Onboarding Handbook: An Indispensable Tool for Onboarding Processes
2. Welcoming and Integrating New Employees into the Organisation
- To make the process of integration into the organisation easier;
- To help new employees create a positive view of the organisation;
- To help new employees achieve effective performance in the shortest possible time;
- To reduce the likelihood that the new employee will want to leave the organisation.
3. Organisational Socialization Process
“(1) anticipatory socialization, which encompasses all the learning that occurs before a new member joins an organisation; (2) accommodation, in which the new recruit sees what the organisation is truly like, and in which some initial shifting of values, skills, and attitudes may occur; (3) role management, in which new organisational members master the skill requirements of their job, make some satisfactory adjustment to their work group and organisational values and goals, and deal with conflicts between the demands of their own work group and other groups which may place demands on them”.
4. Organisational Socialisation Strategies
5. Methods of Organisational Socialisation
- Selective process: Socialization begins at the time of selection interviews through which the candidate initiates contact with his future work environment, the predominant culture in the organisation, the co-workers, the activities developed, the challenges and rewards in view, the manager, and the existing management style, among others. Before the candidate is approved, it allows him/her to obtain information and see with his/her own eyes how the organisation works and how people behave in that environment. At this moment, the company evaluates if the candidate meets the requirements and has the necessary competencies and profile, and the candidate evaluates if the organisation meets his expectations and matches his values.
- Job content: The new employee, at the beginning of his entry into the company, should be given relatively challenging tasks, which are at the same time in line with his capacity, and capable of providing him with success at the beginning of his career in the organisation, so that he feels motivated to be gradually given more complicated and demanding tasks. New employees who are given relatively challenging tasks become more prepared to perform the higher tasks more successfully. With this, novice employees tend to develop high standards of performance and positive expectations regarding rewards resulting from excellent performance. When beginners are placed in initially easy tasks, they do not have the opportunity to experience success and the motivation that comes from it.
- Supervisor as a tutor: The company must offer the accompaniment of a supervisor or tutor so that the new employee does not feel lost and little-integrated This person will be responsible for guiding and supervising the new employee, transmitting clearly what his task is and how it should be carried out technically, in addition to negotiating the goals and results to be achieved, providing feedback, and following up as to all his performance. For new employees, the supervisor represents the connection point between the organisation and the company’s image. The supervisor should take care of the new employees as a true tutor, who accompanies and guides them during their initial period in the organisation. If the supervisor does a good job in this respect, the organisation will be seen in a positive light.
- Staff: Other staff members can play an important role in the socialization of new employees. The integration of the new employee should be assigned to a working group that provides acceptance and makes a positive and lasting impact. Working groups have a strong influence on individuals’ beliefs and attitudes about the organisation and how they should behave, so the group’s acceptance is a key source for meeting social needs.
- Integration program: This is a formal and intensive program of initial training for new employees and is the main method of socializing new employees into the current practices of the organisation. It aims to familiarise them with the mission of the organisation and its organisational objectives, the language, the internal habits and customs (organisational culture), the structure (existing areas or departments), and the main products and services. These programs normally have a duration of 1 to 5 days and their purpose is, besides presenting the company and the work team, to make the new employee learn and incorporate the values, norms, and standards of behaviour that the organisation considers essential and relevant for a good performance in its staff, showing the benefits to which he is entitled, as well as his responsibilities, in other words, that he wears the company’s shirt.
5.1. Ways of Welcoming
- The phase of organisational socialization occurs in two parts: The first is the responsibility of the Human Resources Department; the employee is directed to the Human Resources Department, where the welcoming and integration process is carried out; initially the welcoming process is carried out in a room; this involves getting to know the company and its hierarchical position, the delivery of clothing and personal protective equipment (PPE), the indication of the workplace, changing rooms, lockers, WC and canteen.
- Next, he is received by the hierarchical superior, who is responsible for the guided tour of the company’s facilities, and encounters the presentation of the co-workers, the on-the-job training. There are various forms of organisational socialization, from deliberate and planned practices to informal and more spontaneous practices; it is up to each organisation to choose which plan is more in line with its characteristics. The socialization process is the result of an effort from both sides: the organisation that must receive the new employee and adapts, and the employee who seeks to integrate (Silva and Fossá 2013; Maanen and Schein 1977):
- Getting to know the organisation where the individual will be inserted This involves getting to know what the surrounding spaces are, and their workplace, meal, and leisure areas.
- Passing on information about the role in the organisation; one of the most important points is communication, which should be direct and clear. The employee, by understanding what his/her role will be in the organisation, will be able to develop his/her activities following the company’s objectives.
