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Microorganisms, Volume 11, Issue 6 (June 2023) – 261 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Not only natural substrates but also artificial ones are home to a myriad of microorganisms. Interestingly, “things” (that is, artificial products, machines, and other devices) are biotopes, meaning they are ecologically relevant substrates that shape the microbial communities that live in or on them. Examples of selection pressures in such artificial ecosystems include strong thermal variations, drought, detergents, extreme pH, or irradiation. In our article by Satari et al., we propose a new concept: the Microbiome of Things (MoT), an idea inspired by the Internet-of-Things (IoT). The MoT is related to both anthropogenic and environmental ones but is characterized by a marker pool of niche-adapted, and therefore thing-adapted, microorganisms. View this paper
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15 pages, 3142 KiB  
Article
Genome Sequence and Evaluation of Safety and Probiotic Potential of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum LPJZ-658
by Liquan Deng, Liming Liu, Tongyu Fu, Chunhua Li, Ningyi Jin, Heping Zhang, Chang Li, Yawen Liu and Cuiqing Zhao
Microorganisms 2023, 11(6), 1620; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11061620 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1562
Abstract
This study aims to systematically evaluate the safety of a novel L. plantarum LPJZ-658 explored on whole-genome sequence analysis, safety, and probiotic properties assessment. Whole genome sequencing results demonstrated that L. plantarum LPJZ-658 consists of 3.26 Mbp with a GC content of 44.83%. [...] Read more.
This study aims to systematically evaluate the safety of a novel L. plantarum LPJZ-658 explored on whole-genome sequence analysis, safety, and probiotic properties assessment. Whole genome sequencing results demonstrated that L. plantarum LPJZ-658 consists of 3.26 Mbp with a GC content of 44.83%. A total of 3254 putative ORFs were identified. Of note, a putative bile saline hydrolase (BSH) (identity 70.4%) was found in its genome. In addition, the secondary metabolites were analyzed, and one secondary metabolite gene cluster was predicted to consist of 51 genes, which verified its safety and probiotic properties at the genome level. Additionally, L. plantarum LPJZ-658 exhibited non-toxic and non-hemolytic activity and was susceptible to various tested antibiotics, indicating that L. plantarum LPJZ-658 was safe for consumption. Moreover, the probiotic properties tests confirm that L. plantarum LPJZ-658 also exhibits tolerance to acid and bile salts, preferably hydrophobicity and auto-aggregation, and excellent antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative gastrointestinal pathogens. In conclusion, this study confirmed the safety and probiotic properties of L. plantarum LPJZ-658, suggesting it can be used as a potential probiotic candidate for human and animal applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gut Microbiota)
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12 pages, 1636 KiB  
Article
Prevalence and Characteristics of Novel Pathogenic Leptospira Species in Bats in Yunnan Province, China
by Tian Yang, Weihong Yang, Guopeng Kuang, Hong Pan, Xi Han, Lifen Yang, Juan Wang and Yun Feng
Microorganisms 2023, 11(6), 1619; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11061619 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1486
Abstract
Leptospirosis has been identified as a zoonotic disease caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the bacterial genus Leptospira. Rodents are considered the primary hosts of these bacteria, whereas many recent studies suggest that bats may serve as potential natural reservoirs. However, studies on [...] Read more.
Leptospirosis has been identified as a zoonotic disease caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the bacterial genus Leptospira. Rodents are considered the primary hosts of these bacteria, whereas many recent studies suggest that bats may serve as potential natural reservoirs. However, studies on pathogenic spirochetes hosted by bat populations still need to be completed in China. In this study, a total of 276 bats belonging to five genera collected in Yunnan Province (Southwest China) from 2017 to 2021 were included in the screening. Pathogenic spirochetes were detected by PCR amplification and sequencing targeting four genes (rrs, secY, flaB, and LipL32), resulting in 17 positive samples. Phylogenetic analysis based on multi-loci concatenated sequences, inferred by MLST approach, identified the strains as two novel Leptospira species within the pathogenic group. Of note, only Rousettus leschenaultii was found to harbor these spirochetes, suggesting it may be one of the potential natural reservoirs in circulating leptospires in this region. Nevertheless, the pathogenesis and transmission dynamics still need to be fully understood, requiring in-depth studies on other animals and the surrounding population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Public Health Microbiology)
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16 pages, 3180 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Enterotoxins and Antimicrobial Resistance in Microorganisms Isolated from Raw Sheep Milk and Cheese: Ensuring the Microbiological Safety of These Products in Southern Brazil
by Creciana M. Endres, Eliana Moreira, Andressa B. de Freitas, Andréia P. Dal Castel, Fábio Graciano, Michele B. Mann, Ana Paula G. Frazzon, Fabiana Q. Mayer and Jeverson Frazzon
Microorganisms 2023, 11(6), 1618; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11061618 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1381
Abstract
This study emphasizes the importance of monitoring the microbiological quality of animal products, such as raw sheep’s milk and cheese, to ensure food safety. In Brazil, there is currently no legislation governing the quality of sheep’s milk and its derivatives. Therefore, this study [...] Read more.
This study emphasizes the importance of monitoring the microbiological quality of animal products, such as raw sheep’s milk and cheese, to ensure food safety. In Brazil, there is currently no legislation governing the quality of sheep’s milk and its derivatives. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate: (i) the hygienic-sanitary quality of raw sheep’s milk and cheese produced in southern Brazil; (ii) the presence of enterotoxins and Staphylococcus spp. in these products; and (iii) the susceptibility of the isolated Staphylococcus spp. to antimicrobial drugs and the presence of resistance genes. A total of 35 samples of sheep’s milk and cheese were examined. The microbiological quality and presence of enterotoxins were accessed using Petrifilm and VIDAS SET2 methods, respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were conducted using VITEK 2 equipment and the disc diffusion method. The presence of resistance genes tet(L), sul1, sul2, ermB, tetM, AAC(6)’, tetW, and strA were evaluated through PCR. In total, 39 Staphylococcus spp. were obtained. The resistance genes tetM, ermB, strA, tetL, sul1, AAC(6)’, and sul2 were detected in 82%, 59%, 36%, 28%, 23%, 3%, and 3% of isolates, respectively. The findings revealed that both raw sheep’s milk and cheese contained Staphylococcus spp. that exhibited resistance to antimicrobial drugs and harbored resistance genes. These results underscore the immediate need for specific legislation in Brazil to regulate the production and sale of these products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance in Foodborne Bacteria)
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24 pages, 2372 KiB  
Review
Entomopathogenic Fungi: An Eco-Friendly Synthesis of Sustainable Nanoparticles and Their Nanopesticide Properties
by Ritu Bihal, Jameel M. Al-Khayri, A. Najitha Banu, Natasha Kudesia, Farah K. Ahmed, Rudradeb Sarkar, Akshit Arora and Kamel A. Abd-Elsalam
Microorganisms 2023, 11(6), 1617; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11061617 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2500
Abstract
The agricultural industry could undergo significant changes due to the revolutionary potential of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology has a broad range of possible applications and advantages, including insect pest management using treatments based on nanoparticle insecticides. Conventional techniques, such as integrated pest management, are inadequate, [...] Read more.
