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Animals, Volume 5, Issue 1 (March 2015) – 12 articles , Pages 1-150

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145 KiB  
Review
A Critical Analysis of the British Horseracing Authority’s Review of the Use of the Whip in Horseracing
by Bidda Jones, Jed Goodfellow, James Yeates and Paul D. McGreevy
Animals 2015, 5(1), 138-150; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani5010138 - 20 Mar 2015
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 14042
Abstract
There is increasing controversy about the use of the whip as a performance aid in Thoroughbred horseracing and its impact on horse welfare. This paper offers a critical analysis of the British Horseracing Authority’s (BHA) 2011 Report Responsible Regulation: A Review of the [...] Read more.
There is increasing controversy about the use of the whip as a performance aid in Thoroughbred horseracing and its impact on horse welfare. This paper offers a critical analysis of the British Horseracing Authority’s (BHA) 2011 Report Responsible Regulation: A Review of the Use of the Whip in Horseracing. It examines the BHA’s process of consultation and use of science and public opinion research through the application of current scientific literature and legal analysis. This analysis suggests that the BHA’s findings on the welfare impact and justification for whip use are insufficiently defended by the report. These findings indicate that the report is an inadequate basis from which to draw any definitive conclusions on the impact of whips on racehorse welfare. Further review is needed, undertaken by an independent scientific body, to advance this debate. Full article
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1136 KiB  
Review
Assessing Food Preferences in Dogs and Cats: A Review of the Current Methods
by Christelle Tobie, Franck Péron and Claire Larose
Animals 2015, 5(1), 126-137; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani5010126 - 18 Mar 2015
Cited by 50 | Viewed by 16585
Abstract
Food is a major aspect of pet care; therefore, ensuring that pet foods are not only healthful but attractive to companion animals and their owners is essential. The petfood market remains active and requires ongoing evaluation of the adaptation and efficiency of the [...] Read more.
Food is a major aspect of pet care; therefore, ensuring that pet foods are not only healthful but attractive to companion animals and their owners is essential. The petfood market remains active and requires ongoing evaluation of the adaptation and efficiency of the new products. Palatability—foods’ characteristics enticing animals and leading them to consumption—is therefore a key element to look at. Based on the type of information needed, different pet populations (expert or naïve) can be tested to access their preference and acceptance for different food products. Classical techniques are the one-bowl and two-bowl tests, but complementary (i.e., operant conditioning) and novel (i.e., exploratory behavior) approaches are available to gather more information on the evaluation of petfood palatability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Palatability of Pet Food)
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14398 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Fiber Inclusion on Pet Food Sensory Characteristics and Palatability
by Kadri Koppel, Mariana Monti, Michael Gibson, Sajid Alavi, Brizio Di Donfrancesco and Aulus Cavalieri Carciofi
Animals 2015, 5(1), 110-125; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani5010110 - 16 Feb 2015
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 10614
Abstract
The objectives of this study were to determine (a) the influence of fiber on the sensory characteristics of dry dog foods; (b) differences of coated and uncoated kibbles for aroma and flavor characteristics; (c) palatability of these dry dog foods; and (d) potential [...] Read more.
The objectives of this study were to determine (a) the influence of fiber on the sensory characteristics of dry dog foods; (b) differences of coated and uncoated kibbles for aroma and flavor characteristics; (c) palatability of these dry dog foods; and (d) potential associations between palatability and sensory attributes. A total of eight fiber treatments were manufactured: a control (no fiber addition), guava fiber (3%, 6%, and 12%), sugar cane fiber (9%; large and small particle size), and wheat bran fiber (32%; large and small particle size). The results indicated significant effects of fibers on both flavor and texture properties of the samples. Bitter taste and iron and stale aftertaste were examples of flavor attributes that differed with treatment, with highest intensity observed for 12% guava fiber and small particle size sugar cane fiber treatments. Fracturability and initial crispness attributes were lowest for the sugar cane fiber treatments. Flavor of all treatments changed after coating with a palatant, increasing in toasted, brothy, and grainy attributes. The coating also had a masking effect on aroma attributes such as stale, flavor attributes such as iron and bitter taste, and appearance attributes such as porosity. Palatability testing results indicated that the control treatment was preferred over the sugar cane or the wheat bran treatment. The treatment with large sugarcane fiber particles was preferred over the treatment with small particles, while both of the wheat bran treatments were eaten at a similar level. Descriptive sensory analysis data, especially textural attributes, were useful in pinpointing the underlying characteristics and were considered to be reasons that may influence palatability of dog foods manufactured with inclusion of different fibers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Palatability of Pet Food)
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270 KiB  
Article
The Choice of Diet Affects the Oral Health of the Domestic Cat
by Fernando Mata
Animals 2015, 5(1), 101-109; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani5010101 - 16 Feb 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 13580
Abstract
In this cross-sectional study, the gingivitis and the calculus indices of the teeth of N = 41 cats were used to model oral health as a dependent variable using a Poisson regression. The independent variables used were “quadrant”, “teeth type”, “age”, and “diet”. [...] Read more.
