radiation Characteristics of MF Broadcast Antennas. *Appl. Sci.* **2022**, *12*, 6525.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app12136525

**AMA Style**

Liodakis GS, Ioannidou MP, Petrakis NS, Baklezos AT, Kapetanakis TN, Nikolopoulos CD, Vardiambasis IO.
Effect of Buildings on the Radiation Characteristics of MF Broadcast Antennas. *Applied Sciences*. 2022; 12(13):6525.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app12136525

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Liodakis, George S., Melina P. Ioannidou, Nikolaos S. Petrakis, Anargyros T. Baklezos, Theodoros N. Kapetanakis, Christos D. Nikolopoulos, and Ioannis O. Vardiambasis.
2022. "Effect of Buildings on the Radiation Characteristics of MF Broadcast Antennas" *Applied Sciences* 12, no. 13: 6525.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app12136525