- Technical training occurs when the collaborator has direct contact with the tasks that will be performed by him/her. This training will be given by a manager or work colleague.
- Integrating into the organisational culture means including the new employee in the surrounding environment of the organisation, the beliefs, standards, values, and customs that make the organisation what it is; the organisational culture is not only defined by what the company preaches but mainly by the employees, directors and the whole surrounding society of the organisation that ends up being its mirror.
- Company spirit: It is important to be integrated into an organisation that values its employees; to be able to work within the company spirit, it is necessary to understand which are the values and the feelings that you want to pass on to the employees, so that then the feeling of belonging is created, and the company’s objectives become the employee’s objectives.
- Tutor: The new employee assumes high expectations about the work environment and mainly about the welcome and integration (Baker 1992). The goal of integration is to provide the best conditions for socialization, so that as soon as possible the individual feels an integral part of the organisation. We have already mentioned above some important processes for the inclusion of the new employee; the tutor phase is also a very important process. The tutor phase occurs when the practical case begins the on-the-job training process. Technical and professional knowledge will be transmitted to the new member by a tutor, who can be a boss or a colleague.
5.2. The Onboarding Book
- Presenting an Introduction, by the management or other responsible entity, a welcome note to the new employee for example;
- The presentation of the organisation, consisting of the history, mission vision, strategic objectives, management policies, and quantitative activity indicators;
- Presentation of the departments and/or business areas, explanation of the competencies and functions, and explanation of the competency profile of the employees;
- Ethics charter of the organisation, company, or institution, presenting the rights and duties of the employees, legislation and/or applicable regulations, working hours, remuneration and/or benefits;
- Functional details, where utilities, equipment, intranet, useful contacts, etc. are presented;
- The welcome plan consists of planning for the day when the new employee joins the team, bureaucratic procedures, filling out forms, meetings with the department heads, and guided tours of the facilities.
7. Results and Discussion
8. Conclusions and Limitations
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Collective||The new employee is integrated either individually or in a group.||The company saves money and time. There is sharing of experiences and emotional support that facilitates the learning process.||Risk of the emergence of groups resistant to the objectives of organisational socialisation.|
|Individual||The socialisation process is easier for the new member.||The company spends more time and money.|
|Formal||Socialisation takes place or not within programmes already outlined||Programs tend to reinforce organisational culture.||The absence of other colleagues can cause rigid and less flexible behaviour|
|Informal||Knowledge learned in an informal environment can be easily appropriate to other organisational contexts||The new employee defines his place in the organisation based on interaction with colleagues who can transmit knowledge that is not under the organisational objectives|
|Sequential||Programs with predefined order do or do not exist.||Allow the new member to learn from the least to the most complex.||Pressure on the new employee to raise the level of difficulty to perform the most complex tasks|
|Non-Sequential||Allow the new member to learn on his own time||Pressure on the new employee to perform more complex tasks right at the beginning.|
|Fixed||Time of duration of the socialisation process may or not be pre-defined||Knowledge of the duration of the socialisation process brings feelings of security to the new employee.||The new employees are penalised if the socialisation process is too rigid.|
|Variable||More flexibility on the part of the organisation.||If there is no integration time stipulated, the new employee does not know when he is already inserted in the organisation, that is, the employee feels uncertainties in relation to his integration.|
|Competition||New employees are organised into groups according to skills, background, or ambition. They are subjected to routines of socialisation that stimulate individual action and competitiveness.||The new employees will become more specialised in certain functions and/or tasks.||Competitiveness can become unhealthy for the organisational environment; The specificity of employees’ work can make some activities difficult to perform if they are different from their specialisation.|
|Cooperation||The new employees are arranged in heterogeneous order, making no distinction between them. It creates an environment of cooperation and participation between people.||Working in teamwork and cooperation makes the organisational environment healthier and conducive to good results.||The no differentiation of skills can create problems in the long run because of the non-existence of employees with more specific knowledge about a particular function.|
|In Series||The new employees are integrated, or not, into the function by senior employees.||The working procedures for new employees will be the same as for old employees.||The danger of work procedures stagnating.|
|Isolated||In their role, new employees are free to create new working procedures that may restructure the organisation.||They make new employees anxious because they do not yet know how to do their job.|
|Investment||Socialisation aims to reinforce the new employee’s own identity or, on the contrary, to repress it to better accept the organisation’s values||Useful when the new employee has previous knowledge relevant to the organisation.||_______|
|Disinvestment||Useful in organisations with closed working groups that do not want to innovate their way of working||_______|
|Caetano & Vala||2007|
|-Welcome: Welcoming note, presentation of the manual and its objectives; Presentation of the Organisation: Origins, historical evolution, internal structure, mission, activity and business areas; |
-Work Relations (rights, responsibilities, working hours, holidays, leaves of absence, etc.)