In this cross-sectional study, the gingivitis and the calculus indices of the teeth of N = 41 cats were used to model oral health as a dependent variable using a Poisson regression. The independent variables used were “quadrant”, “teeth type”, “age”, and “diet”. Teeth type (p < 0.001) and diet (p < 0.001) were found to be significant, however, age was not (p > 0.05). Interactions were all significant: age x teeth (p < 0.01), age × diet (p < 0.01), teeth × diet (p < 0.001), and teeth × age × diet (p < 0.001). The probability of poor oral health is lower in the incisors of young or adult cats, fed a dry diet in comparison to the cheek teeth of older cats fed a wet diet. Diet has a higher contribution to poor oral health than age. It is argued that cats’ oral health may be promoted with an early age hygiene of the cheek teeth and with provision of abrasive dry food. Full article
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232 KiB  
Article
Maintenance Energy Requirements of Double-Muscled Belgian Blue Beef Cows
by Leo O. Fiems, Johan L. De Boever, José M. Vanacker and Sam De Campeneere
Animals 2015, 5(1), 89-100; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani5010089 - 13 Feb 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 5996
Abstract
Sixty non-pregnant, non-lactating double-muscled Belgian Blue (DMBB) cows were used to estimate the energy required to maintain body weight (BW). They were fed one of three energy levels for 112 or 140 days, corresponding to approximately 100%, 80% or 70% of their total [...] Read more.
Sixty non-pregnant, non-lactating double-muscled Belgian Blue (DMBB) cows were used to estimate the energy required to maintain body weight (BW). They were fed one of three energy levels for 112 or 140 days, corresponding to approximately 100%, 80% or 70% of their total energy requirements. The relationship between daily energy intake and BW and daily BW change was developed using regression analysis. Maintenance energy requirements were estimated from the regression equation by setting BW gain to zero. Metabolizable and net energy for maintenance amounted to 0.569 ± 0.001 and 0.332 ± 0.001 MJ per kg BW0.75/d, respectively. Maintenance energy requirements were not dependent on energy level (p > 0.10). Parity affected maintenance energy requirements (p < 0.001), although the small numerical differences between parities may hardly be nutritionally relevant. Maintenance energy requirements of DMBB beef cows were close to the mean energy requirements of other beef genotypes reported in the literature. Full article
745 KiB  
Article
Modification of the Feline-Ality™ Assessment and the Ability to Predict Adopted Cats’ Behaviors in Their New Homes
by Emily Weiss, Shannon Gramann, Natasha Drain, Emily Dolan and Margaret Slater
Animals 2015, 5(1), 71-88; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani5010071 - 5 Feb 2015
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 15870
Abstract
It is estimated that 2.5 million cats enter animal shelters in the United States every year and as few as 20% leave the shelter alive. Of those adopted, the greatest risk to post-adoption human animal bond is unrealistic expectations set by the adopter. [...] Read more.
