# Design of Dual Circularly Polarized Sequentially-Fed Patch Antennas for Satellite Applications

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Design and Characterization of a Dual-CP Sequentially-Fed Single Patch Antenna

## 3. Dual-CP 2-by-2 Array Antenna for Satcom Applications

## 4. Array Prototype Fabrication and Measurements

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**Side-view of the proposed sequential-fed patch antenna loaded by monopoles properly designed to increase the antenna gain close to end-fire direction, in which the relevant geometrical parameters are highlighted.

**Figure 2.**(

**a**) Schematic of the feeding network in microstrip technology. By alternatively feeding the antenna at ports RHCP or LHCP, dual-CP operation mode is enabled. (

**b**) Prototype of sequentially-fed patch antenna surrounded by a fence of passive monopoles and operating at $f=8.25$ GHz.

**Figure 3.**Simulated RHCP (G

_{R}) and LHCP (G

_{L}) gain patterns versus elevation angle with (filled markers) and without (empty markers) monopoles around the single radiating patch, for the cut-planes at (

**a**) ϕ = 0° and at (

**b**) ϕ = 90°. The results are provided at the central frequency f = 2.2 GHz. (

**c**) Simulated (empty triangular/squared markers, dashed lines) and measured (filled triangular/squared markers, continuous lines) reflection coefficients at RHCP (S

_{RHCP}) and LHCP (S

_{LHCP}) input ports, together with simulated (empty circular markers, dashed line) and measured (filled circular markers, continuous line) isolation between RHCP and LHCP ports (S

_{ISOL}), in the considered bandwidth [8.1,8.4] GHz. (

**d**) Measured co-polar and cross-polar gain patterns at ϕ = 0° versus elevation angle at the operating frequency f = 8.25 GHz.

**Figure 4.**(

**a**) Side-view of the proposed 2-by-2 patch array operating in the higher UHF band. (

**b**) Reflection coefficient (${S}_{11}$,${S}_{22}$) versus frequency over the operating bandwidth. (

**c**) Gain versus frequency over the operating bandwidth. (

**d**) Simulated broadside axial ratio ($\theta ={0}^{\xb0}$) versus frequency, for different elevation and azimuthal angles. As it is apparent, the monopoles are able to increase significantly antenna polarization purity.

**Figure 5.**Simulated RHCP (${G}_{R}$) and LHCP (${G}_{L}$) gain patterns versus elevation angle with (filled markers) and without (empty markers) monopoles around the 2-by-2 array, for the cut-planes at (

**a**) $\varphi ={0}^{\xb0}$ and at (

**b**) $\varphi ={90}^{\xb0}$. The results are provided at the central frequency $f=2.2$ GHz.

**Figure 6.**(

**a**) Prototype of dual-CP sequentially-fed 2-by-2 antenna array. (

**b**) Simulated co-polar (thin continuous black line with empty triangles for the cut plane at $\varphi ={0}^{\xb0}$, thin blue dashed line with empty squares for the cut plane at $\varphi ={90}^{\xb0}$) and measured co-polar (thin continuous black line with empty triangles for the cut plane at $\varphi ={0}^{\xb0}$, thin blue dashed line with empty squares for the cut plane at $\varphi ={90}^{\xb0}$) and simulated cross-polar (thick blue and black continuous lines with filled triangles for the cut planes at $\varphi ={0}^{\xb0}$ and $\varphi ={90}^{\xb0}$, respectively) gains of the array antenna at the central frequency $f=2.2$ GHz.

**Figure 7.**Block scheme of the connections between $\Sigma -\Delta $ networks and the 2-by-2 array RH/LH CP ports.

**Figure 8.**(

**a**) Fabricated $\Sigma -\Delta $ network. (

**b**) Layout. (

**c**) Reflection coefficient (${S}_{jj}$) over all the considered bandwidth (

**d**) Insertion Loss. (

**e**) Relative phase. (

**f**) Comparison of simulated (filled markers) and measured (empty markers) normalized difference patterns required for satellite tracking. Such patterns are obtained by connecting the antenna array to a standard $\Sigma -\Delta $ network.

Microstrip Line | Impedance [$\Omega $] | Length [mm] |
---|---|---|

$\#1$ | $90.2$ | $8.19$ |

$\#2$ | $75.1$ | $6.48$ |

$\#3$ | $86.4$ | $5.39$ |

$\#4$ | $55.6$ | $5.78$ |

**Table 2.**Single patch antenna geometric parameters ($f=8.25\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{GHz}$).

Parameter | Description | Value [mm] | Value [${\mathit{\lambda}}_{0}$] |
---|---|---|---|

${r}_{ant}$ | Antenna radius | $15.5$ | $0.43$ |

${r}_{p}$ | Patch radius | $8.65$ | $0.24$ |

${r}_{m}$ | Monopole position | 11 | $0.30$ |

${d}_{m}$ | Monopole diameter | $1.5$ | $0.04$ |

${h}_{sub}$ | Substrate thickness | $0.76$ | $0.02$ |

${h}_{m}$ | Monopole heights | $5.5$ | $0.15$ |

${h}_{0}$ | Patch height | $1.49$ | $0.04$ |

**Table 3.**The 2-by-2 array geometric parameters ($f=2.2\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{GHz}$).

Parameter | Description | Value [mm] | Value [${\mathit{\lambda}}_{0}$] |
---|---|---|---|

${h}_{d}$ | Dielectric thickness | $2.57$ | $0.019$ |

${h}_{a}$ | Air gap thickness | 9 | $0.07$ |

${R}_{p}$ | Patch radius | 29 | $0.21$ |

${R}_{m}$ | Monopole radius | 1 | $0.007$ |

${h}_{m}$ | Monopole heights | 24 | $0.20$ |

${l}_{c}$ | Patch cut length | 41 | $0.30$ |

${d}_{m}$ | Adjacent monopole distance | 4 | $0.03$ |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Pavone, S.C.; Mauro, G.S.; Donato, L.D.; Sorbello, G.
Design of Dual Circularly Polarized Sequentially-Fed Patch Antennas for Satellite Applications. *Appl. Sci.* **2020**, *10*, 2107.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app10062107

**AMA Style**

Pavone SC, Mauro GS, Donato LD, Sorbello G.
Design of Dual Circularly Polarized Sequentially-Fed Patch Antennas for Satellite Applications. *Applied Sciences*. 2020; 10(6):2107.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app10062107

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Pavone, Santi Concetto, Giorgio Sebastiano Mauro, Loreto Di Donato, and Gino Sorbello.
2020. "Design of Dual Circularly Polarized Sequentially-Fed Patch Antennas for Satellite Applications" *Applied Sciences* 10, no. 6: 2107.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app10062107