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Behav. Sci., Volume 13, Issue 3 (March 2023) – 88 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Pictures of female body shapes are of high salience for patients with anorexia nervosa. This study describes specific heart rate reactions when confronted with photographic body stimuli of different weight categories in adolescent and adult patients with anorexia nervosa compared to control participants. The psychophysiological approach used in this study revealed the strongest reactions for pictures of extremely underweight and overweight women, which may reflect emotional processes such as body dissatisfaction and anxiety due to social comparison in adolescents and young women. View this paper
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15 pages, 656 KiB  
Article
The Importance of the 5Cs of Positive Youth Development to Depressive Symptoms: A Cross-Sectional Study with University Students from Peru and Spain
by Denisse Manrique-Millones, Diego Gómez-Baya and Nora Wiium
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13030280 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 6783
Abstract
Background: Prior research has documented the protective role of the 5Cs of Positive Youth Development (PYD) on adjustment problems, such as depressive symptoms. Nonetheless, more research is needed, especially in non-US contexts. The main objective of the present study was to assess associations [...] Read more.
Background: Prior research has documented the protective role of the 5Cs of Positive Youth Development (PYD) on adjustment problems, such as depressive symptoms. Nonetheless, more research is needed, especially in non-US contexts. The main objective of the present study was to assess associations between the 5Cs and depressive symptoms in Peru and Spain, considering gender differences across contexts. Methods: Cross-sectional data was collected from undergraduate students from Peru [n = 250] and Spain [n = 1044]. Results: The results revealed significant negative associations of Competence, Confidence, Character and Connection with depressive symptoms, while Caring was positively and significantly related to depressive symptoms in both samples. Regarding gender differences, female undergraduates in both samples reported high levels of Caring, while Competence was predominant among males compared to females in both countries. Likewise, higher scores in Competence and Confidence were registered among Peruvian male undergraduates compared to Spanish students, while Caring and Character were more prevalent in Spanish female undergraduates compared to Peruvian students. Conclusions: These findings confirm the importance of targeting the 5Cs of PYD alongside the role of gender and country context in intervention programs, put together to address the mental health of students in Peru and Spain. Full article
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21 pages, 728 KiB  
Article
Are We on the Way to Successfully Educating Future Citizens?—A Spotlight on Critical Thinking Skills and Beliefs about the Nature of Science among Pre-Service Biology Teachers in Germany
by Virginia Deborah Elaine Welter, Lars Emmerichs-Knapp and Moritz Krell
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13030279 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1729
Abstract
A rapidly changing world and constantly expanding knowledge requires education to no longer focus on teaching subject-matter knowledge but also to promote students’ critical thinking (CT) and an accurate understanding of the nature of science (NOS). However, several studies have shown that these [...] Read more.
A rapidly changing world and constantly expanding knowledge requires education to no longer focus on teaching subject-matter knowledge but also to promote students’ critical thinking (CT) and an accurate understanding of the nature of science (NOS). However, several studies have shown that these skills are still poorly acquired during formal education. Given the cause–effect sequence from teacher education to teacher action to student learning, it seems reasonable to consider individual factors on the part of (pre-service) teachers as possible contributors to such skill gaps. In our study, we therefore investigated how pre-service biology teachers perform on tasks assessing their CT skills and NOS beliefs. In addition, we addressed the questions of whether test performance and/or the relationships between CT skills and NOS beliefs differ as a function of the number of learning opportunities. Our results show that our participants’ CT skills were only in the low–average range. Moreover, 86% of them did not have an informed understanding of NOS. Although participants in the master’s program demonstrated clearly superior CT skills than those in the bachelor’s program, no such difference was found in terms of NOS beliefs. However, there was a consistent advantage for pre-service teachers who were aspiring to a teaching qualification in two (as opposed to only one) scientific subjects. Our findings provide useful implications, particularly with respect to the influence of learning opportunities in university teacher education and the effectiveness of CT- and NOS-based instructional settings. On a more prospective note, our findings underscore that, given the grand global tasks of the 21st century, it seems more important than ever to ensure that pre-service science teachers have sufficient expertise in CT and NOS in order to increase the likelihood that these teachers will be able to successfully help their future students develop these skills. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Educational Psychology)
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12 pages, 1180 KiB  
Article
Emojis Are Comprehended Better than Facial Expressions, by Male Participants
by Linda Dalle Nogare, Alice Cerri and Alice Mado Proverbio
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13030278 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 8085
Abstract
Emojis are colorful ideograms resembling stylized faces commonly used for expressing emotions in instant messaging, on social network sites, and in email communication. Notwithstanding their increasing and pervasive use in electronic communication, they are not much investigated in terms of their psychological properties [...] Read more.
Emojis are colorful ideograms resembling stylized faces commonly used for expressing emotions in instant messaging, on social network sites, and in email communication. Notwithstanding their increasing and pervasive use in electronic communication, they are not much investigated in terms of their psychological properties and communicative efficacy. Here, we presented 112 different human facial expressions and emojis (expressing neutrality, happiness, surprise, sadness, anger, fear, and disgust) to a group of 96 female and male university students engaged in the recognition of their emotional meaning. Analyses of variance showed that male participants were significantly better than female participants at recognizing emojis (especially negative ones) while the latter were better than male participants at recognizing human facial expressions. Quite interestingly, male participants were better at recognizing emojis than human facial expressions per se. These findings are in line with more recent evidence suggesting that male individuals may be more competent and inclined to use emojis to express their emotions in messaging (especially sarcasm, teasing, and love) than previously thought. Finally, the data indicate that emojis are less ambiguous than facial expressions (except for neutral and surprise emotions), possibly because of the limited number of fine-grained details and the lack of morphological features conveying facial identity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Processing in People with or without Autism)
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21 pages, 1773 KiB  
Article
Research on the Factors Affecting the Adoption of Smart Aged-Care Products by the Aged in China: Extension Based on UTAUT Model
by Xiang Wang, Chang-Franw Lee, Jiabei Jiang, Genlei Zhang and Zhong Wei
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 277; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13030277 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2126
Abstract
With the rapid development of network technology and smart technology, smart aged-care products are becoming increasingly valued for their ability to help the aged actively cope with the challenges of aging. However, seniors face challenges in using smart aged-care products for many reasons, [...] Read more.
