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Women’s Risk-Taking Behaviour during COVID-19 Pandemic: Will Work–Family Enrichment and Work Satisfaction Prevent Turnover Intention?

Department of Management, Universitas Udayana, Jl. Raya Kampus Unud, Jimbaran 80361, Indonesia
Department of Social Studies, Lambung Mangkurat University, Jl. Hasan Basri Banjarmasin, Banjarmasin 70123, Indonesia
Department of Management, Universitas Mahasaraswati, Jl. Kamboja, Kota Denpasar 80233, Indonesia
Department of Management, Universitas Islam Indonesia, Jl. Kaliurang, Yogyakarta 55584, Indonesia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 67;
Received: 30 December 2022 / Revised: 20 February 2023 / Accepted: 21 February 2023 / Published: 24 February 2023
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender and Development)


The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted all employment conditions as working during the pandemic is a risk to employees’ health. This study investigates women’s intentions to leave their job during times of crisis. However, opportunities for job selection were quite limited, and there are better ways to deal with job insecurity than leaving an organisation. The questionnaires were tested on valid data from 593 female employees of four-star hotels, and structural equation modelling (SEM) was employed. Cultural characteristics and the macroenvironment in Indonesian society cause different practices for women to achieve work–family enrichment, job satisfaction, and turnover intention than in developed Western cultures. Female employees will not be inclined to leave their job even though they are not satisfied. Moreover, work–family enrichment has an essential role in enhancing work satisfaction because it can improve women’s quality of life. Work–family enrichment was also found to reduce the intention of women to leave an organisation. However, work–family enrichment has a more substantial influence on intensifying work satisfaction than on deflating the choice to quit during a crisis. Therefore, the research findings revealed that work–family enrichment is essential in improving work satisfaction, increasing employees’ likelihood of remaining in the organisation. This study contributes to filling the research gap within work–family enrichment by digging into the practical lessons of women’s work behaviour in the service sector, specifically in the hotel industry.