The agricultural industry could undergo significant changes due to the revolutionary potential of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology has a broad range of possible applications and advantages, including insect pest management using treatments based on nanoparticle insecticides. Conventional techniques, such as integrated pest management, are inadequate, and using chemical pesticides has negative consequences. As a result, nanotechnology would provide ecologically beneficial and effective alternatives for insect pest control. Considering the remarkable traits they exhibit, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are recognized as potential prospects in agriculture. Due to their efficiency and great biocompatibility, the utilization of biologically synthesized nanosilver in insect pest control has significantly increased nowadays. Silver nanoparticles have been produced using a wide range of microbes and plants, which is considered an environmentally friendly method. However, among all, entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) have the most potential to be used in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles with a variety of properties. Therefore, in this review, different ways to get rid of agricultural pests have been discussed, with a focus on the importance and growing popularity of biosynthesized nanosilver, especially silver nanoparticles made from fungi that kill insects. Finally, the review highlights the need for further studies so that the efficiency of bio-nanosilver could be tested for field application and the exact mode of action of silver nanoparticles against pests can be elucidated, which will eventually be a boon to the agricultural industry for putting a check on pest populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Nanotechnology 2.0)
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12 pages, 1481 KiB  
Perspective
The Role of the Plant–Soil Relationship in Agricultural Production—With Particular Regard to PGPB Application and Phytoremediation
by Szilvia Kisvarga, Dóra Hamar-Farkas, Máté Ördögh, Katalin Horotán, András Neményi, Dezső Kovács and László Orlóci
Microorganisms 2023, 11(6), 1616; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11061616 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1861
Abstract
Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) and other living organisms can help with the challenges of modern agriculture. PGPB offer ever-expanding possibilities for science and commerce, and the scientific results have been very advanced in recent years. In our current work, we collected the scientific [...] Read more.
Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) and other living organisms can help with the challenges of modern agriculture. PGPB offer ever-expanding possibilities for science and commerce, and the scientific results have been very advanced in recent years. In our current work, we collected the scientific results of recent years and the opinions of experts on the subject. Opinions and results on soil–plant relations, as well as the importance of PGPB and the latest related experiences, are important topics of our review work, which highlights the scientific results of the last 3–4 years. Overall, it can be concluded from all these observations that the bacteria that promote plant development are becoming more and more important in agriculture almost all over the world, thus, promoting more sustainable and environmentally conscious agricultural production and avoiding the use of artificial fertilizers and chemicals. Since many mechanisms of action, namely biochemical and operational processes, are still under investigation, a new emerging scientific direction is expected in the coming years with regard to PGPB, microbial, and other plant growth-stimulating substances, in which omics and microbial modulation also play a leading role. Full article
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17 pages, 2004 KiB  
Article
Symbiotic Variations among Wheat Genotypes and Detection of Quantitative Trait Loci for Molecular Interaction with Auxin-Producing Azospirillum PGPR
by Jordan Valente, Florence Gerin, Agathe Mini, Rohan Richard, Jacques Le Gouis, Claire Prigent-Combaret and Yvan Moënne-Loccoz
Microorganisms 2023, 11(6), 1615; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11061615 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1361
Abstract
Crop varieties differ in their ability to interact with Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR), but the genetic basis for these differences is unknown. This issue was addressed with the PGPR Azospirillum baldaniorum Sp245, using 187 wheat accessions. We screened the accessions based on the [...] Read more.
Crop varieties differ in their ability to interact with Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR), but the genetic basis for these differences is unknown. This issue was addressed with the PGPR Azospirillum baldaniorum Sp245, using 187 wheat accessions. We screened the accessions based on the seedling colonization by the PGPR and the expression of the phenylpyruvate decarboxylase gene ppdC (for synthesis of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid), using gusA fusions. Then, the effects of the PGPR on the selected accessions stimulating Sp245 (or not) were compared in soil under stress. Finally, a genome-wide association approach was implemented to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with PGPR interaction. Overall, the ancient genotypes were more effective than the modern genotypes for Azospirillum root colonization and ppdC expression. In non-sterile soil, A. baldaniorum Sp245 improved wheat performance for three of the four PGPR-stimulating genotypes and none of the four non-PGPR-stimulating genotypes. The genome-wide association did not identify any region for root colonization but revealed 22 regions spread on 11 wheat chromosomes for ppdC expression and/or ppdC induction rate. This is the first QTL study focusing on molecular interaction with PGPR bacteria. The molecular markers identified provide the possibility to improve the capacity of modern wheat genotypes to interact with Sp245, as well as, potentially, other Azospirillum strains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Plant—Bacteria Interactions)
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32 pages, 2572 KiB  
Review
Microbial Biofilm: A Review on Formation, Infection, Antibiotic Resistance, Control Measures, and Innovative Treatment
by Satish Sharma, James Mohler, Supriya D. Mahajan, Stanley A. Schwartz, Liana Bruggemann and Ravikumar Aalinkeel
Microorganisms 2023, 11(6), 1614; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11061614 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 49 | Viewed by 14702
Abstract
Biofilm is complex and consists of bacterial colonies that reside in an exopolysaccharide matrix that attaches to foreign surfaces in a living organism. Biofilm frequently leads to nosocomial, chronic infections in clinical settings. Since the bacteria in the biofilm have developed antibiotic resistance, [...] Read more.
Biofilm is complex and consists of bacterial colonies that reside in an exopolysaccharide matrix that attaches to foreign surfaces in a living organism. Biofilm frequently leads to nosocomial, chronic infections in clinical settings. Since the bacteria in the biofilm have developed antibiotic resistance, using antibiotics alone to treat infections brought on by biofilm is ineffective. This review provides a succinct summary of the theories behind the composition of, formation of, and drug-resistant infections attributed to biofilm and cutting-edge curative approaches to counteract and treat biofilm. The high frequency of medical device-induced infections due to biofilm warrants the application of innovative technologies to manage the complexities presented by biofilm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacterial Biofilm Formation and Eradication)
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5 pages, 253 KiB  
Editorial
Experimental Trypanosoma cruzi Infection and Chagas Disease—A Word of Caution
by André Talvani and Mauro Martins Teixeira
Microorganisms 2023, 11(6), 1613; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11061613 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 915
Abstract
The physician Carlos Chagas (1879–1934) described the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and discovered a new illness named American trypanosomiases or Chagas disease (Chagas, 1909) [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Trypanosoma cruzi Infections)
13 pages, 6810 KiB  
Article
Involvement of AoMdr1 in the Regulation of the Fluconazole Resistance, Mycelial Fusion, Conidiation, and Trap Formation of Arthrobotrys oligospora
by Yankun Liu, Xuewei Yang, Meichen Zhu, Na Bai, Wenjie Wang and Jinkui Yang
Microorganisms 2023, 11(6), 1612; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11061612 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 888
Abstract
Multidrug resistance (Mdr) proteins are critical proteins for maintenance of drug resistance in fungi. Mdr1 has been extensively studied in Candida albicans; its role in other fungi is largely unknown. In this study, we identified a homologous protein of Mdr (AoMdr1) in [...] Read more.