With the rapid development of network technology and smart technology, smart aged-care products are becoming increasingly valued for their ability to help the aged actively cope with the challenges of aging. However, seniors face challenges in using smart aged-care products for many reasons, which reduces their willingness to adopt them. As a result, the sustainable development of smart aged-care products is constrained. This study combined the unified theory of technology acceptance and use, perceived risk theory and perceived cost theory, and reconstructed a research model that investigated the adoption of smart aged-care products by the elderly in China. Questionnaires were given to older Chinese adults in this study, and 386 valuable responses were received. The findings of the structural equation model (SEM) analysis are as follows: (1) performance expectancy, effort expectancy, and social influence were positively related to the behavioral intention of seniors to use smart aged-care products; (2) perceived cost and perceived risk were negatively related to the behavioral intention of seniors to use smart aged-care products; (3) perceived risk indirectly affected use behavior through behavioral intentions; (4) facilitating conditions did not have a significant impact on the use behavior of seniors in adopting smart aged-care products. Based on the empirical results, this study sought to improve the use behavior of the aged in relation to the adoption of smart aged-care products, and provided suggestions to improve the overall service quality and sustainability of those products. Full article
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17 pages, 1321 KiB  
Article
Many Facets of Eating Disorders: Profiling Key Psychological Features of Anorexia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder
by Alessandro Alberto Rossi, Giada Pietrabissa, Andrea Tagliagambe, Anna Scuderi, Lorenzo Montecchiani, Gianluca Castelnuovo, Stefania Mannarini and Laura Dalla Ragione
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13030276 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2437
Abstract
Objective. The present study employs a profile analysis to identify and compare psychological features and core eating disorder (ED) symptoms in clinical samples of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and binge eating disorder (BED) and the general population (GP). Methods. A sample [...] Read more.
Objective. The present study employs a profile analysis to identify and compare psychological features and core eating disorder (ED) symptoms in clinical samples of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and binge eating disorder (BED) and the general population (GP). Methods. A sample comprising 421 participants (142 patients with AN; 139 patients with BED; and 140 participants from the GP) was surveyed with the Eating Disorder Inventory-3 (EDI-3). Individuals with AN and BED were recruited and tested during their first week of a multidisciplinary inpatient program for weight loss and rehabilitation at the ‘Rete DCA USL Umbria 1′ (Eating Disorders Services), Italy. Results. The findings suggest distinct patterns of symptom presentation between the three samples across all the EDI-3 dimensions—with both the AN and BED groups scoring significantly higher than the GP. Patients with AN registered greater scores in all the psychological trait scales and the drive for thinness ED-specific dimension of the EDI-3 compared with their BED counterpart—which, instead, scored higher in the bulimia and body dissatisfaction subscales. These data support the transdiagnostic nature of the main risk factors for the onset and maintenance of EDs—which would vary in severity levels—and the existence of disease-specific pathways giving rise to AN and BED. Conclusion. This study for the first time compares patients with AN and BED with a non-clinical sample on main ED psychological features. This might inform classification approaches and could have important implications for the development of prevention and early intervention programs. Full article
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12 pages, 294 KiB  
Article
Battling Unawareness of One’s Test Performance: Do Practice, Self-Efficacy, and Emotional Intelligence Matter?
by Maura A. E. Pilotti, Khadija El Alaoui and Arifi N. Waked
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 275; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13030275 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1396
Abstract
The “Dunning–Kruger effect” refers to the tendency of poor performers to overestimate test outcomes. Although a widespread phenomenon, questions exist regarding its source and sensitivity to countermeasures. The present field study aimed to (a) examine whether practice with tests used in previous classes [...] Read more.
The “Dunning–Kruger effect” refers to the tendency of poor performers to overestimate test outcomes. Although a widespread phenomenon, questions exist regarding its source and sensitivity to countermeasures. The present field study aimed to (a) examine whether practice with tests used in previous classes can enhance students’ ability to estimate test outcomes, (b) determine the main source of the effect (i.e., is it unawareness of one’s readiness or wishful thinking?), and (c) assess the extent to which particular individual differences can be used as predictors of test performance. In this study, participants practiced with old tests and then completed the final exam. Before and after the exam, they predicted their grades and indicated their subjective confidence in the predictions made. Furthermore, participants’ emotional intelligence and self-efficacy about their academic abilities were surveyed. Results suggested that poor performers were not unaware of their test preparation, but rather engaged in wishful thinking. In fact, although they overestimated their test grades, their estimates not only improved after completing the final test but also were regarded with little confidence. Overall, estimation bias was a good predictor of students’ final test performance, whereas subjective confidence and emotional intelligence only weakly predicted such performance. Thus, if proactive interventions are to be developed for at-risk students, performance-estimation tasks may offer valuable information regarding such students’ future performance in a course much more than emotional intelligence and self-efficacy measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cognition)
16 pages, 300 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between Teachers and Pupils with Down Syndrome: A Qualitative Study in Primary Schools
by Agostino Carbone, Michela Castaldi and Giordana Szpunar
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 274; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13030274 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2564
Abstract
Down syndrome (DS), due the presence of an intellectual disability and a precarious health condition, involves important challenges for developing skills at school. The study explores the relational dynamics between teachers and students with DS and how the latter influence the processes of [...] Read more.
Down syndrome (DS), due the presence of an intellectual disability and a precarious health condition, involves important challenges for developing skills at school. The study explores the relational dynamics between teachers and students with DS and how the latter influence the processes of socialization and learning at school. The study involved 15 (n = 15) special education teachers (M age = 40.4; SD = 9.3) from primary schools in Italy who were or had previously been in charge of a pupil with DS. The teachers were interviewed through a semi-structured interview, built ad hoc. The data were analyzed through the grounded theory method supported by ATLAS.ti software. Data analysis produced 20 (n = 20) categories grouped into 6 (n = 6) macro-categories: (1) psychophysical characteristics; (2) learnings; (3) relational aspects; (4) collaborations; (5) extracurricular activities; and (6) teacher training. The research shows that students with DS have good relationships with their peers; however, there are still some important critical issues, including poor training of teachers on certain topics and on the application of collaborative and relationship support strategies, the limited collaboration between support teachers and curricular teachers, and the absence of support from ad hoc professional figures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
12 pages, 1750 KiB  
Article
Distinct Emotional and Cardiac Responses to Audio Erotica between Genders
by Zhongming Gao, Xi Luo and Xianwei Che
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 273; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13030273 - 20 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1602
Abstract
Emotional and cardiac responses to audio erotica and their gender differences are relatively unclear in the study of the human sexual response. The current study was designed to investigate gender differences regarding positive and negative emotional responses to erotica, as well as its [...] Read more.