1. Introduction

Before the COVID-19 pandemic, tourism was a strategic industry to sustain Indonesia’s economy (Subawa et al. 2021). Soon after the government declared the first case of COVID-19 in early March 2020, followed by imposing compulsory social distancing (Basuki et al. 2022), the destinations usually crowded with tourists became destinations without tourists. Annulled flights, events, and travel schedules negatively impacted direct service providers and other indirectly connected organisations in the supply chain. The hospitality industry suffered the most because of the plague of COVID-19 (Wang et al. 2022), and employees were threatened with possibly shocking trouble (Cheng et al. 2022). As a result of the crisis, thousands of people in the Indonesian hospitality sector have lost their jobs (Pham and Nugroho 2022), while others are experiencing very high levels of job insecurity (Farmania et al. 2022). A UNICEF, UNDP, Prospera, and SMERU (UNICEF et al. 2022) survey of 11,000 households in 34 Indonesian provinces found that deteriorating economic precarity is mirrored by increased food insecurity, particularly among the most disadvantaged groups. Owing to income reductions, forcing some households to cut back on food spending, around 1.47 million more households were experiencing “moderate to severe” food insecurity in comparison to 2020 levels. Food insecurity has disproportionately impacted the poorest households, widening the gap between the poorest and richest households. Households outside of Java, the most populous island, (15.9%), those headed by women (15.4%), those with an older family member (15.2%), and those with children (14.7%) all had significantly higher rates of food insecurity than the average household (13.8%).
Globally, women comprise the highest number workers in the tourism industry (Mihailescu and Rinaldi 2021). The high percentage of female employment in tourism makes women likely to be the most vulnerable to losing jobs. In addition, they felt the most challenging economic shock to tourism caused by COVID-19 (Mamgain 2021). The more vulnerable effects are due to structural gender inequalities, and, like other parts of the world, in Indonesia, aspects of the pandemic follow gender dimensions. According to the same report, women have been hit the most by labour-market losses. Women who reported working in 2019 faced unemployment at four times the rate of men by 2022. The majority of women who quit working cited care obligations as the primary reason, whereas men were more likely to cite pandemic-related reasons. Overall, the proportion of new workers (two-thirds of whom were women) nearly equalled the proportion of those who ceased working. However, to compensate for the pandemic’s impact on their household finances, the majority took low-skilled work in the informal sector. Therefore, apprehending women’s roles during the pandemic is essential because of women’s complex roles in families and households.
Previous studies have indicated that adversarial macroeconomic situations during the pandemic have impacted female employees’ participation and employment (Dang and Nguyen 2021). In Indonesia, survey data from the past 3 years have revealed that women were primarily employed in agriculture, forestry, and fishing; wholesale and retail trade; manufacturing; and accommodation and restaurants (Miranti et al. 2022). However, all the sectors that had shrunk the most began to recover in 2021. These include hotels and restaurants, where Indonesian female employment is concentrated. Because the COVID-19 disruptions have caused an impactful health crisis in the hotel industry, female employees have had to cope with increased health challenges and perceived risks (Bajrami et al. 2021).
A dedicated workforce is crucial for organisations to survive a crisis (Riana et al. 2020). Because the hospitality industry is a labour-intensive industry providing ample employment opportunities, people can move to other companies. Consequently, high employee turnover rates are ordinary (Saleem et al. 2021). However, unique to the Indonesian organisational context is the requirement for employees to stay loyal regardless of the leadership styles in use (Passakonjaras et al. 2019). There is a common propensity for individuals to appease their boss only for the sake of maintaining their socioeconomic standing. This behaviour does not necessarily indicate a personal dedication to the task at hand; rather, it is merely formal role playing that conceals attitudes of disinterest or apathy. The attitudes of fear, shame, and reluctance that have been instilled since childhood explain why Indonesians are so sluggish to respond “yes” when they have spontaneously and instantaneously heard and agreed. It is difficult to interpret the yes of the Indonesian, whether the answer is yes for indeed yes, yes for no, or yes for yes or no, especially in conjunction with the unique characteristics of Indonesian politeness and friendliness, which is frequently accompanied by a radiant smile, and it is assumed that the answer is always yes or no (Rajiani and Pypłacz 2018). Therefore, despite the fact that female employees are forced to confront the tragedy and difficulties associated with the loss of life but remain smiling, an essential issue arises: what compels them to continue working in the hotel industry? We are aware that the COVID-19 outbreak caused a significant number of women to lose their jobs. As a result, the focus of this study is restricted solely to employed women who interact directly with customers and who are currently in the workforce.
Although some studies have conveyed approaches to preserve hospitality employees during and after the COVID-19 pandemic (e.g., Chen and Chen 2021; Choi et al. 2022), over the years, it has been observed that there was an increasing tendency of turnover for female employees. The research conducted on married women has shown that they decided to leave their organisation because their job could not provide them with work satisfaction (Settles et al. 2022), had higher stress level (Kang et al. 2021); had job insecurity from digitalisation (Lyngstadaas and Berg 2022; Elkhwesky et al. 2022), insignificantly contributed to their family’s well-being (Boamah et al. 2022), lacked organisational support, had a competitive psychological climate (Li et al. 2019), enabled bullying, discouraged care quality, and featured low work engagement (Holm et al. 2023). However, they will stay if they feel that their salary is more significant or at least in line with their workload. The role accumulation theory posits that women with multiple roles, both as workers and family members, are adapted to balance the family condition and their job (Feng et al. 2021).