Multidrug resistance (Mdr) proteins are critical proteins for maintenance of drug resistance in fungi. Mdr1 has been extensively studied in Candida albicans; its role in other fungi is largely unknown. In this study, we identified a homologous protein of Mdr (AoMdr1) in the nematode-trapping (NT) fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora. It was found that the deletion of Aomdr1 resulted in a significant reduction in the number of hyphal septa and nuclei as well as increased sensitivity to fluconazole and resistance to hyperosmotic stress and SDS. The deletion of Aomdr1 also led to a remarkable increase in the numbers of traps and mycelial loops in the traps. Notably, AoMdr1 was able to regulate mycelial fusion under low-nutrient conditions, but not under nutrient-rich conditions. AoMdr1 was also involved in secondary metabolism, and its deletion caused an increase in arthrobotrisins (specific compounds produced by NT fungi). These results suggest that AoMdr1 plays a crucial role in the fluconazole resistance, mycelial fusion, conidiation, trap formation, and secondary metabolism of A. oligospora. Our study contributes to the understanding of the critical role of Mdr proteins in mycelial growth and the development of NT fungi. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Research on Ancient Terrestrial Fungi)
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16 pages, 6370 KiB  
Article
Metataxonomic Analysis Demonstrates a Shift in Duodenal Microbiota in Patients with Obstructive Jaundice
by Benjamin Hart, Jasmin Patel, Pieter De Maayer, Ekene Emmanuel Nweke and Damon Bizos
Microorganisms 2023, 11(6), 1611; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11061611 - 18 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1250
Abstract
The human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is home to an abundance of diverse microorganisms, and the balance of this microbiome plays a vital role in maintaining a healthy GIT. The obstruction of the flow of bile into the duodenum, resulting in obstructive jaundice (OJ), [...] Read more.
The human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is home to an abundance of diverse microorganisms, and the balance of this microbiome plays a vital role in maintaining a healthy GIT. The obstruction of the flow of bile into the duodenum, resulting in obstructive jaundice (OJ), has a major impact on the health of the affected individual. This study sought to identify changes in the duodenal microbiota in South African patients with OJ compared to those without this disorder. Mucosal biopsies were taken from the duodenum of nineteen jaundiced patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and nineteen control participants (non-jaundiced patients) undergoing gastroscopy. DNA extracted from the samples was subjected to 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing using the Ion S5 TM sequencing platform. Diversity metrics and statistical correlation analyses with the clinical data were performed to compare duodenal microbial communities in both groups. Differences in the mean distribution of the microbial communities in the jaundiced and non-jaundiced samples were observed; however, this difference did not reach statistical significance. Of note, there was a statistically significant difference between the mean distributions of bacteria comparing jaundiced patients with cholangitis to those without (p = 0.0026). On further subset analysis, a significant difference was observed between patients with benign (Cholelithiasis) and malignant disease, namely, head of pancreas (HOP) mass (p = 0.01). Beta diversity analyses further revealed a significant difference between patients with stone and non-stone related disease when factoring in the Campylobacter-Like Organisms (CLO) test status (p = 0.048). This study demonstrated a shift in the microbiota in jaundiced patients, especially considering some underlying conditions of the upper GI tract. Future studies should aim to verify these findings in a larger cohort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Strategies in the Study of the Human Gut Microbiota)
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23 pages, 3268 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Influence of pH on the Dynamics of Acetone–Butanol–Ethanol Fermentation
by Manish Kumar, Supreet Saini and Kalyan Gayen
Microorganisms 2023, 11(6), 1610; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11061610 - 18 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1209
Abstract
Clostridium acetobutylicum is an anaerobic bacterium that is extensively studied for its ability to produce butanol. Over the past two decades, various genetic and metabolic engineering approaches have been used to investigate the physiology and regulation system of the biphasic metabolic pathway in [...] Read more.
Clostridium acetobutylicum is an anaerobic bacterium that is extensively studied for its ability to produce butanol. Over the past two decades, various genetic and metabolic engineering approaches have been used to investigate the physiology and regulation system of the biphasic metabolic pathway in this organism. However, there has been a relatively limited amount of research focused on the fermentation dynamics of C. acetobutylicum. In this study, we developed a pH-based phenomenological model to predict the fermentative production of butanol from glucose using C. acetobutylicum in a batch system. The model describes the relationship between the dynamics of growth and the production of desired metabolites and the extracellular pH of the media. Our model was found to be successful in predicting the fermentation dynamics of C. acetobutylicum, and the simulations were validated using experimental fermentation data. Furthermore, the proposed model has the potential to be extended to represent the dynamics of butanol production in other fermentation systems, such as fed-batch or continuous fermentation using single and multi-sugars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Microbial Cell Factories)
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25 pages, 427 KiB  
Review
The Immune Response Generated against HPV Infection in Men and Its Implications in the Diagnosis of Cancer
by Lilia Chihu-Amparan, Adolfo Pedroza-Saavedra and Lourdes Gutierrez-Xicotencatl
Microorganisms 2023, 11(6), 1609; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11061609 - 18 Jun 2023
Viewed by 2583
Abstract
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with precancerous lesions and cancer of the genital tract both in women and men. The high incidence of cervical cancer worldwide focused the research on this infection mainly in women and to a lesser extent in men. [...] Read more.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with precancerous lesions and cancer of the genital tract both in women and men. The high incidence of cervical cancer worldwide focused the research on this infection mainly in women and to a lesser extent in men. In this review, we summarized epidemiological, immunological, and diagnostic data associated with HPV and cancer in men. We presented an overview of the main characteristics of HPV and infection in men that are associated with different types of cancer but also associated with male infertility. Men are considered important vectors of HPV transmission to women; therefore, identifying the sexual and social behavioral risk factors associated with HPV infection in men is critical to understand the etiology of the disease. It is also essential to describe how the immune response develops in men during HPV infection or when vaccinated, since this knowledge could help to control the viral transmission to women, decreasing the incidence of cervical cancer, but also could reduce other HPV-associated cancers among men who have sex with men (MSM). Finally, we summarized the methods used over time to detect and genotype HPV genomes, as well as some diagnostic tests that use cellular and viral biomarkers that were identified in HPV-related cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncogenic Role of Viruses and Bacteria)
13 pages, 4834 KiB  
Article
In Silico Identification and In Vitro Validation of Repurposed Compounds Targeting the RSV Polymerase
by Eric Xu, Seohyun Park, Juan Calderon, Dongdong Cao and Bo Liang
Microorganisms 2023, 11(6), 1608; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11061608 - 18 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2332
Abstract
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the top cause of infant hospitalization globally, with no effective treatments available. Researchers have sought small molecules to target the RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase (RdRP) of RSV, which is essential for replication and transcription. Based on the cryo-EM structure [...] Read more.