Emotional and cardiac responses to audio erotica and their gender differences are relatively unclear in the study of the human sexual response. The current study was designed to investigate gender differences regarding positive and negative emotional responses to erotica, as well as its association with cardiac response. A total of 40 healthy participants (20 women) were exposed to erotic, neutral, and happy audio segments during which emotions and heart rate changes were evaluated. Our data showed distinct emotional responses to erotica between genders, in which women reported a higher level of shame than men and rated erotic audios as less pleasant than happy audios. Meanwhile, men reported erotic and happy audios as equally pleasant. These results were independent of cardiac changes, as both sexes demonstrated comparable heart rate deceleration when exposed to erotica relative to neutral and happy stimuli. Our results highlight the role of sociocultural modulation in the emotional response to erotica. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sex Desire, Sexuality and Sexual Dysfunction)
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18 pages, 1953 KiB  
Article
Motivation and Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction in Active Travel to Different Destinations: A Cluster Analysis with Adolescents Living in Germany
by Denise Renninger, Joachim Bachner, Xavier García-Massó, Javier Molina-García, Anne Kerstin Reimers, Isabel Marzi, Franziska Beck and Yolanda Demetriou
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 272; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13030272 - 20 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1769
Abstract
Active travel in adolescence contributes to improved health outcomes. Self-Determination Theory suggests that motivation and basic psychological needs influence travel behavior. Person-centered approaches can examine interrelationships of these constructs underlying travel behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate (i) which clusters [...] Read more.
Active travel in adolescence contributes to improved health outcomes. Self-Determination Theory suggests that motivation and basic psychological needs influence travel behavior. Person-centered approaches can examine interrelationships of these constructs underlying travel behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate (i) which clusters can be identified in adolescents, (ii) whether clusters explain overall active travel behavior, (iii) whether clusters were associated with travel mode to various destinations or distance, and (iv) whether differences across clusters appear regarding sex/gender, age, and weight status. The sample included 517 (263 male, 254 female) adolescents from Germany, aged 11–15. Self-organizing maps analysis identified six clusters from nine input variables: intrinsic motivation, integrated regulation, identified regulation, introjected regulation, external regulation, amotivation, autonomy satisfaction, competence satisfaction, and relatedness satisfaction. The most beneficial cluster regarding active travel demonstrated highest basic psychological needs satisfaction and autonomous motivation with low controlled motivation and amotivation. The most vulnerable cluster was characterized by generally low levels of motivation except for external regulation and amotivation. Clusters were not associated with distance to school, friends/relatives, shopping facilities, or leisure facilities. The findings support the importance of high quality and high quantity of motivation for active travel in adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Psychology)
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11 pages, 317 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Academic Psychological Variables, Physical Education, and Physical Activity Levels of Mexican Students
by Raúl Baños, Roberto Espinoza-Gutiérrez, Juan José Calleja-Núñez and Gloria Rodríguez-Cifuentes
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13030271 - 20 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1245
Abstract
Physical inactivity is a current worldwide, and especially Mexican adolescents. Therefore, this study has the following objectives: (i) to analyze the PA-LT pattern of Mexican adolescents; (ii) to analyze whether there are differences in emotional intelligence, basic psychological needs, academic motivation, self-esteem, and [...] Read more.
Physical inactivity is a current worldwide, and especially Mexican adolescents. Therefore, this study has the following objectives: (i) to analyze the PA-LT pattern of Mexican adolescents; (ii) to analyze whether there are differences in emotional intelligence, basic psychological needs, academic motivation, self-esteem, and academic satisfaction according to the PA-LT pattern; (iii) to analyze the relationship between emotional intelligence, basic psychological needs, academic motivation, self-esteem, and academic satisfaction. A total of 748 secondary school students participated, of which 374 were girls (Mean age = 13.99; SD = 0.30) and 374 boys (Mean age = 14.02; SD = 0.33). The questionnaire comprised the following scales: IE, NPB-ESC, EMA, EA, and SIE. The main results obtained show that none of the girls stick to any active physical activity pattern during their spare time. In addition, physically active boys obtained better scores in emotional clarity, emotional repair, perception of academic competence, perception of social relationships, extrinsic motivation, intrinsic motivation, self-esteem, and satisfaction with school. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Health: Social Psychology Perspective)
31 pages, 1289 KiB  
Article
Understanding Different Types of Followers’ Engagement and the Transformation of Millennial Followers into Cosmetic Brand Evangelists
by Warinrampai Rungruangjit, Thitinan Chankoson and Kitti Charoenpornpanichkul
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13030270 - 19 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2474
Abstract
Facebook pages of cosmetic products have substantially grown among millennial consumers. This study aims to explore the motivational factors that affect different types of millennial followers’ engagement, including followers on Facebook pages of cosmetic products, and examine different types of millennial followers’ engagement [...] Read more.