It is estimated that 2.5 million cats enter animal shelters in the United States every year and as few as 20% leave the shelter alive. Of those adopted, the greatest risk to post-adoption human animal bond is unrealistic expectations set by the adopter. The ASPCA®’s Meet Your Match® Feline-ality™ adoption program was developed to provide adopters with an accurate assessment of an adult cat’s future behavior in the home. However, the original Feline-ality™ required a three-day hold time to collect cat behaviors on a data card, which was challenging for some shelters. This research involved creating a survey to determine in-home feline behavior post adoption and explored the predictive ability of the in-shelter assessment without the data card. Our results show that the original Feline-ality™ assessment and our modified version were predictive of feline behavior post adoption. Our modified version also decreased hold time for cats to one day. Shelters interested in increasing cat adoptions, decreasing length of stay and improving the adoption experience can now implement the modified version for future feline adoption success. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Welfare of Shelter Animals)
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501 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Age-Dependent Potential for Protein Deposition in Naked Neck Meat Type Chicken
by Daulat R. Khan, Christian Wecke, Ahmad R. Sharifi and Frank Liebert
Animals 2015, 5(1), 56-70; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani5010056 - 19 Jan 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 7042
Abstract
The introduction of the naked neck gene (Na) into modern meat type chicken is known to be helpful in increasing the tolerance for a high ambient temperature (AT) by reducing the feather coverage which allows for a higher level of heat [...] Read more.
The introduction of the naked neck gene (Na) into modern meat type chicken is known to be helpful in increasing the tolerance for a high ambient temperature (AT) by reducing the feather coverage which allows for a higher level of heat dissipation compared to normally feathered (na/na) birds. In addition, reduced feather coverage could affect requirements for sulfur containing amino acids. As a prerequisite for further modeling of individual amino acid requirements, the daily N maintenance requirement (NMR) and the threshold value of daily N retention (NRmaxT) were determined. This was carried out using graded dietary protein supply and exponential modeling between N intake (NI) and N excretion (NEX) or N deposition (ND), respectively. Studies with homozygous (Na/Na) and heterozygous (Na/na) naked neck meat type chicken utilized 144 birds of average weight (50% of each genotype and sex) within two N balance experiments during both the starter (days 10–20) and the grower period (days 25–35). Birds were randomly allotted to five diets with graded dietary protein supply but constant protein quality. The observed estimates depending on genotype, sex and age varied for NMR and NRmaxT from 224 to 395 and 2881 to 4049 mg N/BWkg0.67/day, respectively. Full article
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190 KiB  
Review
Pet Food Palatability Evaluation: A Review of Standard Assay Techniques and Interpretation of Results with a Primary Focus on Limitations
by Gregory C. Aldrich and Kadri Koppel
Animals 2015, 5(1), 43-55; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani5010043 - 16 Jan 2015
Cited by 56 | Viewed by 13663
Abstract
The pet food industry continues to grow steadily as a result of new innovative products. Quality control and product development tests for pet foods are typically conducted through palatability testing with dogs and cats. Palatability is the measure of intake of a food [...] Read more.
The pet food industry continues to grow steadily as a result of new innovative products. Quality control and product development tests for pet foods are typically conducted through palatability testing with dogs and cats. Palatability is the measure of intake of a food that indicates acceptance or the measure of preference of one food over another. Pet food palatability is most commonly measured using a single-bowl or a two-bowl assay. While these tests answer some questions about the animals’ perception of the food, there are many limitations as well. This review addresses some of these limitations and indicates opportunities for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Palatability of Pet Food)
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37 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Animals in 2014
by Animals Editorial Office
Animals 2015, 5(1), 41-42; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani5010041 - 7 Jan 2015
Viewed by 4000
Abstract
The editors of Animals would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2014:[...] Full article
967 KiB  
Article
Selecting a Conservation Surrogate Species for Small Fragmented Habitats Using Ecological Niche Modelling
by K. Anne-Isola Nekaris, Andrew P. Arnell and Magdalena S. Svensson
Animals 2015, 5(1), 27-40; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani5010027 - 5 Jan 2015
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 8668
Abstract
Flagship species are traditionally large, charismatic animals used to rally conservation efforts. Accepted flagship definitions suggest they need only fulfil a strategic role, unlike umbrella species that are used to shelter cohabitant taxa. The criteria used to select both flagship and umbrella species [...] Read more.
