# Analysis of the Aggregate Effect on the Compressive Strength of Concrete Using Dune Sand

^{1}

^{2}

^{3}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Experimental Plan and Method

#### 2.1. Experimental Plan

^{3}; DS/FA ratios = 10, 20, 40, and 60%.

#### 2.2. Materials and Mixture Proportions

^{3}. In contrast, when binary sand with a 20% DS/FA ratio was used, the target slump could be attained with a water content of 150 kg/m

^{3}in the concrete mixture.

## 3. Results and Discussion

#### 3.1. Slump

^{3}, the required AD content increased by 25–43%; whereas, when the water content decreased from 160 to 150 kg/m

^{3}, the AD content increased by 18–20%.

#### 3.2. Air Contents

#### 3.3. Compressive Strength

#### 3.4. Aggregate Effect on Compressive Strength

#### 3.4.1. For 0 < a < b < c and c = 1

#### 3.4.2. For 0 < c < b < a and a = 1

## 4. Conclusions

- (1)
- The slump/AD ratio increased as the DS/FA ratio increased up to 40%. In particular, a DS/FA ratio of 40% was the most favorable condition for concrete workability.
- (2)
- The compressive strength of concrete increased until the DS/FA ratio increased to 20%. Thereafter, the compressive strength decreased as the DS/FA ratio increased. For the same DS/FA ratio, the compressive strength tended to increase slightly as the water content decreased.
- (3)
- The effect of the DS/FA ratio on variations in compressive strength was greater than that of the unit water content on variations in compressive strength. Therefore, in terms of the strength of concrete using DS and CS, we recommend that the DS/FA ratio should be considered more important than the unit water content.
- (4)
- The relationship between the changes in compressive strength and aggregate volume fractions was analyzed, considering the effect factors of each aggregate on the compressive strength under conditions (1) 0 < DS(a) < CS(b) < CA(c) and (2) 0 < CA(c) < CS(b) < DS(a).
- (5)
- For 0 < a < b < c and c = 1, the value of a generally increased as b increased. Similarly, the value of a decreased as b decreased; however, the decrease in a was larger than that of b. In addition, the common ranges of a and b for all of the mixtures were 0.04 to 0.83 and 0.72 to 0.92, respectively.
- (6)
- For 0 < c < b < a and a = 1, the value of c generally increased as b increased. Similarly, the value of c decreased as b decreased; however, the decrease in c was larger than that of b. The common ranges of b and c for all of the mixtures were 0.68 to 0.80 and 0.02 to 0.79, respectively.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