This study is motivated by the classical Moser’s triple burdening duties of women (McLaren et al. 2020), which are still widely recognised as social norms in Indonesia. These tasks consist of producing, reproductive, and community activities. The term “productive role” refers to any action that is carried out in exchange for monetary compensation or other forms of financial support. In addition to their responsibilities in the home, women are frequently expected to financially contribute to their families. In the position of being the reproductive woman, in addition to the responsibility of nurturing and caring for her children, she is also accountable for the care of other members of the family, such as her husband and the more senior members of the family. The term “community role” refers to any of the contributions that women make to the advancement of their community (Miranti et al. 2022).
Previous studies have shown that balancing work and family life can have a negative impact (Palumbo 2020; Birimoglu Okuyan and Begen 2022). Nevertheless, different outlooks recommend that having several roles can support demands in other roles. The reason is that human energy can be optimised to perform various roles and improve quality of life (Sarwar et al. 2021). In other words, the energy produced in the work domain or the family domain can mutually affect the welfare of one’s life (Irawanto et al. 2021). The value is relevant to the collectivist society’s value of looking beyond the self and appreciating others’ happiness, even if it decreases one’s freedoms (Rajiani and Kot 2020). This is what is termed “work–family enrichment”: the extent to which one role can improve the quality of life in another role. When employees feel that their job makes them happy and benefits their families, their intention to leave their organisation is significantly reduced (Awan et al. 2021). Therefore, we hypothesise the following:
Hypothesis 1. 
Because of the spirit of collectivism, work–family enrichment negatively influences women’s turnover intentions.
The literature on job satisfaction usually revolves around individual, structural, and behavioural antecedents (Dorta-Afonso et al. 2021). However, researchers have shifted to family-related factors (e.g., work–family conflict, a work–family situation, and work–life balance) as predictors (Awan et al. 2021). Job satisfaction is applicable from a work–family perspective because individuals’ appraisal of their satisfaction likely influences their sense of well-being (Dreer 2021). Further, scholars have acknowledged work–life balance as a principal motivator of career transitions to preserve career sustainability (Koekemoer et al. 2020). This conception indicates that individuals will view their careers as successful when they do well at balancing their career with their family life, which they find satisfying. This notion is in line with the social norm of Indonesian collectivist culture (Rajiani and Kot 2020), which puts family interests over the self; this is the main difference from Western individualist culture, which privileges a positive sense of self-image. Interesting to note is that COVID-19 is making the cultural context is more collectivistic (Na et al. 2021).
Therefore, we hypothesise the following:
Hypothesis 2. 
Because of collectivist social norms, work–family enrichment has a positive influence on women’s job satisfaction.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, next to healthcare practitioner, the high-risk occupation was a job in tourism and hospitality (Bajrami et al. 2021). Thus, remaining in working in the hotel industry is a high-risk-taking behaviour. Risk-taking behaviour is employees’ contact with hazardous materials, devices, or other poor working conditions, and apparent threats at the workplace project alter job satisfaction levels (Ohnmacht et al. 2022). If employees were aware of the negative consequences of unsafe working conditions and queried the reason for exposing themselves to such risks, it would reduce satisfaction with the job (Kang et al. 2021). However, employees self-regulate their health-risk perception in accordance with their notions about health and the risk-prevention behaviour paradigms that they follow in their day-to-day lives (Dam et al. 2022). These beliefs and behaviours are closely related to their uncertainty avoidance (UA). Uncertainty avoidance refers to feeling endangered by ambiguity and reflects tolerance for risk (Pantano et al. 2021). Individuals from societies with a high-UA experience are threatened by situations with a high level of uncertainty and, hence, would spend more time deciding to work to reduce the uncertainties of risk. However, people in lo-UA societies can tolerate an uncertain or ambiguous situation (Sekar et al. 2022). Therefore, in low-UA societies, such as Indonesia (Rajiani and Kot 2020), perceived risk at the workplace during the pandemic will not decrease job satisfaction among hospitality workers but will also decrease their turnover intentions.
Thus, we propose the following:
Hypothesis 3. 
Influenced by cultural values of uncertainty avoidance, job satisfaction negatively influences women’s turnover intentions.
Working women have been exposed to immense vicissitudes because of the COVID-19 pandemic, and achieving satisfactory role stability is one of the main challenges. Attaining satisfactory role stability is encouraging for Indonesian women as they must carry out several domestic roles (Miranti et al. 2022). The novel coronavirus has caused more stress because of the contamination likelihood of working mothers (Gil-Almagro et al. 2022). This suggests that working mothers carry a more significant share of the burden, putting them in a perplexing position of role balancing. Although the demands to accomplish both work and family roles are stressful and overwhelming, women in economically developing countries can accept them because of the cultural imperative known as power distance (PD). Minkov and Kaasa (2021) defined PD as the extent to which the less powerful member of organisations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is unequally distributed. In higher-degree PD societies, such as Indonesia (Rajiani and Pypłacz 2018), patriarchy has been well established, and men have the ultimate decision-making power in their families. Such gendered norms are ubiquitous in various dimensions, including the decisions that women make in the workplace. For women, work is prioritised over leisure and considered as supporting the family, leading to family member appreciation and support, helping lessen work–family pressure, resulting in less work–family conflict (Retnaningsih et al. 2022).
Awan et al. (2021) claimed that work–family enrichment could improve job satisfaction, and women are more effective and satisfied when they can balance family and work matters (Carvalho et al. 2021). Improved work–family balance with fewer conflicts between work and family is likely to positively affect individuals’ health.
Therefore, we hypothesise the following:
Hypothesis 4. 
When in a high-power-distance society, work satisfaction mediates work–family enrichment’s influence on women’s turnover intentions.