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the top cause of infant hospitalization globally, with no effective treatments available. Researchers have sought small molecules to target the RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase (RdRP) of RSV, which is essential for replication and transcription. Based on the cryo-EM structure of the RSV polymerase, in silico computational analysis including molecular docking and the protein-ligand simulation of a database, including 6554 molecules, is currently undergoing phases 1–4 of clinical trials and has resulted in the top ten repurposed compound candidates against the RSV polymerase, including Micafungin, Totrombopag, and Verubecestat. We performed the same procedure to evaluate 18 small molecules from previous studies and chose the top four compounds for comparison. Among the top identified repurposed compounds, Micafungin, an antifungal medication, showed significant inhibition and binding affinity improvements over current inhibitors such as ALS-8112 and Ribavirin. We also validated Micafungin’s inhibition of the RSV RdRP using an in vitro transcription assay. These findings contribute to RSV drug development and hold promise for broad-spectrum antivirals targeting the non-segmented negative-sense (NNS) RNA viral polymerases, including those of rabies (RABV) and Ebola (EBOV). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances of Respiratory Infections)
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17 pages, 993 KiB  
Article
Use of Selected Lactic Acid Bacteria and Carob Flour for the Production of a High-Fibre and “Clean Label” Plant-Based Yogurt-like Product
by Chiara Demarinis, Marco Montemurro, Andrea Torreggiani, Erica Pontonio, Michela Verni and Carlo Giuseppe Rizzello
Microorganisms 2023, 11(6), 1607; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11061607 - 18 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1594
Abstract
Carob, an underutilized crop with several ecological and economic advantages, was traditionally used as animal feed and excluded from the human diet. Yet, nowadays, its beneficial effects on health are making it an interesting candidate as a food ingredient. In this study, a [...] Read more.
Carob, an underutilized crop with several ecological and economic advantages, was traditionally used as animal feed and excluded from the human diet. Yet, nowadays, its beneficial effects on health are making it an interesting candidate as a food ingredient. In this study, a carob-based yogurt-like product was designed and fermented with six lactic acid bacteria strains, whose performances after fermentation and during shelf life were assessed through microbial and biochemical characterization. The strains showed different aptitudes to ferment the rice–carob matrix. Particularly, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum T6B10 was among the strains with the lowest latency phase and highest acidification at the end of fermentation. T6B10 also showed discrete proteolysis during storage, so free amino acids were up to 3-fold higher compared to the beverages fermented with the other strains. Overall, fermentation resulted in the inhibition of spoilage microorganisms, while an increase in yeasts was found in the chemically acidified control. The yogurt-like product was characterized by high-fiber and low-fat content; moreover, compared to the control, fermentation decreased the predicted glycemic index (−9%) and improved the sensory acceptability. Thus, this work demonstrated that the combination of carob flour and fermentation with selected lactic acid bacteria strains represents a sustainable and effective option to obtain safe and nutritious yogurt-like products. Full article
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21 pages, 421 KiB  
Review
Epidemiology and Prevention of Early Infections by Multi-Drug-Resistant Organisms in Adults Undergoing Liver Transplant: A Narrative Review
by Giovanni Dolci, Giulia Jole Burastero, Francesca Paglia, Adriana Cervo, Marianna Meschiari, Giovanni Guaraldi, Johanna Chester, Cristina Mussini and Erica Franceschini
Microorganisms 2023, 11(6), 1606; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11061606 - 17 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1715
Abstract
Invasive bacterial infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after liver transplant (LT), especially during the first months after LT, and infections due to multi-drug-resistant organisms (MDRO) are increasing in this setting. Most of the infections in patients in intensive care [...] Read more.
Invasive bacterial infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after liver transplant (LT), especially during the first months after LT, and infections due to multi-drug-resistant organisms (MDRO) are increasing in this setting. Most of the infections in patients in intensive care unit arise from the endogenous microflora and, for this reason, pre-LT MDRO rectal colonization is a risk factor for developing MDRO infections in the post-LT. Moreover, the transplanted liver may carry an increased risk of MDRO infections due to organ transportation and preservation, to donor intensive care unit stay and previous antibiotic exposure. To date, little evidence is available about how MDRO pre-LT colonization in donors and recipients should address LT preventive and antibiotic prophylactic strategies, in order to reduce MDRO infections in the post-LT period. The present review provided an extensive overview of the recent literature on these topics, with the aim to offer a comprehensive insight about the epidemiology of MDRO colonization and infections in adult LT recipients, donor-derived MDRO infections, possible surveillance, and prophylactic strategies to reduce post-LT MDRO infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Diseases in Organ Transplantation)
16 pages, 3088 KiB  
Article
Antifungal Activity of Hop Leaf Extracts and Xanthohumol on Two Strains of Venturia inaequalis with Different Sensitivities to Triazoles
by Sophie Moureu, Justine Jacquin, Jennifer Samaillie, Caroline Deweer, Céline Rivière and Jérôme Muchembled
Microorganisms 2023, 11(6), 1605; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11061605 - 17 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1262
Abstract
Hop cones are well-known for their antimicrobial properties, attributed to their specialized metabolites. Thus, this study aimed to determine the in vitro antifungal activity of different hop parts, including by-products such as leaves and stems, and some metabolites against Venturia inaequalis, the [...] Read more.
Hop cones are well-known for their antimicrobial properties, attributed to their specialized metabolites. Thus, this study aimed to determine the in vitro antifungal activity of different hop parts, including by-products such as leaves and stems, and some metabolites against Venturia inaequalis, the causal agent of apple scab. For each plant part, two types of extracts, a crude hydro-ethanolic extract and a dichloromethane sub-extract, were tested on spore germination of two strains with different sensitivities to triazole fungicides. Both extracts of cones, leaves and stems were able to inhibit the two strains, whereas rhizomes did not show activity. The apolar sub-extract of leaves appeared as the most active modality tested with half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 5 and 10.5 mg·L−1 on the sensitive strain and the strain with reduced sensitivity, respectively. Differences in activity level between strains were noticed for all active modalities tested. Sub-extracts of leaves were then separated into seven fractions by preparative HPLC and tested on V. inaequalis. One fraction, containing xanthohumol, was especially active on both strains. This prenylated chalcone was then purified by preparative HPLC and showed significant activity against both strains, with IC50 of 1.6 and 5.1 mg·L−1. Therefore, xanthohumol seems to be a promising compound to control V. inaequalis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Extracts and Antimicrobials)
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16 pages, 1838 KiB  
Article
Antagonistic Interactions of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Human Oral Microbiome against Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans
by Nikola Atanasov, Yana Evstatieva and Dilyana Nikolova
Microorganisms 2023, 11(6), 1604; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11061604 - 17 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1662
Abstract
Oral probiotic lactic acid bacteria can exhibit antagonistic activities against pathogens associated with diseases in the oral cavity. Therefore, twelve previously isolated oral strains were assessed for antagonistic evaluation against selected oral test microorganisms Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans. Two separate co-culturing [...] Read more.
