Next Issue
Volume 13, March
Previous Issue
Volume 13, January
 
 

Actuators, Volume 13, Issue 2 (February 2024) – 36 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Accurate trajectory tracking is vital for mobile robots, especially during high-speed movements where hardware delays can lead to instability. Smith predictor controllers that deal with delays are used in such delayed processes. This paper focuses on accurately positioning a mobile robot on terrain with an unknown slope, where disturbance torques induce steady-state errors in actuators. Due to the actuators' integrating plus time delay nature, SPs fail to remove these disturbances. A modified control scheme is proposed to address this, ensuring zero steady-state error. Simulations show that the proposed scheme outperforms modified SPs in swiftly eliminating steady-state errors. Experimental validation on a low-cost mobile robot further confirms the approach's effectiveness. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
16 pages, 5700 KiB  
Article
Vibration Control of Car Body and Wheel Motions for In-Wheel Motor Vehicles Using Road Type Classification
by Young-Jun Kim, Youngil Sohn, Sehyun Chang, Seung-Bok Choi and Jong-Seok Oh
Actuators 2024, 13(2), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13020080 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1016
Abstract
In-wheel motor vehicles are gaining attention as a new type of electric vehicle due to their efficient power units located inside each wheel hub. However, they are more susceptible to wheel resonance due to the increase in unsprung mass caused by the weight [...] Read more.
In-wheel motor vehicles are gaining attention as a new type of electric vehicle due to their efficient power units located inside each wheel hub. However, they are more susceptible to wheel resonance due to the increase in unsprung mass caused by the weight of the motor. This can result in both decreased ride comfort and driving stability. To resolve this issue, in this study, we aim to apply an optimal switching controller with a semi-active actuator—a magnetorheological (MR) damper. For the implementation of the optimal switching controller, road type classification is also carried out. An acceleration sensor is used for the road type classification, and the control logics include a ride comfort controller (the linear quadratic regulator (LQR_Paved Road)) and a wheel motion controller (LQR_Off Road) for improved driving stability. For paved roads, the LQR_Paved Road control input is applied to the MR damper. However, if a road type prone to wheel resonance is detected, the control logic switches to the LQR_Off Road. During the transition, a weighted average of both the LQR_Paved Road and LQR_Off Road control input is applied to the actuator. Computer simulations are performed to evaluate the vibration control performance, including the ride comfort and driving stability on various road profiles. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 8206 KiB  
Article
Structure and Gait Design of a Lunar Exploration Hexapod Robot Based on Central Pattern Generator Model
by Bin-Ming Shu, Ying-Qing Guo, Wen-Hao Luo, Zhao-Dong Xu and Qiang Xu
Actuators 2024, 13(2), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13020079 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1043
Abstract
To address the challenges of sinking, imbalance, and complex control systems faced by hexapod robots walking on lunar soil, this study develops an umbrella-shaped foot lunar exploration hexapod robot. The overall structure of the robot is designed to mimic the body structure of [...] Read more.
To address the challenges of sinking, imbalance, and complex control systems faced by hexapod robots walking on lunar soil, this study develops an umbrella-shaped foot lunar exploration hexapod robot. The overall structure of the robot is designed to mimic the body structure of insects. By incorporating a four-bar linkage mechanism to replace the commonly used naked joints in traditional hexapod robots, the robot reduces the number of degrees of freedom and simplifies control complexity. Additionally, an extension mechanism is added to the robot’s foot, unfolding into an umbrella shape to provide a larger support area, effectively addressing the issue of foot sinking instability during walking. This study adopts and simplifies the Central Pattern Generator (CPG) model to generate stable periodic control signals for the robot’s legs. Precise control of the extension mechanism’s unfolding period is achieved through mapping functions. A joint simulation platform using Solid Works and Matlab is established to analyze the stability of the robot’s walking. Finally, walking experiments are conducted on the prototype, confirming the smooth walking of the lunar exploration hexapod robot. The results indicate that the designed lunar exploration hexapod robot has a reasonable structure, excellent stability in motion, and the CPG control scheme is feasible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Actuators for Robotics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 10954 KiB  
Article
Using a Robot for Indoor Navigation and Door Opening Control Based on Image Processing
by Chun-Hsiang Hsu and Jih-Gau Juang
Actuators 2024, 13(2), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13020078 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 937
Abstract
This study used real-time image processing to realize obstacle avoidance and indoor navigation with an omnidirectional wheeled mobile robot (WMR). The distance between an obstacle and the WMR was obtained using a depth camera. Real-time images were used to control the robot’s movements. [...] Read more.