2. Results

Respondents’ demographic profiles are examined in terms of age, employment status, education, and length of present jobs. Most respondents (50.26%) were around 20–29 years old, indicating they were in entry level positions as front liners. Given their employment statuses, most employees were contract employees, at a proportion of 86.5%. Most of the respondents had been in higher education at the associate degree level (52.85%), followed by the undergraduate level (29.02%), and 18.13% of respondents had graduated from junior high schools. Most respondents (72.54%) had worked in hotel industries for 1–5 years, followed by those who had been in the industry for 6–10 years (22.8%). Only 10 respondents (1.68%) had served the organisation for more than 10 years.
The validation of the instrument is displayed in Table 1. The factor loadings for most items exceed the borderline of 0.50 (Hair et al. 2020). In addition, the Cronbach α of each construct is 0.892, 0.801, and 0.815, respectively, exceeding the threshold values. Thus, it is concluded that validity and reliability have been achieved.
The total specified model of the research is depicted in Figure 1.
The goodness-of-fit (GoF) criteria evaluation in Figure 1 shows that the value of χ2 is 700,851, with a probability value of 0.001. This model is not yet deemed fit, because the probability value is less than 0.05. However, the model’s goodness of fit can be re-estimated by using other criteria, such as a reasonable CMIN/DF = 1.204; GFI = 0.839; AGFI = 0.815, which is categorised as marginally fit; CFI = 0.960 (greater than 0.95); TLI = 0.956 (greater than 0.95); and RMSEA = 0.033 (less than 0.08). The model has already been fitted with the research data and has also fulfilled other requirements; even though the GFI and the AGFI are each below the cut-off value, the values are still within the marginally tolerable limit (Zhang et al. 2021).
The hypotheses are examined by assessing the CR (critical ratio) values and the significance values of the influence between variables. The hypothesis is accepted if the significance value is less than 0.05 (Hair et al. 2020). The summary result of the structural equation modelling to test the hypothesis is presented in Table 2.
The hypothesis test reveals the following: (1) work–family enrichment negatively and significantly influences turnover intention. The direct effect of work–family enrichment on turnover intention is −0.268. The test result shows that the significance probability value is 0.000, with a critical ratio value of −4.733, denoting the acceptance of the first hypothesis. (2) Work–family enrichment has a positive and significant influence on work satisfaction, and the direct effect of work–family enrichment on work satisfaction is 0.427. The probability value is 0.000, less than 0.05, and the critical ratio value is 5.625, indicating the acceptance of the second hypothesis. (3) Work satisfaction has a negative and significant influence on turnover intention. The direct effect of work satisfaction on turnover intention is −0.259, with a probability value of 0.000 and a critical ratio value of 3.804. (4) Work satisfaction mediates the influence of work–family enrichment on turnover intention. This shows an indirect influence of work–family enrichment on turnover intention through work satisfaction, which has a value of −0.110. Work–family enrichment significantly influences turnover intention, with a significance value of 0.000. Work–family enrichment significantly influences work satisfaction, with a significance value of 0.000. Finally, work satisfaction significantly influences turnover intention, with a significance value of 0.000. Because the value of the indirect effect (−0.110) is more significant than the direct effect (−0.259), it is concluded that work satisfaction mediates the effect of work–family enrichment on turnover intention. These research findings revealed that work–family enrichment makes employees feel satisfied with their job, which could minimise the likelihood that they will leave.