Facebook pages of cosmetic products have substantially grown among millennial consumers. This study aims to explore the motivational factors that affect different types of millennial followers’ engagement, including followers on Facebook pages of cosmetic products, and examine different types of millennial followers’ engagement that influence brand evangelism. A quantitative method involving the technique of partial least square structural equation modeling was applied. An online questionnaire was designed to collect data from millennial followers. The results revealed that informational content stimulates active lurkers and passive participants, while entertaining content positively influences only active participants. Social interaction value is influential to active and passive participants. It was found that identification is the motivation factor that drives both active participants and lurkers. Confidence benefits and special treatment benefits were found to be the motivation factor that stimulates all participants. Social benefits substantially influence active participants and lurkers. Interestingly, the followers’ passive participation has a great influence on brand evangelism. This study opposes the notion that active lurkers and passive participants are less important than active participants and supports the literature by revealing the importance of distinguishing between active participants, active lurkers, and passive participants in causing different impacts on brand evangelism. Full article
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18 pages, 930 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Perfectionism on Consumers’ Intentions to Purchase Imperfect Products
by Libin Chen, Guanhong Chen, Shuo Wang and Lin Jiang
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13030269 - 18 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2382
Abstract
Perfectionism is an important personality trait that affects people’s behavior, especially consumption behavior. In our study, we aimed to investigate whether perfectionists show different preferences in their consumption choices compared with non-perfectionists and to explore the potential psychological mechanisms mediating this effect. Through [...] Read more.
Perfectionism is an important personality trait that affects people’s behavior, especially consumption behavior. In our study, we aimed to investigate whether perfectionists show different preferences in their consumption choices compared with non-perfectionists and to explore the potential psychological mechanisms mediating this effect. Through four studies, we found that perfectionists are less likely to buy imperfect products, including those that are close to expiry and that have defective functioning, flawed appearance, and incomplete after-sales service than non-perfectionists, and are more likely to avoid choosing imperfect products. In addition, we found a mediating effect of dichotomous thinking and intolerance of uncertainty on this effect to explain the behavioral preferences of perfectionists in their purchasing choices. Manufacturers and marketers can benefit from the results of this study by implementing targeted production requirements and marketing strategies based on the consumer behavior preferences of perfectionists. Full article
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15 pages, 462 KiB  
Review
Pain Perceptions, Suffering and Pain Behaviours of Professional and Pre-Professional Dancers towards Pain and Injury: A Qualitative Review
by Andrew Soundy and Ja Yee Lim
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 268; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13030268 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1840
Abstract
Limited data exist that describe the experiences of pain and injury in dancers. The purpose of the current study was to understand pain perceptions, suffering and pain behaviours associated with pre-professional and professional dancers and to consider the psychosocial factors that influence suffering, [...] Read more.
Limited data exist that describe the experiences of pain and injury in dancers. The purpose of the current study was to understand pain perceptions, suffering and pain behaviours associated with pre-professional and professional dancers and to consider the psychosocial factors that influence suffering, behaviour and perceptions of pain. A thematic synthesis review was undertaken in three stages: (1) A systematic search using pre-defined search terms was conducted until 17 November 2022. Qualitative studies were included if they captured dancers’ perceptions, experiences, or the behaviour of dancers towards pain and injury. (2) Quality appraisal and certainty assessments was performed. (3) A five-phase synthesis generated themes that included a certainty assessment score. Twelve studies with 290 dancers met the inclusion criteria. The aggregated mean age was identified as 28.5 years. No studies were excluded following the quality appraisal stage. Nine studies included professional ballet dancers. Three themes were developed: (1) developing positive and adapted perceptions and behaviours towards pain, (2) the impact and danger of embracing pain and the risk of injury and (3) factors that influenced the response to injury and the ability to perform. This review has highlighted the experiences of pre-professional and professional dancers towards pain and injury. Practical implications for healthcare professionals, employers, choreographers and dancers are provided. Further research is required given the limited evidence base. Full article
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20 pages, 1496 KiB  
Article
Research on the Process and Influencing Factors of Online Diabetes Information Users’ Avoidance Behavior: A Qualitative Study
by Caiqiang Guo, Li Si and Yifan Sun
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13030267 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1399
Abstract
Users’ avoidance behavior of health information has received growing attention recently, but research into users’ avoidance behavior of diabetes information remains limited. This paper aims to reveal the process and the factors of avoiding online diabetes information. The interview, conducted with the critical [...] Read more.
Users’ avoidance behavior of health information has received growing attention recently, but research into users’ avoidance behavior of diabetes information remains limited. This paper aims to reveal the process and the factors of avoiding online diabetes information. The interview, conducted with the critical incident technique, and the diary methods were used to collect 40 true incidents of online diabetes information avoidance from 17 participants. Based on the thematic analysis method and grounded theory, the data were analyzed to identify the key phases of the avoidance process and obtain the factors influencing the occurrence of avoidance behavior. The results showed that the macro-process of online diabetes information avoidance comprised three phases: pre-encountering, encountering, and avoiding after encountering. First, browsing, searching, or social interaction provide the context for encountering; second, the encountering occurrence consists of three steps—noticing the stimuli, reacting to stimuli, and examining the content; and third, to avoid the online diabetes information encountered, users will adopt avoidance strategies, such as avoiding information sources, controlling attention, delaying access, forgetting information, and denying information, which is manifested as general avoidance and strong avoidance, and has positive, negative, or no effect on users. The 14 influencing factors of avoidance behavior obtained were divided into four clusters. User-related factors include demographic characteristics, health-behavior perception, perceived threat, perceived control, and information sufficiency; information-related factors include information quality, information overload, and information dissemination; environment-related factors include context type, behavior place, time pressure, and social factors, and emotion-related factors include the pre-encountering and post-encountering emotional states. These findings can guide the intervention of information avoidance behavior. Full article
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14 pages, 1150 KiB  
Article
The Moderating Effect of Flexible Work Option on Structural Empowerment and Generation Z Contextual Performance
by Daliah Taibah and Theresa C. F. Ho
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13030266 - 17 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2135
Abstract
Leading and managing Generation Z can be a daunting task due to the distinct expectations, behaviours, and preferences they bring with them compared to prior generations. As such, when managing Gen Z workers, it is essential that leaders are aware of these variations [...] Read more.