This study used real-time image processing to realize obstacle avoidance and indoor navigation with an omnidirectional wheeled mobile robot (WMR). The distance between an obstacle and the WMR was obtained using a depth camera. Real-time images were used to control the robot’s movements. The WMR can extract obstacle distance data from a depth map and apply fuzzy theory to avoid obstacles in indoor environments. A fuzzy control system was integrated into the control scheme. After detecting a doorknob, the robot could track the target and open the door. We used the speeded up robust features matching algorithm to recognize the WMR’s movement direction. The proposed control scheme ensures that the WMR can avoid obstacles, move to a designated location, and open a door. Like humans, the robot performs the described task only using visual sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Actuators in Robotic Control: Volume II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

34 pages, 12225 KiB  
Article
Coordinated Control for the Trajectory Tracking of Four-Wheel Independent Drive–Four-Wheel Independent Steering Electric Vehicles Based on the Extension Dynamic Stability Domain
by Yiran Qiao, Xinbo Chen and Dongxiao Yin
Actuators 2024, 13(2), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13020077 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1022
Abstract
In order to achieve multi-objective chassis coordination control for 4WID-4WIS (four-wheel independent drive–four-wheel independent steering) electric vehicles, this paper proposes a coordinated control strategy based on the extension dynamic stability domain. The strategy aims to improve trajectory tracking performance, handling stability, and economy. [...] Read more.
In order to achieve multi-objective chassis coordination control for 4WID-4WIS (four-wheel independent drive–four-wheel independent steering) electric vehicles, this paper proposes a coordinated control strategy based on the extension dynamic stability domain. The strategy aims to improve trajectory tracking performance, handling stability, and economy. Firstly, expert PID and model predictive control (MPC) are used to achieve longitudinal speed tracking and lateral path tracking, respectively. Then, a sliding mode controller is designed to calculate the expected yaw moment based on the desired vehicle states. The extension theory is applied to construct the extension dynamic stability domain, taking into account the linear response characteristics of the vehicle. Different coordinated allocation strategies are devised within various extension domains, providing control targets for direct yaw moment control (DYC) and active rear steering (ARS). Additionally, a compound torque distribution strategy is formulated to optimize driving efficiency and tire adhesion rate, considering the vehicle’s economy and stability requirements. The optimal wheel torque is calculated based on this strategy. Simulation tests using the CarSim/Simulink co-simulation platform are conducted under slalom test and double-lane change to validate the control strategy. The test results demonstrate that the proposed control strategy not only achieves good trajectory tracking performance but also enhances handling stability and economy during driving. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Dynamics and Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 10367 KiB  
Article
Analytical and Experimental Study of Key Performance of Helicopter Rotor Torsion–Tension Straps
by Yamin Wang, Ruchuan Zhou and Wenjun Huang
Actuators 2024, 13(2), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13020076 - 14 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1071
Abstract
As a crucial component of rotor systems, tension and torsion (TT) straps, recognized for their compact structure, have been adopted in advanced helicopters such as the SB > 1, EC145, and Mi-26. This paper presents an analytical investigation and experimental study on the [...] Read more.
As a crucial component of rotor systems, tension and torsion (TT) straps, recognized for their compact structure, have been adopted in advanced helicopters such as the SB > 1, EC145, and Mi-26. This paper presents an analytical investigation and experimental study on the key performance of TT straps. A method for rapidly evaluating the performance of the torsional deformation segment was developed. The size parameters and material properties of the torsional deformation segment that greatly influence the torsional stiffness and the stress distributions of TT straps were comprehensively identified and clearly investigated. Moreover, an experimental study of four cases of TT straps was carried out to verify the influence of the torsional deformation segment length, material, and connector segment structure on TT strap performance. The experimental results confirm that the rapid evaluation method provides high accuracy in assessing the stiffness and stress performance of TT straps, with deviations in stiffness less than 10%. The correlation between the calculated stress and shear forces and the experimental failure modes of the connector segments validates the effectiveness of the method in capturing key parameters. This research provides a theoretical and practical basis for designing critical key parameters of TT straps, facilitating a dramatic reduction in performance assessment time from days to hours and enabling the immediate identification of enhancement strategies. This accelerates the design process, thereby contributing to enhanced design efficiency and reduced costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Aircraft Actuators)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 7174 KiB  
Article
An Informed-Bi-Quick RRT* Algorithm Based on Offline Sampling: Motion Planning Considering Multiple Constraints for a Dual-Arm Cooperative System
by Qinglei Zhang, Yunfeng Liu, Jiyun Qin and Jianguo Duan
Actuators 2024, 13(2), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13020075 - 14 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1103
Abstract
Aiming to address problems such as low sampling success rate and long computation time in the motion planning of a dual-arm cooperative system with multiple constraints, this paper proposes an Informed-Bi-Quick RRT* algorithm based on offline sampling. First, in the process of pre-sampling, [...] Read more.