Oral probiotic lactic acid bacteria can exhibit antagonistic activities against pathogens associated with diseases in the oral cavity. Therefore, twelve previously isolated oral strains were assessed for antagonistic evaluation against selected oral test microorganisms Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans. Two separate co-culturing analyses were performed, where all tested strains showed the presence of antagonistic activity and four strains, Limosilactobacillus fermentum N 2, TC 3-11, and NA 2-2, and Weissella confusa NN 1, significantly inhibited Streptococcus mutans by 3–5 logs. The strains showed antagonistic activity against Candida albicans, and all exhibited pathogen inhibition by up to 2 logs. Co-aggregation capability was assessed, showing co-aggregative properties with the selected pathogens. Biofilm formation and antibiofilm activity of the tested strains against the oral pathogens were assayed, where the strains showed specificity in self-biofilm formation and well-expressed antibiofilm properties by most of them above 79% and 50% against Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans, respectively. The tested LAB strains were assayed by a KMnO4 antioxidant bioassay, where most of the native cell-free supernatants exhibited total antioxidant capacity. These results show that five tested strains are promising candidates to be included in new functional probiotic products for oral healthcare. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beneficial Microorganisms and Antimicrobials)
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16 pages, 3797 KiB  
Article
Association of Virulence, Biofilm, and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes with Specific Clonal Complex Types of Listeria monocytogenes
by Peter Myintzaw, Vincenzo Pennone, Olivia McAuliffe, Máire Begley and Michael Callanan
Microorganisms 2023, 11(6), 1603; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11061603 - 17 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2740
Abstract
Precise classification of foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is a necessity in efficient foodborne disease surveillance, outbreak detection, and source tracking throughout the food chain. In this study, a total of 150 L. monocytogenes isolates from various food products, food processing environments, and clinical [...] Read more.
Precise classification of foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is a necessity in efficient foodborne disease surveillance, outbreak detection, and source tracking throughout the food chain. In this study, a total of 150 L. monocytogenes isolates from various food products, food processing environments, and clinical sources were investigated for variations in virulence, biofilm formation, and the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes based on their Whole-Genome Sequences. Clonal complex (CC) determination based on Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) revealed twenty-eight CC-types including eight isolates representing novel CC-types. The eight isolates comprising the novel CC-types share the majority of the known (cold and acid) stress tolerance genes and are all genetic lineage II, serogroup 1/2a-3a. Pan-genome-wide association analysis by Scoary using Fisher’s exact test identified eleven genes specifically associated with clinical isolates. Screening for the presence of antimicrobial and virulence genes using the ABRicate tool uncovered variations in the presence of Listeria Pathogenicity Islands (LIPIs) and other known virulence genes. Specifically, the distributions of actA, ecbA, inlF, inlJ, lapB, LIPI-3, and vip genes across isolates were found to be significantly CC-dependent while the presence of ami, inlF, inlJ, and LIPI-3 was associated with clinical isolates specifically. In addition, Roary-derived phylogenetic grouping based on Antimicrobial-Resistant Genes (AMRs) revealed that the thiol transferase (FosX) gene was present in all lineage I isolates, and the presence of the lincomycin resistance ABC-F-type ribosomal protection protein (lmo0919_fam) was also genetic-lineage-dependent. More importantly, the genes found to be specific to CC-type were consistent when a validation analysis was performed with fully assembled, high-quality complete L. monocytogenes genome sequences (n = 247) extracted from the National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) microbial genomes database. This work highlights the usefulness of MLST-based CC typing using the Whole-Genome Sequence as a tool in classifying isolates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue An Update on Listeria monocytogenes 2.0)
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11 pages, 1597 KiB  
Communication
Investigation of Delafloxacin Resistance in Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli Strains and the Detection of E. coli ST43 International High-Risk Clone
by Dániel Gulyás, Katalin Kamotsay, Dóra Szabó and Béla Kocsis
Microorganisms 2023, 11(6), 1602; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11061602 - 16 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1407
Abstract
Delafloxacin is a novel fluoroquinolone agent that is approved for clinical application. In this study, we analyzed the antibacterial efficacy of delafloxacin in a collection of 47 Escherichia coli strains. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the broth microdilution method and minimum inhibitory [...] Read more.
Delafloxacin is a novel fluoroquinolone agent that is approved for clinical application. In this study, we analyzed the antibacterial efficacy of delafloxacin in a collection of 47 Escherichia coli strains. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the broth microdilution method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for delafloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, and imipenem. Two multidrug-resistant E. coli strains, which exhibited delafloxacin and ciprofloxacin resistance as well as extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype, were selected for whole-genome sequencing (WGS). In our study, delafloxacin and ciprofloxacin resistance rates were 47% (22/47) and 51% (24/47), respectively. In the strain collection, 46 E. coli were associated with ESBL production. The MIC50 value for delafloxacin was 0.125 mg/L, while all other fluoroquinolones had an MIC50 value of 0.25 mg/L in our collection. Delafloxacin susceptibility was detected in 20 ESBL positive and ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli strains; by contrast, E. coli strains that exhibited a ciprofloxacin MIC value above 1 mg/L were delafloxacin-resistant. WGS analysis on the two selected E. coli strains (920/1 and 951/2) demonstrated that delafloxacin resistance is mediated by multiple chromosomal mutations, namely, five mutations in E. coli 920/1 (gyrA S83L, D87N, parC S80I, E84V, and parE I529L) and four mutations in E. coli 951/2 (gyrA S83L, D87N, parC S80I, and E84V). Both strains carried an ESBL gene, blaCTX-M-1 in E. coli 920/1 and blaCTX-M-15 in E. coli 951/2. Based on multilocus sequence typing, both strains belong to the E. coli sequence type 43 (ST43). In this paper, we report a remarkable high rate (47%) of delafloxacin resistance among multidrug-resistant E. coli as well as the E. coli ST43 international high-risk clone in Hungary. Full article
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19 pages, 5393 KiB  
Article
GC-MS Analysis, Antibacterial, and Anticancer Activities of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Methanolic Extract: In Vitro and In Silico Studies
by Amira E. Sehim, Basma H. Amin, Mohammed Yosri, Hanaa M. Salama, Dalal Hussien Alkhalifah, Maha Abdullah Alwaili and Rasha Y. Abd Elghaffar
Microorganisms 2023, 11(6), 1601; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11061601 - 16 Jun 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2301
Abstract
The emergence of bacteria that are resistant to several antibiotics has represented a serious hazard to human health globally. Bioactive metabolites from medicinal plants have a wide spectrum of therapeutic possibilities against resistant bacteria. Therefore, this study was performed to investigate the antibacterial [...] Read more.