3. Discussion

In line with previous studies, during the COVID-19 pandemic, women suffered more economic shocks to tourism than men did (Mamgain 2021), and even worse, in a stratified society such as Indonesia, working women experienced more difficult roles as they had to balance families and careers (Miranti et al. 2022). However, discussions on COVID-19’s effects on employment should include the cultural factors that make women vulnerable and ignore structural impediments that may affect their health. This study reveals that work–family enrichment has a negative influence on women’s turnover intentions, work–family enrichment has a positive influence on women’s job satisfaction, job satisfaction has a negative influence on women’s turnover intention, and, finally, work satisfaction mediates the influence of work–family enrichment on women’ turnover intentions during the COVID-19 pandemic. While thought-provoking, these results, to some extent, are influenced by Indonesian cultural factors, which are collectivist (Rajiani and Kot 2020), featuring low uncertainty avoidance and high power distance (Rajiani and Pypłacz 2018). Unlike individualistic societies, collectivistic societies believe that defending collective interests is more crucial than the independent self. The consecutive findings of Biddlestone et al. (2020), Dheer et al. (2021), and Courtney et al. (2022) confirm that collectivistic societies stressing social norms and cooperation can implement adaptive behavioural responses expediting defence against COVID-19 transmission. This is also why collectivistic societies experience a lower growth rate of COVID-19 cases over time than individualistic societies. Because the sense of collectivism has been even stronger during the pandemic (Na et al. 2021), the family members’ support keeps women satisfied with their current occupation and keeps them doing business as usual, diminishing their turnover intentions.
Women in the hospitality industry knew that returning to work during the pandemic would jeopardise their health. The previous study indicated that risk-taking behaviour was a long-lasting predictor of job satisfaction (Ohnmacht et al. 2022). Working in new, uncertain situations can negatively impact job satisfaction (Kang et al. 2021). However, these assumptions are not applicable among Indonesian working women, because these women remain satisfied with their jobs and decide to stay in their current position. The respondents might be aware that it would be difficult to find new jobs because almost every sector in Indonesia suffered from COVID-19. Studies that concentrated on the job market during the crisis have indicated that job opportunities were infrequent (Hensvik et al. 2021) and that leaving the organisation might not be the best choice to handle job dissatisfaction (Caillier 2021). In addition, the fact that Indonesian people score low on UA means that Indonesian women can tolerate uncertain and ambiguous circumstances (Sekar et al. 2022).
The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly affected the Indonesian people and Indonesia’s economy. To finance COVID-19 mitigation measures, the Indonesian president ordered all ministries, institutions, provincial governments, and local governments to rearrange their annual expenses for the mitigation. Since then, the most enormous amount of fiscal stimulus has been allocated towards the social protection category, including free vaccination to all people of Indonesia, where Bali as the main tourist attraction has become one of the top priorities. The economic and psychological benefits of mitigation were obvious in Indonesia (Alam et al. 2022). This is because low-UA societies are more sympathetic to changes, making them more willing to adopt mitigation than high-UA societies are. Because mitigation raised stress levels in high-UA societies, those societies may find the medication to be worse than the ailment. This factor may have intensified fear and distrust among high-UA societies, as they are more risk averse and less likely to be involved in experimentation than low-UA societies are (Dheer et al. 2021). In low-UA societies, women in the study samples confidently accepted the mitigation programme. They considered what had been determined by the government as the best decision, thus making them perceive that the risk was tolerable. Further, in high-PD societies, consumers comply with recommended behaviour during the COVID-19 pandemic as they are more likely to follow guidelines (Colleoni et al. 2022). Therefore, women in the sample study feel secure performing their jobs for customers who adhere to procedures during the pandemic, such as adhering to quarantine appeals, following social-distancing rules, wearing a mask in public spaces, and avoiding attending indoor and other house parties.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, work–family enrichment has become more complicated for women because of the shift in societal connections, offices, and mainly home atmospheres. The new normal we all adapt to intensifies our daily routines and our overall values, which have the potential to change. Women will continue to be the most influential workforce in this new normal. Consequently, understanding the primary reasons for their turnover intentions and suitably taking action on the pertinent roots of turnover intentions become crucial for decision makers and professionals in order for them to retain their talented employees. One way to comprehend this intention is to ensure that the execution of policies is conscious of a society’s principal culture. Decision makers should identify how cultural imperatives affect behaviour and formulate strategies associated within a cultural context so that they remain confident when working during the crisis, as revealed by this study.
The results obtained during the pandemic have essential repercussions for hospitality industry managers because they can better recognise conceivable alterations in employees’ behaviour when those employees come back to work. With particular reference to the study, managers can arrange new HR administrations that will assist employees in coping better with the adverse impact of COVID-19 and improve employees’ job motivation and satisfaction, leading to reduced intentions to search for new employment.