- Lee, E.; Kim, Y. Application and Characteristics of Dune Sand Concrete in the Middle East and North Africa. J. Korea Concr. Inst.
**2014**, 26, 55–63. (In Korean) [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Zhang, G.; Song, J.; Yang, J.; Liu, X. Performance of Mortar and Concrete Made with a Fine Aggregate of Desert Sand. Build. Environ.
**2006**, 41, 1478–1481. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Al-Harthy, A.S.; Halim, M.A.; Taha, R.; Al-Jabri, K.S. The Properties of Concrete Made with Fine Dune Sand. Constr. Build. Mat.
**2007**, 21, 1803–1808. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Bouziani, T.; Bedrinas, M.; Hadjoudja, M. Effect of Dune Sand on the Properties of Flowing Sand-Concrete. Int. J. Concr. Struct. Mater.
**2012**, 6, 59–64. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version] - Seif, A.; Sedek, E.S. Performance of Cement Mortar Made with Fine Aggregates of Dune Sand, Kharga Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt: An Experimental Study. Jordan J. Civil Eng.
**2013**, 7, 270–284. [Google Scholar] - Belhadj, B.; Bederina, M.; Benguettache, K.; Queneudec, M. Effect of the Type of Sand on the Fracture and Mechanical Properties of Sand Concrete. Adv. Conc. Constr.
**2014**, 2, 13–27. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version] - Khay, S.E.E.; Neji, J.; Loulizi, A. Compacted Sand Concrete in Pavement Construction: An Economical and Environmental Solution. ACI Mater. J.
**2010**, 107, 195–202. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Rmili, A.; Ouezdou, M.B.; Added, M.; Ghorbel, E. Incorporation of Crushed Sands and Tunisian Desert Sands in the Composition of Self-Compacting Concretes Part II: SCC fresh and Hardened States Characteristics. Int. J. Conc. Struct. Mater.
**2009**, 3, 11–14. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version] - Luo, F.J.; He, L.; Pan, Z.; Duan, W.H.; Zhao, X.L.; Collins, F. Effect of Very Fine Particles on Workability and Strength of Concrete Made with Dune Sand. Constr. Build. Mater.
**2013**, 47, 131–137. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Alexander, M.; Mindess, S. Aggregate in Concrete; Taylor and Francis: London, UK, 2005. [Google Scholar]
- KS F 2402: Method of Test for Slump of Concrete; Korean Standards Association: Seoul, Korea, 2012.
- ASTM C143: Standard Test Method for Slump of Hydraulic-Cement Concrete; ASTM International: West Conshohocken, PA, USA, 2009.
- KS F 2421: Method of Test for Air Content of Fresh Concrete by Pressure Method; Korean Standards Association: Seoul, Korea, 2011.
- ASTM C231: Standard Test Method for Air Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete by the Pressure Method; ASTM International: West Conshohocken, PA, USA, 2009.
- KS F 2405: Method for Compressive Strength of Concrete; Korean Standards Association: Seoul, Korea, 2010.
- ASTM C39: Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens; ASTM International: West Conshohocken, PA, USA, 2009.
- KS F 2526: Concrete Aggregate; Korean Standards Association: Seoul, Korea, 2012.
- ASTM C33: Standard Specification for Concrete Aggregates; ASTM International: West Conshohocken, PA, USA, 2013.
- Mehta, P.K.; Monteiro, P.J.M. Concrete—Microstructure, Properties and Materials, 3rd ed.; McGraw-Hill: New York, NY, USA, 2005. [Google Scholar]
- Meddah, M.S.; Zitouni, S.; Belâabes, S. Effect of Content and Particle Size Distribution of Coarse Aggregate on the Compressive Strength of Concrete. Constr. Build. Mat.
**2010**, 24, 505–512. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Stock, A.F.; Hannantt, D.J.; Williams, R.I.T. The Effect of Aggregate Concentration upon the Strength and Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete. Mag. Concr. Res.
**1979**, 31, 225–234. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - De Larrard, F.; Belloc, A. The Influence of Aggregate on the Compressive Strength of Normal and High-Strength Concrete. Mater. J.
**1997**, 94, 417–426. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Donza, H.; Cabrera, O.; Irassar, E.F. High-strength Concrete with Different Fine Aggregate. Cem. Concr. Res.
**2002**, 32, 1755–1761. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Haque, M.B.; Tuhin, I.A.; Farid, M.S.S. Effect of Aggregate Size Distribution on Concrete Compressive Strength. SUST J. Sci. Technol.
**2012**, 19, 35–39. [Google Scholar] - Vilane, B.R.T.; Sabelo, N. The Effect of Aggregate Size on the Compressive Strength of Concrete. J. Agric. Sci. Eng.
**2016**, 2, 66–69. [Google Scholar] - Woode, A.; Amoah, D.K.; Aguba, L.A.; Ballow, P. The Effect of Maximum Coarse Aggregate Size on the Compressive Strength of Concrete Produced in Ghana. Civ. Environ. Res.
**2015**, 7, 7–12. [Google Scholar] - Yaqub, M.; Bukhari, I. Effect of Size of Coarse Aggregate on Compressive Strength of High Strength Concrete. In Proceedings of the 31st Conference on Our World in Concrete and Structures, Singapore, Singapore, 16–17 August 2006. [Google Scholar]
- Oyewole, O.O.; Arilewola, S.S.; Jimoh, A.A.; Oyejobi, D.O. Effects of Aggregate Sizes on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Concrete Using Artificial Aggregates. In Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Conference on Civil Engineering, Ilorin, Nigeria, 6–8 July 2011; pp. 21–23. [Google Scholar]
- Xie, W.; Jin, Y.; Li, S. Experimental Research on the Influence of Grain Size of Coarse Aggregate on Pebble Concrete Compressive Strength. Appl. Mech. Mater.
**2012**, 238, 133–137. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Bhikshma, V.; Florence, G.A. Studies on Effect of Maximum Size of Aggregate in Higher Grade Concrete with High Volume Fly Ash. Asian J. Civ. Eng.
**2013**, 14, 101–109. [Google Scholar]