The emergence of bacteria that are resistant to several antibiotics has represented a serious hazard to human health globally. Bioactive metabolites from medicinal plants have a wide spectrum of therapeutic possibilities against resistant bacteria. Therefore, this study was performed to investigate the antibacterial efficacy of various extracts of three medicinal plants as Salvia officinalis L., Ziziphus spina-christi L., and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. against pathogenic Gram-negative Enterobacter cloacae (ATCC13047), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (RCMB008001), Escherichia coli (RCMB004001), and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), bacteria using the agar-well diffusion method. Results revealed that, out of the three examined plant extracts, the methanol extract of H. sabdariffa L. was the most effective against all tested bacteria. The highest growth inhibition (39.6 ± 0.20 mm) was recorded against E. coli. Additionally, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the methanol extract of H. sabdariffa were detected in the case of all tested bacteria. Moreover, an antibiotic susceptibility test revealed that all tested bacteria showed multidrug resistance (MDR). While 50% of tested bacteria were sensitive and 50% were intermediately sensitive to piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP) based on the inhibition zone but still less than the extract. Synergistic assay demonstrated the promising role of using a combination of H. sabdariffa L. and (TZP) against tested bacteria. A surface investigation using a scanning electron microscope of the E. coli treated with TZP, extract, or a combination of the two revealed extremely considerable bacterial cell death. In addition, H. sabdariffa L. has a promising anticancer role versus Caco-2 cells with IC50 of 17.51 ± 0.07 µg/mL and minimal cytotoxicity upon testing versus Vero cells with CC50 of 165.24 ± 0.89 µg/mL. Flow cytometric analysis confirmed that H. sabdariffa extract significantly increased the apoptotic rate of Caco-2-treated cells compared to the untreated group. Furthermore, GC-MS analysis confirmed the existence of various bioactive components in the methanol hibiscus extract. Utilizing molecular docking with the MOE-Dock tool, binding interactions between n-Hexadecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid-methyl ester, and oleic acid, 3-hydroxypropyl ester were evaluated against the target crystal structures of E. coli (MenB) (PDB ID:3T88) and the structure of cyclophilin of a colon cancer cell line (PDB ID: 2HQ6). The observed results provide insight into how molecular modeling methods might inhibit the tested substances, which may have applications in the treatment of E. coli and colon cancer. Thus, H. sabdariffa methanol extract is a promising candidate to be further investigated for developing alternative natural therapies for infection treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbial Biotechnology)
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20 pages, 3238 KiB  
Article
A Comparative Study of the Synthesis and Characterization of Biogenic Selenium Nanoparticles by Two Contrasting Endophytic Selenobacteria
by Eulàlia Sans-Serramitjana, Carla Gallardo-Benavente, Francisco Melo, José M. Pérez-Donoso, Cornelia Rumpel, Patricio Javier Barra, Paola Durán and María de La Luz Mora
Microorganisms 2023, 11(6), 1600; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11061600 - 16 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1520
Abstract
The present study examined the biosynthesis and characterization of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) using two contrasting endophytic selenobacteria, one Gram-positive (Bacillus sp. E5 identified as Bacillus paranthracis) and one Gram-negative (Enterobacter sp. EC5.2 identified as Enterobacter ludwigi), for further use [...] Read more.
The present study examined the biosynthesis and characterization of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) using two contrasting endophytic selenobacteria, one Gram-positive (Bacillus sp. E5 identified as Bacillus paranthracis) and one Gram-negative (Enterobacter sp. EC5.2 identified as Enterobacter ludwigi), for further use as biofortifying agents and/or for other biotechnological purposes. We demonstrated that, upon regulating culture conditions and selenite exposure time, both strains were suitable “cell factories” for producing SeNPs (B-SeNPs from B. paranthracis and E-SeNPs from E. ludwigii) with different properties. Briefly, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies revealed that intracellular E-SeNPs (56.23 ± 4.85 nm) were smaller in diameter than B-SeNPs (83.44 ± 2.90 nm) and that both formulations were located in the surrounding medium or bound to the cell wall. AFM images indicated the absence of relevant variations in bacterial volume and shape and revealed the existence of layers of peptidoglycan surrounding the bacterial cell wall under the conditions of biosynthesis, particularly in the case of B. paranthracis. Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that SeNPs were surrounded by the proteins, lipids, and polysaccharides of bacterial cells and that the numbers of the functional groups present in B-SeNPs were higher than in E-SeNPs. Thus, considering that these findings support the suitability of these two endophytic stains as potential biocatalysts to produce high-quality Se-based nanoparticles, our future efforts must be focused on the evaluation of their bioactivity, as well as on the determination of how the different features of each SeNP modulate their biological action and their stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Nanotechnology)
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14 pages, 361 KiB  
Article
Bioactivity Screening and Chemical Characterization of Biocompound from Endophytic Neofusicoccum parvum and Buergenerula spartinae Isolated from Mangrove Ecosystem
by Rafael Dorighello Cadamuro, Isabela Maria Agustini da Silveira Bastos, Ana Claudia Oliveira de Freitas, Marilene da Silva Rosa, Geovanna de Oliveira Costa, Izabella Thaís da Silva, Diogo Robl, Patricia Hermes Stoco, Louis Pergaud Sandjo, Helen Treichel, Mário Steindel and Gislaine Fongaro
Microorganisms 2023, 11(6), 1599; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11061599 - 16 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1312
Abstract
The discovery of biomolecules has been the subject of extensive research for several years due to their potential to combat harmful pathogens that can lead to environmental contamination and infections in both humans and animals. This study aimed to identify the chemical profile [...] Read more.
The discovery of biomolecules has been the subject of extensive research for several years due to their potential to combat harmful pathogens that can lead to environmental contamination and infections in both humans and animals. This study aimed to identify the chemical profile of endophytic fungi, namely Neofusicoccum parvum and Buergenerula spartinae, which were isolated from Avecinnia schaueriana and Laguncularia racemosa. We identified several HPLC-MS compounds, including Ethylidene-3,39-biplumbagin, Pestauvicolactone A, Phenylalanine, 2-Isopropylmalic acid, Fusaproliferin, Sespendole, Ansellone, Calanone derivative, Terpestacin, and others. Solid-state fermentation was conducted for 14–21 days, and methanol and dichloromethane extraction were performed to obtain a crude extract. The results of our cytotoxicity assay revealed a CC50 value > 500 μg/mL, while the virucide, Trypanosoma, leishmania, and yeast assay demonstrated no inhibition. Nevertheless, the bacteriostatic assay showed a 98% reduction in Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli. Our findings suggest that these endophytic fungi species with distinct chemical profiles represent a promising niche for further exploring new biomolecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Biology and Interactions)
26 pages, 1795 KiB  
Review
Regulatory Functions of Hypoxia in Host–Parasite Interactions: A Focus on Enteric, Tissue, and Blood Protozoa
by Emily DeMichele, Olivia Sosnowski, Andre G. Buret and Thibault Allain
Microorganisms 2023, 11(6), 1598; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11061598 - 16 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2142
Abstract
Body tissues are subjected to various oxygenic gradients and fluctuations and hence can become transiently hypoxic. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is the master transcriptional regulator of the cellular hypoxic response and is capable of modulating cellular metabolism, immune responses, epithelial barrier integrity, and local [...] Read more.