4. Materials and Methods

This research utilised a cross-sectional approach. Using a snowball sampling technique through the authors’ networks and social media platforms, data were gathered using a web-based questionnaire distributed among married women working in four-star hotels in Bali, Indonesia, between 25 June 2022 and 24 November 2022. Owing to social isolation, this tactic has been commonly used during the COVID-19 epidemic in Indonesia (Basuki et al. 2022; Satispi et al. 2023). In total, 600 working women filled out our questionnaires, generating 593 valid answers (99% completion rate). Work–family enrichment was measured using the enrichment scale adapted from previous studies (Tang et al. 2014; Rastogi and Chaudhary 2018), consisting of (1) work–family development, (2) work–family effect, and (3) work–family capital. Work satisfaction was measured with the indicators from the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (Tang et al. 2014; Martins and Proença 2012): (1) intrinsic work satisfaction, (2) extrinsic work satisfaction, and (3) general work satisfaction. Meanwhile, the turnover intention was measured by adopting the indicators from Sager et al. (1998): (1) thoughts to leave, (2) the intention to search for a new job, and (3) the intention to leave.
Respondents showed their agreement by using five-point Likert-type scales (1–strongly disagree; 5–strongly agree). With the assistance of SPSS Amos software, we employed a technique known as covariance-based structural equation modelling (CB-SEM). The structural equation modelling approach was chosen because this method was conceived with the intention of validating substantive theory from empirical evidence. Because the theory behind this investigation proposes that certain variables do not affect other job satisfaction and that certain variables of turnover intention do not load on certain other factors, structural equation modelling (SEM) was the method that was best suited to testing the theory. The relationships in the model are validated through a detailed measurement, suggested by (Zhang et al. 2021), proposing the observance of chi-square (χ2); the minimum sample discrepancy function (χ2/pdf); the goodness-of-fit index (GFI); the adjusted goodness-of-fit index (AGFI); and CFI (comparative fit index) and RMSEA (root mean square error of approximation). A recent study in Asia (Le et al. 2023) explaining turnover intentions that was conducted with hotel employees also applied CB-SEM, indicating the robustness and sophistication of the selected model.
Hypothesis testing was performed by scrutinising the probability of each path of direct and indirect effects. A probability of ≤0.05 is required to achieve a significant effect. Discriminant validity is observed in factor loading, necessitating factor loading above 0.50 as an acceptable criterion (Hair et al. 2020). The model also applies a classical coefficient alpha of 0.60 or higher to determine reliability (Bonett and Wright 2015).