**Figure 6.**Compressive strengths of the different concrete mixtures according to age; (

**a**) W170, (

**b**) W160, and (

**c**) W150.

**Figure 7.**Mean compressive strengths and standard deviations of concrete mixtures with different DS/FA ratios.

**Figure 8.**Mean compressive strengths and standard deviations of concrete mixtures with different water contents.

**Figure 10.**Common ranges of the effect factors for (

**a**) W170, (

**b**) W160, and (

**c**) W150 mixtures at different ages (a < b < c, c = 1).

**Figure 11.**Common ranges of the effect factors for the (

**a**) W170, (

**b**) W160, and (

**c**) W150 mixtures at different ages (a > b > c, a = 1).

Material | Physical Properties |
---|---|

Cement | ▪ Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) ▪ Density: 3.15 g/cm ^{3}▪ Fineness: 3440 cm ^{2}/g |

CA | ▪ Coarse aggregate ▪ Maximum size: 20 mm ▪ Density: 2.70 g/cm ^{3}▪ Absorption ratio: 0.77% |

CS | ▪ Maximum size: 5 mm ▪ Density: 2.61 g/cm ^{3}▪ FM: 3.6 ▪ Absorption ratio: 1.53% |

DS | ▪ Density: 2.61 g/cm^{3}▪ FM: 0.7 ▪ Absorption ratio: 1.19% |

Admixture | ▪ Naphthalene based ▪ Density: 1.23 g/cm ^{3}▪ pH: 6.79 |

Chemical | SiO_{2} | CaO | Al_{2}O_{3} | MgO | Fe_{2}O_{3} | K_{2}O |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

% | 47.1 | 38.8 | 5.65 | 3.03 | 2.68 | 1.44 |

Mixture ^{a} | Slump (mm) | W/C | s/a | Unit Weight (kg/m^{3}) | AD (cw%) | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

W ^{b} | C ^{c} | CS | DS | CA | ||||||

W170 | DS10 | 180 ± 25 | 0.4 | 0.60 | 170 | 425 | 951 | 106 | 729 | 0.8 |

DS20 | 0.50 | 170 | 425 | 705 | 176 | 911 | 0.8 | |||

DS40 | 0.45 | 170 | 425 | 476 | 317 | 1002 | 0.7 | |||

DS60 | 0.40 | 170 | 425 | 282 | 423 | 1094 | 0.8 | |||

W160 | DS10 | 0.65 | 160 | 400 | 1058 | 118 | 655 | 1.0 | ||

DS20 | 0.55 | 160 | 400 | 796 | 199 | 842 | 1.0 | |||

DS40 | 0.45 | 160 | 400 | 488 | 326 | 1029 | 1.0 | |||

DS60 | 0.42 | 160 | 400 | 304 | 456 | 1085 | 1.1 | |||

W150 | DS20 | 0.60 | 150 | 375 | 891 | 223 | 768 | 1.2 | ||

DS40 | 0.48 | 150 | 375 | 534 | 356 | 998 | 1.5 | |||

DS60 | 0.43 | 150 | 375 | 319 | 479 | 1094 | 1.3 |

^{a}W170 = Water content 170 kg/m

^{3}, DS10 = DS/FA ratio 10%.

^{b}W: Water.

^{c}C: Cement.

Age | Mixture | W170 | W160 | W150 | |||||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

D10 | D40 | D60 | D10 | D40 | D60 | D40 | D60 | ||||||||||

Factor | a | b | a | b | a | b | a | b | A | b | a | b | a | b | a | b | |

3 days | Max. | 0.97 | 0.98 | 0.97 | 0.98 | 0.86 | 0.99 | 0.90 | 0.92 | 0.88 | 0.99 | 0.90 | 0.99 | 0.83 | 0.99 | 0.87 | 0.99 |

Min. | 0.01 | 0.55 | 0.01 | 0.39 | 0.02 | 0.53 | 0.02 | 0.65 | 0.03 | 0.64 | 0.02 | 0.53 | 0.02 | 0.69 | 0.02 | 0.61 | |

7 days | Max. | 0.95 | 0.98 | 0.94 | 0.99 | 0.94 | 0.99 | 0.96 | 0.98 | 0.90 | 0.99 | 0.95 | 0.99 | 0.93 | 0.99 | 0.95 | 0.99 |