Body tissues are subjected to various oxygenic gradients and fluctuations and hence can become transiently hypoxic. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is the master transcriptional regulator of the cellular hypoxic response and is capable of modulating cellular metabolism, immune responses, epithelial barrier integrity, and local microbiota. Recent reports have characterized the hypoxic response to various infections. However, little is known about the role of HIF activation in the context of protozoan parasitic infections. Growing evidence suggests that tissue and blood protozoa can activate HIF and subsequent HIF target genes in the host, helping or hindering their pathogenicity. In the gut, enteric protozoa are adapted to steep longitudinal and radial oxygen gradients to complete their life cycle, yet the role of HIF during these protozoan infections remains unclear. This review focuses on the hypoxic response to protozoa and its role in the pathophysiology of parasitic infections. We also discuss how hypoxia modulates host immune responses in the context of protozoan infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Microorganisms: Past, Present and Future)
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21 pages, 1567 KiB  
Review
The Neonatal Immune System and Respiratory Pathogens
by Colleen J. Sedney and Eric T. Harvill
Microorganisms 2023, 11(6), 1597; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11061597 - 16 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2097
Abstract
Neonates are more susceptible to some pathogens, particularly those that cause infection in the respiratory tract. This is often attributed to an incompletely developed immune system, but recent work demonstrates effective neonatal immune responses to some infection. The emerging view is that neonates [...] Read more.
Neonates are more susceptible to some pathogens, particularly those that cause infection in the respiratory tract. This is often attributed to an incompletely developed immune system, but recent work demonstrates effective neonatal immune responses to some infection. The emerging view is that neonates have a distinctly different immune response that is well-adapted to deal with unique immunological challenges of the transition from a relatively sterile uterus to a microbe-rich world, tending to suppress potentially dangerous inflammatory responses. Problematically, few animal models allow a mechanistic examination of the roles and effects of various immune functions in this critical transition period. This limits our understanding of neonatal immunity, and therefore our ability to rationally design and develop vaccines and therapeutics to best protect newborns. This review summarizes what is known of the neonatal immune system, focusing on protection against respiratory pathogens and describes challenges of various animal models. Highlighting recent advances in the mouse model, we identify knowledge gaps to be addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Latest Review Papers in Molecular Microbiology and Immunology 2023)
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17 pages, 2218 KiB  
Article
Role of Rahnella aquatilis AZO16M2 in Phosphate Solubilization and Ex Vitro Acclimatization of Musa acuminata var. Valery
by Daniela Landa-Acuña, Marcia Toro, Ricardo Santos-Mendoza and Doris Zúñiga-Dávila
Microorganisms 2023, 11(6), 1596; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11061596 - 16 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1138
Abstract
Rahnella aquatilis AZO16M2, was characterized for its phosphate solubilization capacity to improve the establishment and survival of Musa acuminata var. Valery seedlings under ex-acclimation. Three phosphorus sources (Rock Phosphate (RF), Ca3(PO4)2 and K2HPO4) and [...] Read more.
Rahnella aquatilis AZO16M2, was characterized for its phosphate solubilization capacity to improve the establishment and survival of Musa acuminata var. Valery seedlings under ex-acclimation. Three phosphorus sources (Rock Phosphate (RF), Ca3(PO4)2 and K2HPO4) and two types of substrate (sand:vermiculite (1:1) and Premix N°8) were selected. The factorial analysis of variance (p < 0.05) showed that R. aquatilis AZO16M2 (OQ256130) solubilizes Ca3(PO4)2 in solid medium, with a Solubilization Index (SI) of 3.77 at 28 °C (pH 6.8). In liquid medium, it was observed that R. aquatilis produced 29.6 mg/L soluble P (pH 4.4), and synthesized organic acids (oxalic, D-gluconic, 2-ketogluconic and malic), Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) (33.90 ppm) and siderophores (+). Additionally, acid and alkaline phosphatases (2.59 and 2.56 µg pNP/mL/min) were detected. The presence of the pyrroloquinoline-quinone (PQQ) cofactor gene was confirmed. After inoculating AZO16M2 to M. acuminata in sand:vermiculite with RF, the chlorophyll content was 42.38 SPAD (Soil Plant Analysis Development). Aerial fresh weight (AFW), aerial dry weight (ADW) and root dry weight (RDW) were superior to the control by 64.15%, 60.53% and 43.48%, respectively. In Premix N°8 with RF and R. aquatilis, 8.91% longer roots were obtained, with 35.58% and 18.76% more AFW and RFW compared with the control as well as 94.45 SPAD. With Ca3(PO4)2, values exceeded the control by 14.15% RFW, with 45.45 SPAD. Rahnella aquatilis AZO16M2 favored the ex-climatization of M. acuminata through improving seedling establishment and survival. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Abilities of Microbes and Their Application in Agro-Biology)
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13 pages, 1441 KiB  
Article
Hospital-Acquired Infections Caused by Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae: An Observational Study
by Hamzah J. Aldali, Azra Khan, Abdullah A. Alshehri, Jehad A. Aldali, Sultan Ayoub Meo, Ali Hindi and Emadeldin M. Elsokkary
Microorganisms 2023, 11(6), 1595; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11061595 - 16 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1588
Abstract
Worldwide, hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are continuously rising within healthcare settings, leading to high mortality and morbidity rates. Many hospitals have reported the spread of carbapenemases globally, specifically within the E. coli and K. pneumoniae species. This study was aimed at analyzing the state [...] Read more.
Worldwide, hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are continuously rising within healthcare settings, leading to high mortality and morbidity rates. Many hospitals have reported the spread of carbapenemases globally, specifically within the E. coli and K. pneumoniae species. This study was aimed at analyzing the state of hospital-acquired, carbapenem-resistant E. coli and K. pneumoniae in the United Kingdom between 2009 and 2021. Moreover, the study analyzed the most efficacious approaches to patient management for controlling the carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) spread. Initially, 1094 articles were identified as relevant for screening, and among them, 49 papers were eligible for full-text screening, with a total of 14 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. The information was recorded from published articles through PubMed, the Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct, and the Cochrane library and was used to search for hospital-acquired carbapenem-resistant E. coli and K pneumoniae in the UK between 2009 and 2021, in order to evaluate the spread of CRE in hospitals. The total number of carbapenem-resistant E. coli was 1083 and this was 2053 for carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae in more than 63 UK hospitals. KPC was the dominant carbapenemase produced by K. pneumoniae. The results showed that the treatment options considered depended on the type of carbapenemase produced; K. pneumoniae showed more resistance to a treatment options, i.e., Colistin, than the other carbapenemase. The current state of the UK is at minimal risk for a CRE outbreak; however, appropriate treatment and infection control measures are highly required to prevent this CRE spread at the regional and global levels. The present study findings have an important message for physicians, healthcare workers, and policymakers about hospital-acquired carbapenem-resistant E. coli and K. pneumoniae spread and approaches to patient management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Public Health Microbiology)
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16 pages, 3752 KiB  
Article
Blastospores from Metarhizium anisopliae and Metarhizium rileyi Are Not Always as Virulent as Conidia Are towards Spodoptera frugiperda Caterpillars and Use Different Infection Mechanisms
by Isabella Alice Gotti, Camila Costa Moreira, Italo Delalibera, Jr. and Henrik H. De Fine Licht
Microorganisms 2023, 11(6), 1594; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11061594 - 16 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1968
Abstract
Infective conidia from entomopathogenic fungi are widely used to control insect pests. Many entomopathogenic fungi also produce yeast-like cells called blastospores under specific liquid culture conditions that can directly infect insects. However, little is known about the biological and genetic factors that allow [...] Read more.