Leading and managing Generation Z can be a daunting task due to the distinct expectations, behaviours, and preferences they bring with them compared to prior generations. As such, when managing Gen Z workers, it is essential that leaders are aware of these variations to effectively manage their teams. Hence, this research endeavours to investigate the role of flexible work options on strengthening the relationship between structural empowerment and contextual work performance among Generation Z. This study employed a quantitative approach via an online questionnaire distributed to full- or part-time employed Gen Z workers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia working within the wholesale and retail sectors. The purpose of this study is, therefore, to determine the impact of the moderating effect of flexible work options on the relationship between structural empowerment and Gen Z employee work performance. The findings suggest that H1, the moderating effect of the flexible work option on the opportunity and contextual work performance relationship, is not supported, while H2 and H3, the moderating effect of the Flexible work option on the relationships of support as well as information and contextual work performance, are both supported. However, it has a negative effect on the relationship between access to support and Gen Z contextual work performance and a positive effect on the relationship between access to information and Gen Z contextual work performance. The study’s findings highlight the necessary structural empowerment for enhancing Generation Z’s contextual work performance, offering useful information to management, policy makers, and the business as a whole. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behaviors)
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17 pages, 713 KiB  
Article
Shared Leadership and Improvisation: Dual Perspective of Cognition-Affection
by Dixuan Zhang, Xiaohong Wang and Shaopeng Zhang
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13030265 - 17 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2269
Abstract
Improvisation is an effective way to cope with rapid changes and obtain unexpected opportunities in a complex environment. Based on the cognitive-affective system theory, this study investigates the dual mediating role of cognitive flexibility and emotional intelligence between shared leadership and improvisation and [...] Read more.
Improvisation is an effective way to cope with rapid changes and obtain unexpected opportunities in a complex environment. Based on the cognitive-affective system theory, this study investigates the dual mediating role of cognitive flexibility and emotional intelligence between shared leadership and improvisation and the moderating role of promotion focus. We used multilevel and multi-sourced data to test the theoretical model and used a social network approach to measure shared leadership in teams. Our sample was comprised of 40 teams and 240 team members. The empirical findings indicated that cognitive flexibility and emotional intelligence mediated the relationship between shared leadership and improvisation; promotion focus moderated the relationship between shared leadership and improvisation, and the mediation effect via cognitive flexibility. This study contributes to expanding on improvisation research from the perspective of shared leadership and incorporating both the cognitive and the emotional process of the generation of improvisation into a theoretical framework from a compound perspective, which will open the black box for the mediation mechanism from shared leadership to improvisation. Furthermore, promotion focus is introduced into the research and creatively corresponds to the cognition-affection mediation mechanism, which expands the applicable scope of the regulatory focus theory. Full article
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13 pages, 808 KiB  
Article
An Integrated Model of Destination Attractiveness and Tourists’ Environmentally Responsible Behavior: The Mediating Effect of Place Attachment
by Ting Li, Chenmei Liao, Rob Law and Mu Zhang
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13030264 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3455
Abstract
This study aimed to empirically explore the relationship between destination attractiveness and tourists’ environmentally responsible behavior (TERB), as based on self-regulated attitude theory. In this paper, we have divided destination attractiveness into two aspects: the attractiveness of a facility’s services, and that of [...] Read more.
This study aimed to empirically explore the relationship between destination attractiveness and tourists’ environmentally responsible behavior (TERB), as based on self-regulated attitude theory. In this paper, we have divided destination attractiveness into two aspects: the attractiveness of a facility’s services, and that of the sightseeing experience, so as to build a structural equation model with mediation analysis. For our research, we selected Wolong National Nature Reserve in Sichuan as the site of our case study, and we conducted a survey using a questionnaire. We then analyzed the path using a structural equation model. Our results show: (1) two elements of destination attractiveness have significantly positive effects on TERB; and (2) place attachment exerts a mediating effect among the attractiveness of the facility’s services, that of the sightseeing experience, and TERB. Therefore, enhancing destination attractiveness and tourists’ emotional attachments to locations could help to promote the implementation of TERB and the achievement of sustainable tourism development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Decision Making Behaviors in Management and Marketing)
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17 pages, 303 KiB  
Article
Heterogeneity Influence of Financial Digitalization and Inclusion on Employees’ Psychological States
by Yue Lu, Zuoqian Zhang and Siying Yang
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13030263 - 16 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1411
Abstract
Digital inclusive finance (DIF) has the power to spawn a new system of Internet finance and realize financial inclusion. However, the role of DIF in improving the health status of individuals is largely unknown. This study aims to demonstrate whether and how the [...] Read more.
Digital inclusive finance (DIF) has the power to spawn a new system of Internet finance and realize financial inclusion. However, the role of DIF in improving the health status of individuals is largely unknown. This study aims to demonstrate whether and how the development of DIF impacts the mental health of Chinese employees. This paper performs an empirical study based on the city-level data of the digital inclusive financial index with the China family panel studies. Ordinary least squares (OLS), probit models and mediation techniques are employed with appropriate instruments to alleviate endogeneity concerns. The results show that DIF can help employees improve their mental health. The results were robust to a variety of checks. Moreover, increasing income is the main pathway in which DIF improves individual mental health. Finally, it also reveals the heterogeneous effects of DIF on individual mental health. That is, the use depth of DIF has a significant positive effect on mental health status, but not on other sub-indicators, such as coverage breadth and degree of digital service provision; on those vulnerable groups containing females and employees with low education, its decisive role is larger than their counterparts who are males and have high levels of education. These results highlight the vital role of DIF in improving the mental health status of individuals. Consequently, there is a need to strengthen the construction of financial infrastructure and achieve a deeper integration of the financial system with digital technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managing Organizational Behaviors for Sustainable Wellbeing at Work)
14 pages, 275 KiB  
Article
A Comparative Analysis of Perceived Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Learning
by Marcel Pikhart, Blanka Klimova, Anna Cierniak-Emerych and Szymon Dziuba
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13030262 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3499
Abstract
The use of electronic media has increased dramatically in the past decade due to the general increase in digitization of global societies. This trend has been recently enhanced by the COVID-19 occurrence and following forced implementation of various forms of eLearning into university [...] Read more.