-Workers’ Representative Structures: Union Delegates and Workers’ Commission;
-Social Benefits: Supplement to subsidies granted by Social Security or not;
-Support and Social Services: Canteen, medical services, sanitary facilities, sports facilities, transport for workers, clothing and personal protective equipment, hygiene and safety services;
-Human Resources Management Policy: Organisation and dynamics of the various professional careers and promotion systems, performance evaluation, bonuses (assiduity, merit, associated with results), training and development.
|-Welcoming note (of the main responsible of the enterprise); |
-Presentation of the organisation (e.g., history, mission, vision, strategic goals, values, horizontal organisational competencies of all collaborators and main social and economic indicators reflecting market position);
-Business areas: main activities, products and services;
-Internal structure (organisational chart) identifying the department’s main responsibilities and their directors;
-Staff management policies—perspectives of professional development and evolution, performance evaluation criteria, promotion and remuneration systems (fixed and variable), social benefits (complementary social security subsidies, transport, insurance, study subsidies, canteen, among others);
-Ethical and attitudinal principles: professional confidentiality, professional incompatibilities, and types of dress, among others;
-General information: internal communication (use of the telephone, internet and email), hygiene and safety standards at work, and most important contacts, among others.
|-Welcoming note (of the main responsible of the enterprise); |
-General information about the organisation (History, structure, among others);
-Main organisational policies/strategies;
-Horizontal organisational procedures;
-Description of the welcoming programs;
-Other useful information (internal contacts, transports, among others).
|Rego et al.,||2020|
|-Welcoming note (of the main responsible official of the enterprise); |
-Organisational chart of the organisation;
-Products and services of the organisation;
-Key terms of the industry/organisation/function;
-Organisations’ Code of Ethics;
-Copy of the organisational policy manual;
-Copy of the job’s description and function goals;
-Compensation plan and other benefits (insurance, medical assistance, pension plan, bonuses, among others);
-Copies of performance appraisal documents, including dates of appraisal;
-Copies of other relevant documents (e.g., requisition of material; reimbursement of expenses);
-Organisational training program;
-Information on the career plan;
-Safety and emergency procedures;
-Copies of the organisation’s key publications;
|Welcome Manual||Introduction (e.g., Welcome Note)||Presentation of the Organisation||Presentation of the Different Departments/Business Areas|
|History||Mission||Vision||Values||Strategic Goals||Management Policies||Others|
|1 Ombria Resort||Welcoming message from the Board and presentation of the manual and its goals||Present||Present||Present||Present||Present||Present||Logo explanation, Environmental policies, General information about Facilities location and description, Working hours, Human Resources,||Organisational Chart present|
|2 Grupo Vila Galé Hotéis||Welcoming message from the CEO||Present||Present||Present||Present||Present||Missing||Main Partner Stakeholders and Partner Brands||No organizacional Chart.|
Presence of tables identifying Hotels of the group and names of heads of departments and persons in charge of other services
|3 Ribadão S.A.—Indústria de Madeiras||The welcome message is missing |
Presence of the manual’s explanation and its objectives
|Present||Present||Present||Present||Present||Present||First day what to do list; presentation of produced products and factory production process;|
|No organisational chart|
|4 CIG—Comissão para a Cidadania e Igualdade de Género||Present|
Explanation of the purpose of the manual
|Present||Present||Missing||Missing||Missing||Missing||Description of the constituent bodies of the organisation and internal structure, HR department||Organisational Chart present|
|5 Eco Ambiente||Missing||Present||Present||Missing||Missing||Missing||Present||Quality, Environment and Safety Policy||Organisational Chart present|
|6 ASCUDT—Associação Sócio-cultural dos deficientes de Trás-os -Montes||Present||Present||Present||Present||Present||Present||Present||Annual Plan and other strategies||General and Functional Organisational Chart Present|
|7 IPCV—Inst. Politécnico de Viana do Castelo||Present|
Explanation of the purpose of the manual
|Present||Present||Present||Present||Present||Present||Strategic plan for 2020–2024||Organisational Chart Present|
|8 DHM Discovery Hotel Management||Present||Present||Present||Present||Present||Present||Present||Onboarding Program|
Turnaround procedure, mentoring, the organisational culture of the enterprise
Description of responsible for the staff, head of departments in the hotels of the group
|Organisational Chart Present|
|Welcome Manual||Ethics Charter|