Min. | 0.04 | 0.72 | 0.02 | 0.42 | 0.01 | 0.45 | 0.02 | 0.69 | 0.01 | 0.62 | 0.01 | 0.50 | 0.01 | 0.65 | 0.02 | 0.57 | |

14 days | Max. | 0.96 | 0.98 | 0.96 | 0.99 | 0.92 | 0.99 | 0.95 | 0.96 | 0.92 | 0.99 | 0.94 | 0.99 | 0.91 | 0.99 | 0.91 | 0.99 |

Min. | 0.01 | 0.71 | 0.01 | 0.40 | 0.02 | 0.46 | 0.01 | 0.67 | 0.03 | 0.62 | 0.02 | 0.51 | 0.03 | 0.66 | 0.01 | 0.59 | |

28 days | Max. | 0.90 | 0.92 | 0.89 | 0.99 | 0.89 | 0.99 | 0.90 | 0.92 | 0.89 | 0.99 | 0.89 | 0.99 | 0.85 | 0.99 | 0.90 | 0.99 |

Min. | 0.02 | 0.67 | 0.02 | 0.45 | 0.02 | 0.48 | 0.02 | 0.67 | 0.02 | 0.45 | 0.02 | 0.48 | 0.02 | 0.68 | 0.01 | 0.59 |

Age | Mixture | W170 | W160 | W150 | |||||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

D10 | D40 | D60 | D10 | D40 | D60 | D40 | D60 | ||||||||||

Factor | b | c | b | c | b | c | b | c | b | c | b | c | b | c | b | c | |

3 days | Max. | 0.97 | 0.96 | 0.99 | 0.98 | 0.99 | 0.84 | 0.98 | 0.97 | 0.99 | 0.93 | 0.99 | 0.94 | 0.99 | 0.90 | 0.99 | 0.89 |

Min. | 0.44 | 0.01 | 0.62 | 0.01 | 0.61 | 0.01 | 0.32 | 0.02 | 0.45 | 0.01 | 0.55 | 0.02 | 0.44 | 0.01 | 0.51 | 0.02 | |

7 days | Max. | 0.96 | 0.95 | 0.99 | 0.91 | 0.99 | 0.92 | 0.96 | 0.95 | 0.99 | 0.93 | 0.99 | 0.94 | 0.99 | 0.96 | 0.99 | 0.96 |

Min. | 0.29 | 0.02 | 0.65 | 0.02 | 0.61 | 0.01 | 0.31 | 0.01 | 0.45 | 0.01 | 0.55 | 0.02 | 0.40 | 0.01 | 0.47 | 0.02 | |

14 days | Max. | 0.98 | 0.99 | 0.99 | 0.94 | 0.99 | 0.90 | 0.91 | 0.90 | 0.99 | 0.95 | 0.99 | 0.93 | 0.99 | 0.95 | 0.99 | 0.93 |

Min. | 0.28 | 0.01 | 0.63 | 0.01 | 0.62 | 0.01 | 0.30 | 0.02 | 0.44 | 0.01 | 0.55 | 0.01 | 0.41 | 0.02 | 0.49 | 0.02 | |

28 days | Max. | 0.80 | 0.79 | 0.99 | 0.83 | 0.99 | 0.85 | 0.80 | 0.79 | 0.99 | 0.83 | 0.99 | 0.85 | 0.99 | 0.91 | 0.99 | 0.92 |

Min. | 0.24 | 0.01 | 0.68 | 0.02 | 0.64 | 0.01 | 0.24 | 0.01 | 0.68 | 0.02 | 0.64 | 0.01 | 0.43 | 0.01 | 0.49 | 0.01 |

Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. |

© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Lee, E.; Ko, J.; Yoo, J.; Park, S.; Nam, J.
Analysis of the Aggregate Effect on the Compressive Strength of Concrete Using Dune Sand. *Appl. Sci.* **2021**, *11*, 1952.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041952

**AMA Style**

Lee E, Ko J, Yoo J, Park S, Nam J.
Analysis of the Aggregate Effect on the Compressive Strength of Concrete Using Dune Sand. *Applied Sciences*. 2021; 11(4):1952.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041952

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Lee, Euibae, Jeongwon Ko, Jaekang Yoo, Sangjun Park, and Jeongsoo Nam.
2021. "Analysis of the Aggregate Effect on the Compressive Strength of Concrete Using Dune Sand" *Applied Sciences* 11, no. 4: 1952.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041952