The use of electronic media has increased dramatically in the past decade due to the general increase in digitization of global societies. This trend has been recently enhanced by the COVID-19 occurrence and following forced implementation of various forms of eLearning into university curricula, including all forms of second language (L2) acquisition. The present study focuses on the evaluation of perceived advantages and disadvantages of online L2 acquisition via electronic media by university students of the Czech Republic (n = 114) and Poland (n = 121). The research methodology was an online questionnaire asking the users of digital media for L2 acquisition about their perceived advantages and disadvantages regarding the use of print and digital media and their potential impact on their L2 acquisition. To understand their evaluation is crucial as it could lead to increased motivation or demotivation to learn a foreign language. The results clearly show that the students realize the drawbacks of digital media and this could lead to their dissatisfaction and frustration when they have to use these media excessively. The implications of the findings could be helpful and necessary for various course designers, curricula makers, and course tutors as they are responsible for the smooth implementation of various digital tools into the educational process. Full article
13 pages, 518 KiB  
Article
New Times, New Ways: Exploring the Self-Regulation of Sport during the COVID-19 Pandemic and Its Relationship with Nostalgia and Well-Being
by Heetae Cho, Mun Yip Kinnard Chen, Hyoung-Kil Kang and Weisheng Chiu
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13030261 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1755
Abstract
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has negatively affected individuals’ participation in sport activities, while sport participation is an important regulator of well-being. The current study investigated the effects of the nostalgia for sport activities and self-regulation of sport activities on subjective well-being. A total of [...] Read more.
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has negatively affected individuals’ participation in sport activities, while sport participation is an important regulator of well-being. The current study investigated the effects of the nostalgia for sport activities and self-regulation of sport activities on subjective well-being. A total of 302 responses were collected from participants who had engaged in sport activities before the lockdown period. The data were analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). The findings showed that nostalgia positively affected the self-regulation of sport and subjective well-being. In addition, self-regulation of sport was positively associated with subjective well-being. Based on the findings of this study, policymakers can implement interventions that promote an individual’s feelings of nostalgia, as it might lead them to engage in sport or promote self-regulation. Full article
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15 pages, 1856 KiB  
Article
Effect of an Integrated Active Lessons Programme through Playful Maths Games on Self-Concept, Self-Esteem and Social Skills in Preschool Children
by Alba Cámara-Martínez, Alberto Ruiz-Ariza, Sara Suárez-Manzano, Rosa M. Cruz-Cantero and Emilio J. Martínez-López
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13030260 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1694
Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of an integrated active lessons programme based on playful math games, of 10 weeks’ duration (30 min/day × 2 days/week), on self-concept, self-esteem and social skills in preschool children. One hundred and ninety-four [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of an integrated active lessons programme based on playful math games, of 10 weeks’ duration (30 min/day × 2 days/week), on self-concept, self-esteem and social skills in preschool children. One hundred and ninety-four preschool children (53.6% girls) aged 53.36 ± 11.82 months were split into a control group (CG) and an experimental group (EG). The EG improved significantly in self-concept compared to the CG in boys and girls (6.8% and 7.1%, respectively). Personal and academic self-esteem levels increased significantly (8.1% and 5.5%, respectively, only in girls). Although the EG obtained significant improvements in social self-esteem and social skills compared to the beginning of the study, these results were not found in comparison with the CG. The introduction of active lessons based on playful maths games within the classroom is recommended as support for the improvement in self-concept, self-esteem and social skills in early childhood education. Full article
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17 pages, 3484 KiB  
Article
A Psychometric Study of the Prosocial Behavior Scale: Differential Item Functioning by Gender
by Sara Martínez-Gregorio, José M. Tomás and Amparo Oliver
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13030259 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3110
Abstract
Some scales co-exist in the literature to measure prosocial behavior in adolescents. Gender differences in prosocial behavior have been a controversial topic of research. To strengthen future research in the area, the psychometric properties of the most used instruments must be guaranteed, especially [...] Read more.
Some scales co-exist in the literature to measure prosocial behavior in adolescents. Gender differences in prosocial behavior have been a controversial topic of research. To strengthen future research in the area, the psychometric properties of the most used instruments must be guaranteed, especially its gender non-bias. Our study provides psychometric evidence for the Prosocial Behavior Scale in a sample of adolescents, exploring: (a) its factor structure; (b) reliability; (c) gender-related differential item functioning (DIF); (d) nomological validity. A sample of 512 high school students (mean age = 13.62 (SD = 1.34), 51.6% females) participated in the research. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to test the factor structure of the scale, which adequately fitted the data (χ2 (35) = 152.224, p < 0.001, Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.905, Root Mean Squared Error of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.085 90%CI [0.072–0.099], Standardized Root Mean Squared Residual (SRMR) = 0.079). Reliability results were good (α = 0.74, ω = 0.74). Regarding the DIF, five items presented some gender-related bias, generally benefiting females. However, the DIF impact could be considered negligible. Correlations with the subdimensions of the psychological capital offered evidence of the nomological validity of the scale. In conclusion, the scale presented adequate psychometric properties that support its ability to effectively assess prosocial behavior and gender differences in the prosocial behavior samples of adolescents. Additionally, the results obtained imply that gender differences in the manifestations of prosocial behavior require measurements that can fairly sample behaviors characteristic of each gender. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Educational Psychology)
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16 pages, 1556 KiB  
Article
Psychological and Neurophysiological Screening Investigation of the Collective and Personal Stress Resilience
by Sergey Lytaev
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13030258 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1377
Abstract
Methodological approaches to assess the human cognitive status are constantly evolving. At the same time, the creation of new assessment methods is accompanied by traditional research. This paper discusses the direction of research on the search for markers of stress resilience. The basis [...] Read more.