|Rights and obligations of the Employee||Applicable Legislation and/or Regulations||Working Hours||Wages and Other Benefits||Others|
|1 Ombria Resort||Present||Present (work legislation)||Present||Present (Wages, paid Vacations)||General employee absences in case of death of a relative and motherhood leaves; health and safety in the workplace, hygiene policies, safety rules, how to proceed in case of robbery, fire; performance evaluation procedure; taining programs, recruitment and selection of new staff, internship programs, disciplinary proceedings, cessation of contract, existence of an ethics code in the workplace|
|2 Grupo Vila Galé Hotéis||Present||Work regulations present without any specific legislation||Present||Present (Prizes of Productivity, Staff Meals, Occupational Healthcare||Personal image and care of the uniforms, time registration, locker rooms, training programs, performance evaluation procedure, dos and don’ts work list, preventive care list, fire procedures, health and safety in the workplace, incentive family staff program|
|3 Ribadão S.A.—Indústria de Madeiras||Present||No reference to company agreements or collective labour agreements||Present||Christmas and holiday pay, Parental Leave, Holiday and vacations, Hour bank||Behavioural attitudes inside and outside the organisation; health and safety at work, medicine at work, tidiness, posture, use of personal protective equipment, policy on the use of alcohol and drugs, types of harassment in the workplace, harassment, bullying and sexual harassment, training program|
|4 CIG—Comissão para a Cidadania e Igualdade de Género||Missing||General naming of Work laws,||Present||Missing||Monitoring and recording of assiduity, absences and their justification process, job description|
|5 Eco Ambiente||Present||Missing||Present||Retribution|
Lunch, Christmas and holiday allowances
|Performance of professional activity, professional qualification, absences, accidents at work, occupational medicine, health and safety at work, alcohol regulation, risk prevention, environment|
other duties, disciplinary procedures
|6 ASCUDT—Associação Sócio-cultural dos deficientes de Trás-os -Montes||Present||Present||Present||Present||Ethical culture, confidentiality, welcome and integration programmes (facilities, hours, legislation, attendance record, lateness, breaks and breaks, uniforms, meals, absences, holidays, overtime, human resources, recruitment, selection and induction of new employees, volunteering, curricular and professional internships, remuneration, professional career, performance evaluation, professional training, behaviour, mistreatment or negligence, involvement and participation forms and activities, hygiene and safety at work, occupational health and emergency plan)|
|7 IPCV—Inst. Politécnico de Viana do Castelo||Present||Quality norms designation||Missing||Missing||Link to ethics code, HR department, health and safety work norms|
|8 DHM Hotel Management||Missing||Missing||Present||Missing||General description of the onboarding steps throughout the first month|
|Welcome Manual||Miscellaneous Information on Operations||Reception Plan That the Organisation Follows|
|1 Ombria Resort||Missing||Description of IT system and Internet use in the facilities||Present||Characterization of the hotel by number and typologies of rooms, products, main and ancillary services||Present|
|2 Grupo Vila Galé Hotéis||Missing||Description of rooms services and ancillary services||Present (simple description of facilities and of the hotels)||Characterization of the several hotels of the group and key partners and key brands||Missing|
|3 Ribadão S.A.—Indústria de Madeiras||Missing||Present||Present||First aid kit||Missing|
|4 CIG—Comissão para a Cidadania e Igualdade de Género||Links to main government websites connected to the nature of the organisation||Missing||Missing||N.A.||Missing|
|5 Eco Ambiente||Present||Missing||Missing||N.A.||Missing|
|6 ASCUDT—Associação Sócio-cultural dos deficientes de Trás-os -Montes||Present||Missing||Missing||N.A.||Present|
|7 IPCV—Inst. Politécnico de Viana do Castelo||Present||Description of Facilities||Missing||Characterisation of secundary services, cantine, bar and other contacts||Present|
|8 DHM Hotel Management||Present||Present||Present||Description of the main services of the hotel’s chain||Present|
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Godinho, T.; Reis, I.P.; Carvalho, R.; Martinho, F. Onboarding Handbook: An Indispensable Tool for Onboarding Processes. Adm. Sci. 2023, 13, 79. https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13030079
Godinho T, Reis IP, Carvalho R, Martinho F. Onboarding Handbook: An Indispensable Tool for Onboarding Processes. Administrative Sciences. 2023; 13(3):79. https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13030079Chicago/Turabian Style
Godinho, Teresa, Isabel Pinto Reis, Rui Carvalho, and Filipa Martinho. 2023. "Onboarding Handbook: An Indispensable Tool for Onboarding Processes" Administrative Sciences 13, no. 3: 79. https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13030079