5. Conclusions

During the COVID-19 pandemic, enacting stringent lockdowns, school closures, and travel restrictions significantly burdened married women, who were balancing their productive and reproductive tasks. Usually, women likely develop leaving intentions because of family responsibilities such as marriage, children, or parents who need considerable attention. However, this assumption cannot be validated in Indonesia, particularly in the Bali hospitality industries, where most tourist attraction is concentrated. The prevalence of culturally laden mainly collectivism, low uncertainty avoidance, and high power distance make women willing to take a risk by remaining working during the COVID-19 pandemic, which to some extent is influenced by work–family enrichment and work satisfaction. Although the model is simple, consisting of three constructs, namely work–family enrichment, job satisfaction, and turnover intention, it provides another nuance, on how women help their family to survive during the crisis.
Women’s decisions to stay or leave the labour force are portrayed by the added-worker effect and the discouraged-worker effect (Martín-Román 2022). The added-worker effect is a short-term upsurge in the labour supply of married women whose spouses have become unemployed. On the other hand, the discouraged-worker effect is workers depressed by the possibility of finding employment such that they withdraw from the labour market. The limitation of this research is that we do not examine which of these effects occurred in our study samples. To examine whether employees’ attitudes have changed in the same way as they have in other industries, it would be helpful to replicate this study on employees in other industries because there is no industry that was not affected by the pandemic. Because this study does not include other interesting constructs such as a competitive psychological climate, perceived organisational support, organisational cynicism, employee attitudes, and job pride, future studies are recommended to examine them.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, I.G.A.M.D. and I.R.; methodology, I.R. and I.G.R. (I Gede Riana); software, I.G.R. (I Gede Riana); validation, M.M., N.M.D.P. and I.G.R. (I Gede Rihayana); formal analysis, I.R.; I.G.A.M.D.; resources, I.G.R. (I Gede Riana); data curation, N.M.D.P.; writing—original draft preparation, I.G.R. (I Gede Riana); writing—review and editing, I.R.; visualization, I.G.R. (I Gede Rihayana); M.M., N.M.D.P.; project administration, I.G.R. (I Gede Rihayana); funding acquisition, I.G.R. (I Gede Riana). All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


This research received no external funding.

Institutional Review Board Statement

Not applicable.

Informed Consent Statement

Not applicable.

Data Availability Statement

Not applicable.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Figure 1. The specified model.
Figure 1. The specified model.
Admsci 13 00067 g001
Table 1. Validity and reliability measurement.
Table 1. Validity and reliability measurement.
Construct and Cronbach αIndicatorsLoading Factor
Work–Family Enrichment
(α = 0.892)
Work–family development0.762
Work–family affect0.742
Work–family capital0.736
Job Satisfaction
(α = 0.801)
Turnover Intention
(α = 0.815)
Thinking of quitting0.821
Intention to stay0.851
Intention to quit0.892
Table 2. Path relationship among constructs.
Table 2. Path relationship among constructs.
Direct Influence
H1WFE → TI−0.2680.057−4.733***Supported
Indirect Influence
H4WFE → JS → TI0.427 x − 0.259 = −0.110
Significance Limitp ≤ 0.05 and CR ± 1.96
Note: *** = significant 0.000, WFE (work–family enrichment), TI (turnover intention), JS (job satisfaction).
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Dewi, I.G.A.M.; Rajiani, I.; Riana, I.G.; Puspitawati, N.M.D.; Muafi, M.; Rihayana, I.G. Women’s Risk-Taking Behaviour during COVID-19 Pandemic: Will Work–Family Enrichment and Work Satisfaction Prevent Turnover Intention? Adm. Sci. 2023, 13, 67.

AMA Style

Dewi IGAM, Rajiani I, Riana IG, Puspitawati NMD, Muafi M, Rihayana IG. Women’s Risk-Taking Behaviour during COVID-19 Pandemic: Will Work–Family Enrichment and Work Satisfaction Prevent Turnover Intention? Administrative Sciences. 2023; 13(3):67.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dewi, I Gusti Ayu Manuati, Ismi Rajiani, I Gede Riana, Ni Made Dwi Puspitawati, Muafi Muafi, and I Gede Rihayana. 2023. "Women’s Risk-Taking Behaviour during COVID-19 Pandemic: Will Work–Family Enrichment and Work Satisfaction Prevent Turnover Intention?" Administrative Sciences 13, no. 3: 67.

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