Methodological approaches to assess the human cognitive status are constantly evolving. At the same time, the creation of new assessment methods is accompanied by traditional research. This paper discusses the direction of research on the search for markers of stress resilience. The basis for the formation of the research algorithm was the assessment of activation factors of emotional states, including preceding stress–sensory (cognitive and informational) and psycho-emotional factors. This was determined using methodological techniques, stress factors, working conditions in professional teams, etc. For an express analysis (25–40 min) of diagnosing stress resistance, a research algorithm was justified, consisting of clinical and psychological testing, as well as EEG with traditional tests and analysis of indicators and spectra. Therefore, this research was aimed at the psychological and neurophysiological substantiation of approaches to express algorithms for assessing cognitive functions and resilience to stress under time deficit. A study on 102 healthy subjects and 38 outpatients of a neuropsychiatric clinic was performed. Basic outcomes: the integrative indicator SCL-90-R—”general index of severity” has a high statistical significance (p < 0.05) in both healthy subjects and neuropsychiatric outpatients. The effectiveness of the Mini-Mult test in conditions of time deficit is determined by the results of the scales of hypochondria, depression, hysteria, paranoia, psychasthenia, schizoid and hypomania (p < 0.05). Furthermore, we used a line of logical thinking techniques. A line of four logical methods is highly informative in assessing the mental status in conditions of time deficit. EEG power indices and spectra in theta, delta and alpha frequency ranges are an effective reflection of cognitive status. In this article, a testing algorithm as a variant for assessing neurocognitive status in screening studies of large groups is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Experimental and Clinical Neurosciences)
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16 pages, 864 KiB  
Article
Implementation of Check-In/Check-Out to Improve Classroom Behavior of At-Risk Elementary School Students
by Ashley L. Sottilare and Kwang-Sun Cho Blair
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13030257 - 14 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2905
Abstract
The multi-tiered school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports offers a comprehensive model for the prevention of behavioral and academic problems in schools. This study evaluated Check-in/Check-out (CICO), a Tier 2 intervention, with three elementary school students from a high-need population, whose problem behavior [...] Read more.
The multi-tiered school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports offers a comprehensive model for the prevention of behavioral and academic problems in schools. This study evaluated Check-in/Check-out (CICO), a Tier 2 intervention, with three elementary school students from a high-need population, whose problem behavior was hypothesized to be maintained by teacher attention. The study employed a concurrent multiple baseline design across participants, a single case experimental design to examine the effects of CICO on student academic engagement and problem behavior during instruction. Results indicated that implementation of CICO with fidelity by the CICO coordinator, classroom teachers, and parents lead to increased academic engagement and reduced problem behavior in all three students. Tau-U Effect sizes were medium to large for academic engagement and small to medium for problem behavior across students. Data on two students indicate that systematically fading the number of times teachers utilize the daily report card has the potential for promoting maintenance effects. For one student, fading of the coordinator was successful. Social validity assessment indicated high levels of satisfaction with the CICO intervention by the participating students, teachers, and one parent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
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19 pages, 477 KiB  
Article
Intergenerational Support and Second-Child Fertility Intention in the Chinese Sandwich Generation: The Parallel Mediation Model of Double Burnout
by Wenxiao Fu, Wenlong Zhao and Fei Deng
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13030256 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1866
Abstract
In 2013, the Chinese government implemented a two-child policy to increase the country’s fertility rate. However, the persistently low rates necessitated other measures to boost fertility. This study empirically investigated the association between intergenerational support and second-child fertility intention in the Chinese sandwich [...] Read more.
In 2013, the Chinese government implemented a two-child policy to increase the country’s fertility rate. However, the persistently low rates necessitated other measures to boost fertility. This study empirically investigated the association between intergenerational support and second-child fertility intention in the Chinese sandwich generation and demonstrated the mediating role of parental burnout and burnout in caring for grandparents. Survey data collected at Time 1, Time 2, and Time 3 included 2939 participants from different regions of China. Before analyzing the data, coarsened exact matching and propensity score matching was conducted to reduce sampling bias. Regression analysis results indicated that intergenerational support has a significant total positive effect on second-child fertility intention. Furthermore, mediation path analysis revealed that parental burnout and burnout in caring for grandparents play significant but opposite directional mediating roles in the association between intergenerational support and second-child fertility intention. Sensitivity analysis using different calipers yielded similar results. These results indicated that second-child fertility intention can be increased among the Chinese sandwich generation with intergenerational support, by mitigating parental burnout. However, intergenerational support did not alleviate burnout in caring for grandparents in the sandwich generation; therefore, formal older adult care policies are required to help the sandwich generation experience lower burnout, while receiving intergenerational support. Full article
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15 pages, 1063 KiB  
Review
Telemedicine Management: Approaches and Perspectives—A Review of the Scientific Literature of the Last 10 Years
by Joaquín Aguirre-Sosa and Jorge Alberto Vargas-Merino
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13030255 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2226
Abstract
This research paper describes the approaches and perspectives of telemedicine worldwide. The objective of this literature review was to analyze the theoretical and empirical studies that address telemedicine management in the last 10 years based on the scientific literature obtained from the Scopus, [...] Read more.
This research paper describes the approaches and perspectives of telemedicine worldwide. The objective of this literature review was to analyze the theoretical and empirical studies that address telemedicine management in the last 10 years based on the scientific literature obtained from the Scopus, Scielo, Ebsco, ProQuest, Dialnet, and Redalyc databases, from which 50 articles were selected. The inclusion criteria were the last 10 years, scientific articles, language, variables, and open access. The non-inclusion criteria were repeated articles, not addressing the variable, and not open access. The results show a tendency to manage telemedicine through various approaches and scenarios. These can be grouped into humanistic, socioeconomic, ethical, contingency in the Armed Forces—NASA, and application in the field of medicine with teaching to the entire chain of users, as well as controls and monitoring of patients. In this sense, it is concluded that telemedicine management worldwide faces challenges that must be overcome to reduce still-existing barriers and achieve better access to health systems worldwide. Full article
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22 pages, 1503 KiB  
Article
Mind over Matter: Examining the Role of Cognitive Dissonance and Self-Efficacy in Discontinuous Usage Intentions on Pan-Entertainment Mobile Live Broadcast Platforms
by Shu Zhang and Younghwan Pan
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13030254 - 13 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3794
Abstract
The current body of literature indicates a growing trend of discontinuous usage intentions among users of social media platforms. While several factors affecting discontinuous usage intentions have been explored in previous research, the specific factors and mechanisms impacting discontinuous usage intentions among users [...] Read more.