Flagship species are traditionally large, charismatic animals used to rally conservation efforts. Accepted flagship definitions suggest they need only fulfil a strategic role, unlike umbrella species that are used to shelter cohabitant taxa. The criteria used to select both flagship and umbrella species may not stand up in the face of dramatic forest loss, where remaining fragments may only contain species that do not suit either set of criteria. The Cinderella species concept covers aesthetically pleasing and overlooked species that fulfil the criteria of flagships or umbrellas. Such species are also more likely to occur in fragmented habitats. We tested Cinderella criteria on mammals in the fragmented forests of the Sri Lankan Wet Zone. We selected taxa that fulfilled both strategic and ecological roles. We created a shortlist of ten species, and from a survey of local perceptions highlighted two finalists. We tested these for umbrella characteristics against the original shortlist, utilizing Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modelling, and analysed distribution overlap using ArcGIS. The criteria highlighted Loris tardigradus tardigradus and Prionailurus viverrinus as finalists, with the former having highest flagship potential. We suggest Cinderella species can be effective conservation surrogates especially in habitats where traditional flagship species have been extirpated. Full article
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407 KiB  
Article
Loading and Unloading Finishing Pigs: Effects of Bedding Types, Ramp Angle, and Bedding Moisture
by Arlene Garcia and John J. McGlone
Animals 2015, 5(1), 13-26; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani5010013 - 31 Dec 2014
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 8058
Abstract
The use of non-slip surfaces during loading and unloading of finishing pigs plays an important role in animal welfare and economics of the pork industry. Currently, the guidelines available only suggest the use of ramps with a slope below 20 degrees to load [...] Read more.
The use of non-slip surfaces during loading and unloading of finishing pigs plays an important role in animal welfare and economics of the pork industry. Currently, the guidelines available only suggest the use of ramps with a slope below 20 degrees to load and unload pigs. However, the total time it takes to load and unload animals and slips, falls, and vocalizations are a welfare concern. Three ramp angles (0, 10 or 20 degrees), five bedding materials (nothing, sand, feed, wood shavings or wheat straw hay), two moistures (dry or wet bedding, >50% moisture) over two seasons (>23.9 °C summer, <23.9 °C winter) were assessed for slips/falls/vocalizations (n = 2400 pig observations) and analyzed with a scoring system. The use of bedding during summer or winter played a role in the total time it took to load and unload the ramp (p < 0.05). Bedding, bedding moisture, season, and slope significantly interacted to impact the total time to load and unload finishing pigs (p < 0.05). Heart rate and the total time it took to load and unload the ramp increased as the slope of the ramp increased (p < 0.05). Heart rates were higher during the summer than winter, and summer heart rates increased as the slope increased (p < 0.05). The current study suggests that several factors should be considered in combination to identify the appropriate bedding for the specific occasion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pig Transport)
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119 KiB  
Article
The Experience of Being a Guide Dog Puppy Raiser Volunteer: A Longitudinal Qualitative Collective Case Study
by Anna Chur-Hansen, Lucy-Kate Werner, Clare E. McGuiness and Susan Hazel
Animals 2015, 5(1), 1-12; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani5010001 - 23 Dec 2014
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 9765
Abstract
There are no published studies that consider the experiences of guide dog puppy raisers. As these people are volunteers, their continued willingness to participate in the training of dogs for assisting the vision impaired and blind is essential for the viability of guide [...] Read more.
There are no published studies that consider the experiences of guide dog puppy raisers. As these people are volunteers, their continued willingness to participate in the training of dogs for assisting the vision impaired and blind is essential for the viability of guide dog schools around the world. Using a qualitative, longitudinal methodology, data were collected from nine guide dog puppy raisers at four time points: before receiving the puppy, one week, then three months after the puppy arrived, and 13 months after the puppy arrived (at which time all puppies had left the raisers). Participants reported more challenges than benefits in raising the puppies. Volunteering to be a guide dog puppy raiser may not be the pleasant experience that is anticipated when community members first offer their services. Understanding what it is like to be a puppy raiser and working towards ways in which to address problems is essential, given that, without volunteers to train and care for puppies, vision impaired and blind people would not have access to guide dogs. Full article
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