Infective conidia from entomopathogenic fungi are widely used to control insect pests. Many entomopathogenic fungi also produce yeast-like cells called blastospores under specific liquid culture conditions that can directly infect insects. However, little is known about the biological and genetic factors that allow blastospores to infect insects and make them potentially effective for biological control in the field. Here, we show that while the generalist Metarhizium anisopliae produces a higher number of and smaller blastospores, the Lepidoptera specialist M. rileyi produces fewer propagules with a higher cell volume under high-osmolarity conditions. We compared the virulence of blastospores and conidia of these two Metarhizium species towards the economically important caterpillar pest Spodoptera frugiperda. Conidia and blastospores from M. anisopliae were equally infectious, but acted slower, and killed fewer insects than M. rileyi conidia and blastospores did, where M. rielyi conidia had the highest virulence. Using comparative transcriptomics during propagule penetration of insect cuticles, we show that M. rileyi blastospores express more virulence-related genes towards S. frugiperda than do M. anisopliae blastospores. In contrast, conidia of both fungi express more virulence-related oxidative stress factors than blastospores. Our results highlight that blastospores use a different virulence mechanism than conidia use, which may be explored in new biological control strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Microbe Interactions)
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15 pages, 2097 KiB  
Article
Comparison of the Efficiency of Selected Disinfectants against Planktonic and Biofilm Populations of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus
by Olja Todorić, Lato Pezo, Ljubiša Šarić, Violeta Kolarov, Ana Varga, Ivana Čabarkapa and Sunčica Kocić-Tanackov
Microorganisms 2023, 11(6), 1593; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11061593 - 15 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1649
Abstract
The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of selected food disinfectants on planktonic populations of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and on the same microorganisms (MOs) incorporated in a biofilm. Two disinfectants were used for treatment: peracetic acid-based disinfectant (P) [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of selected food disinfectants on planktonic populations of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and on the same microorganisms (MOs) incorporated in a biofilm. Two disinfectants were used for treatment: peracetic acid-based disinfectant (P) and benzalkonium chloride-based disinfectant (D). Testing of their efficacy on the selected MO populations was performed using a quantitative suspension test. The standard colony counting procedure was used to determine their efficacy on bacterial suspensions in tryptone soy agar (TSA). The germicidal effect (GE) of the disinfectants was determined based on the decimal reduction ratio. For both MOs, 100% GE was achieved at the lowest concentration (0.1%) and after the shortest exposure time (5 min). Biofilm production was confirmed with a crystal violet test on microtitre plates. Both E. coli and S. aureus showed strong biofilm production at 25 °C with E. coli showing significantly higher adherence capacity. Both disinfectants show a significantly weaker GE on 48 h biofilms compared to the GE observed after application of the same concentrations on planktonic cells of the same MOs. Complete destruction of the viable cells of the biofilms was observed after 5 min of exposure to the highest concentration tested (2%) for both disinfectants and MOs tested. The anti-quorum sensing activity (anti-QS) of disinfectants P and D was determined via a qualitative disc diffusion method applied to the biosensor bacterial strain Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. The results obtained indicate that the disinfectants studied have no anti-QS effect. The inhibition zones around the disc therefore only represent their antimicrobial effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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13 pages, 6055 KiB  
Article
Production of Polyhydroxybutyrate by Genetically Modified Pseudomonas sp. phDV1: A Comparative Study of Utilizing Wine Industry Waste as a Carbon Source
by Athina Drakonaki, Eirini Mathioudaki, Ermis Dionysios Geladas, Eleni Konsolaki, Nikolaos Vitsaxakis, Nikos Chaniotakis, Hao Xie and Georgios Tsiotis
Microorganisms 2023, 11(6), 1592; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11061592 - 15 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1438
Abstract
Pseudomonas sp. phDV1 is a polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) producer. The presence of the endogenous PHA depolymerase (phaZ) responsible for the degradation of the intracellular PHA is one of the main shortages in the bacterial production of PHA. Further, the production of PHA can be [...] Read more.
Pseudomonas sp. phDV1 is a polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) producer. The presence of the endogenous PHA depolymerase (phaZ) responsible for the degradation of the intracellular PHA is one of the main shortages in the bacterial production of PHA. Further, the production of PHA can be affected by the regulatory protein phaR, which is important in accumulating different PHA-associated proteins. PHA depolymerase phaZ and phaR knockout mutants of Pseudomonas sp. phDV1 were successfully constructed. We investigate the PHA production from 4.25 mM phenol and grape pomace of the mutants and the wild type. The production was screened by fluorescence microscopy, and the PHA production was quantified by HPLC chromatography. The PHA is composed of Polydroxybutyrate (PHB), as confirmed by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. The wildtype strain produces approximately 280 μg PHB after 48 h in grape pomace, while the phaZ knockout mutant produces 310 μg PHB after 72 h in the presence of phenol per gram of cells, respectively. The ability of the phaZ mutant to synthesize high levels of PHB in the presence of monocyclic aromatic compounds may open the possibility of reducing the costs of industrial PHB production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbial Biotechnology)
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24 pages, 6341 KiB  
Article
Characterisation of Type II DNA Methyltransferases of Metamycoplasma hominis
by Lars Vogelgsang, Azlan Nisar, Sebastian Alexander Scharf, Anna Rommerskirchen, Dana Belick, Alexander Dilthey and Birgit Henrich
Microorganisms 2023, 11(6), 1591; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11061591 - 15 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1996
Abstract
Bacterial virulence, persistence and defence are affected by epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation. Solitary DNA methyltransferases modulate a variety of cellular processes and influence bacterial virulence; as part of a restriction-modification (RM) system, they act as a primitive immune system in methylating the [...] Read more.
Bacterial virulence, persistence and defence are affected by epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation. Solitary DNA methyltransferases modulate a variety of cellular processes and influence bacterial virulence; as part of a restriction-modification (RM) system, they act as a primitive immune system in methylating the own DNA, while unmethylated foreign DNA is restricted. We identified a large family of type II DNA methyltransferases in Metamycoplasma hominis, comprising six solitary methyltransferases and four RM systems. Motif-specific 5mC and 6mA methylations were identified with a tailored Tombo analysis on Nanopore reads. Selected motifs with methylation scores >0.5 fit with the gene presence of DAM1 and DAM2, DCM2, DCM3, and DCM6, but not for DCM1, whose activity was strain-dependent. The activity of DCM1 for CmCWGG and of both DAM1 and DAM2 for GmATC was proven in methylation-sensitive restriction and finally for recombinant rDCM1 and rDAM2 against a dam-, dcm-negative background. A hitherto unknown dcm8/dam3 gene fusion containing a (TA) repeat region of varying length was characterized within a single strain, suggesting the expression of DCM8/DAM3 phase variants. The combination of genetic, bioinformatics, and enzymatic approaches enabled the detection of a huge family of type II DNA MTases in M. hominis, whose involvement in virulence and defence can now be characterized in future work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycoplasma Pathogenicity, Persistence and Virulence)
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