The current body of literature indicates a growing trend of discontinuous usage intentions among users of social media platforms. While several factors affecting discontinuous usage intentions have been explored in previous research, the specific factors and mechanisms impacting discontinuous usage intentions among users of pan-entertainment mobile live broadcast platforms remain undefined. This study aims to clarify these factors and mechanisms and to provide both theoretical and practical guidance to users to encourage rational usage of the platform, as well as support the optimization of innovative services offered by the platform’s operator. This study, which is grounded in the theoretical framework of “Cognition-Emotion-Behavior intention,” develops an influencing mechanism model based on cognitive dissonance and self-efficacy. A total of 340 valid samples were collected through questionnaires and analyzed using a structural equation model, which revealed that information overload, service overload, and user addiction had a positive impact on cognitive dissonance, which was moderated by self-efficacy. Cognitive dissonance also had a positive impact on discontinuous usage intentions, again moderated by self-efficacy. These findings expand upon previous research on discontinuous usage intentions among social media users and offer insights into the underlying psychological mechanisms among users of pan-entertainment mobile live broadcast platforms. Additionally, the study provides valuable information for practitioners to consider in the design of the platform, with the ultimate goal of improving user experience and promoting retention. Full article
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18 pages, 656 KiB  
Article
Relationship Dysfunction in Couples When One Partner Is Diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder: Findings from a Pilot Study
by Julia Kroener, Caroline Schaitz, Alexander Karabatsiakis, Anna Maier, Bernhard Connemann, Elisa Schmied and Zrinka Sosic-Vasic
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13030253 - 13 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3766
Abstract
Relationship dysfunction—marked by frequent conflicts—is one of the hallmark features of borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, the BPD couple as a dyad and partner-related features have rarely been taken into account. The aim of the present study was to investigate hormonal, personality, and [...] Read more.
Relationship dysfunction—marked by frequent conflicts—is one of the hallmark features of borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, the BPD couple as a dyad and partner-related features have rarely been taken into account. The aim of the present study was to investigate hormonal, personality, and relationship relevant factors, such as relationship satisfaction, attachment, and trauma in both partners within a dyad where one partner is diagnosed with BPD. The total sample consisted of 26 heterosexual couples. All studies were conducted at 2 p.m. Primary outcomes: Neo-Five-Factor-Inventory, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Experiences in Close Relationships Scale. Secondary outcomes: Problem List, Partnership Questionnaire, Questionnaire for Assessing Dyadic Coping. Upon questionnaire completion, one saliva sample was taken via passive drool to assess baseline cortisol and testosterone levels. Results showed that females with BPD have higher scores on childhood maltreatment, dysfunctional attachment styles, and neuroticism than mentally healthy females. Furthermore, they have more relationship-related problems and are less satisfied in their romantic relationship. Male partners of women with BPD showed lower testosterone levels, higher levels of childhood maltreatment, dysfunctional attachment styles, neuroticism, and openness compared with the healthy control partners. Furthermore, childhood trauma, neuroticism as well as dysfunctional attachment styles displayed a significant positive correlation with relationship-related problems. Traumatic childhood experiences, insecure attachment styles as well as neurotic personality characteristics contribute to increased relationship disruptions in couples. Relevant hormonal and psychosocial parameters in BPD partners should be taken into account when treating females with BPD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Psychiatric, Emotional and Behavioral Disorders)
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9 pages, 491 KiB  
Article
Examining the Relationship between Adaptive Behavior and Intelligence
by Marc J. Tassé and Minje Kim
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13030252 - 13 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3834
Abstract
Adaptive behavior and intelligence are both essential components of defining and diagnosing intellectual disability. The exact relationship between these two constructs still warrants some clarification. Previous studies have examined the correlation between adaptive behavior and intelligence and have reported differing results. Overall, there [...] Read more.
Adaptive behavior and intelligence are both essential components of defining and diagnosing intellectual disability. The exact relationship between these two constructs still warrants some clarification. Previous studies have examined the correlation between adaptive behavior and intelligence and have reported differing results. Overall, there seems to be agreement that a modest to moderate correlation exists between adaptive behavior and intelligence and that the strength of this relationship may increase as ability level decreases further below the population mean. Using the Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale and a sample of 57 youth aged from 4 to 21 years old, we examined the correlation coefficients between the full-scale IQ scores and their scores obtained on conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skill domain scores, as well as the total adaptive behavior score. The results obtained indicated a modest to moderate correlation between adaptive behavior and intelligence. The strongest statistically significant correlation coefficient was between the full-scale IQ score and the conceptual adaptive skills domain score (r = 0.64). The correlation between the full-scale IQ score and the practical adaptive skills domain (r = 0.39) and social adaptive skills domain (r = 0.28; ns) were more modest. The correlation coefficient between the full-scale IQ score and the total adaptive behavior score also showed a moderate relationship with intelligence (r = 0.46). These findings are consistent with previous research, documenting that adaptive behavior and intelligence are two related but independent constructs. We discuss these findings and their implications. Full article
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15 pages, 2028 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Physical Education Classroom Teaching after Implementation of the Chinese Health Physical Education Curriculum Model: A Video-Based Assessment
by Chao Liu, Cuixiang Dong, Xiaohui Li, Huanhuan Huang and Qiulin Wang
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13030251 - 12 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1967
Abstract
This study assessed the Chinese health physical education curriculum model recently suggested to meet the recommended physical education curriculum reforms addressing the declining physical and mental health of students in China. We used video analyses of 41 physical education classroom teaching cases with [...] Read more.
This study assessed the Chinese health physical education curriculum model recently suggested to meet the recommended physical education curriculum reforms addressing the declining physical and mental health of students in China. We used video analyses of 41 physical education classroom teaching cases with a physical education classroom teaching behavior analysis system to provide quantitative and qualitative behavioral data. We established reference ranges for classroom teaching behavior indicators, summarized classroom teaching patterns, and assessed classroom discourse and the emotional climate. Notable findings included teachers in elementary schools using closed-ended questions, predictable responses, and general feedback significantly more often than teachers in senior high school, and ball sports instructors using demonstration and competition significantly more frequently than instructors in athletics. Overall, three teaching patterns were most commonly used—lecture, practice, and dialogue—with practice being dominant. Analysis of the top 50 most commonly spoken words by teachers identified five types of discourse—motivational, directive, specialized, transitional, and regulatory—with motivational words being most frequent. The classroom atmosphere was mainly positive. These findings provide evidence that the use of this curriculum model may bring positive changes to physical education classroom teaching methods in China and will inform subsequent innovative physical education classroom teaching practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
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