Aiming to address problems such as low sampling success rate and long computation time in the motion planning of a dual-arm cooperative system with multiple constraints, this paper proposes an Informed-Bi-Quick RRT* algorithm based on offline sampling. First, in the process of pre-sampling, the new algorithm relaxes the approximation of constrained manifolds by introducing the idea of incremental construction, and it incorporates the stochastic gradient descent method to replace global random sampling with local random sampling, which enriches the data set and shortens the offline sampling time of the data set. Second, the new algorithm improves the original Quick-RRT* algorithm by combining the two-tree idea and the multi-target bias expansion strategy, and it improves the adaptability of the algorithm to different obstacle environments. In addition, the loosely constrained motion and tightly constrained motion in the two-arm cooperative system are analyzed, and the adaptive planning of the two-arm trajectory in different motions is described in detail. In this paper, the two-arm cooperative model constructed with UR5 and UR10 robot arms is studied, and the ability of the proposed algorithm to deal with multiple constraints is verified by simulating assembly and handling tasks. The experimental results show that compared with other methods, the proposed algorithm has obvious advantages in path quality and planning efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Control Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 3685 KiB  
Article
Transformer Fault Diagnosis Method Based on TimesNet and Informer
by Xin Zhang, Kaiyue Yang and Liaomo Zheng
Actuators 2024, 13(2), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13020074 - 14 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1195
Abstract
Since the traditional transformer fault diagnosis method based on dissolved gas analysis (DGA) is challenging to meet today’s engineering needs, this paper proposes a multi-model fusion transformer fault diagnosis method based on TimesNet and Informer. First, the original TimesNet structure is improved by [...] Read more.
Since the traditional transformer fault diagnosis method based on dissolved gas analysis (DGA) is challenging to meet today’s engineering needs, this paper proposes a multi-model fusion transformer fault diagnosis method based on TimesNet and Informer. First, the original TimesNet structure is improved by adding the MCA module to the Inception structure of the original TimesBlock to reduce the model complexity and computational burden; second, the MUSE attention mechanism is introduced into the original TimesNet to act as a bridge, so that associations can be carried out effectively among the local features, thus enhancing the modeling capability of the model; finally, when constructing the feature module, the TimesNet and Informer multilevel parallel feature extraction modules are introduced, making full use of the local features of the convolution and the global correlation of the attention mechanism module for feature summarization, so that the model learns more time-series information. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, the model is trained and tested on the public DGA dataset, and the model is compared and experimented with classical models such as Informer and Transformer. The experimental results show that the model has a strong learning ability for transformer fault data and has an advantage in accuracy compared with other models, which can provide a reference for transformer fault diagnosis. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

27 pages, 17135 KiB  
Article
A Combined Fractional Order Repetitive Controller and Dynamic Gain Regulator for Speed Ripple Suppression in PMSM Drives
by Haohao Guo, Fengkui Zhang, Qiaofen Zhang, Yancheng Liu, Tianxiang Xiang and Jintong Xing
Actuators 2024, 13(2), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13020073 - 14 Feb 2024
Viewed by 938
Abstract
Repetitive control (RC) has been widely used in many fields due to its excellent ability to suppress periodic disturbances. However, when the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) operates at variable speeds, the speed loop sampling frequency is usually not equal to an integer [...] Read more.
Repetitive control (RC) has been widely used in many fields due to its excellent ability to suppress periodic disturbances. However, when the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) operates at variable speeds, the speed loop sampling frequency is usually not equal to an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency of speed ripple, which prevents disturbances from being completely suppressed. In addition, the open-loop gain of the motor control system with RC is too large at certain frequencies, resulting in excessive speed overshoot during startup and loading. To solve these two problems, this paper proposes a fractional order repetitive control (FORC) strategy with dynamically adjustable gain. A fractional order delay link is introduced to make up for the shortcomings of the conventional repetitive controller (CRC) in its ability to suppress periodic speed ripples when the sampling frequency is not an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency of the motor. Then, to weaken the speed overshoot caused by RC, a nonlinear function fal(e,α,δ) is added in the front of the FORC to dynamically adjust the FORC gain. Simulation and experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section High Torque/Power Density Actuators)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 10609 KiB  
Article
Prediction of Surface Topography in Robotic Ball-End Milling Considering Tool Vibration
by Jinyu Liu, Yuqin Niu, Yiyang Zhao, Lin Zhang and Yanzheng Zhao
Actuators 2024, 13(2), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13020072 - 14 Feb 2024
Viewed by 934
Abstract
Because of their low cost, large workspace, and high flexibility, industrial robots have recently received significant attention in large-scale part machining. However, due to the stiffness limitations in robot joints and links, industrial robots are prone to vibration during milling processes, which leads [...] Read more.
Because of their low cost, large workspace, and high flexibility, industrial robots have recently received significant attention in large-scale part machining. However, due to the stiffness limitations in robot joints and links, industrial robots are prone to vibration during milling processes, which leads to poor surface topography. In robotic milling processes, it remains challenging to simulate the surface topography accurately. This paper presents a mathematical model of surface topography combined with the effects of process parameters and tool vibrations in robotic milling. In this method, the kinematic trajectory of the cutting edge is first calculated by considering the cutter geometry, tool eccentricity, tool orientation, and redundancy angle. After that, the posture-dependent dynamic characteristics of the robotic milling system are predicted using an inverse distance-weighted approach. Then, a dynamic model of the robotic milling system is constructed for calculating tool vibration displacements. Finally, the kinematic model of cutting edges is modified using Z-map to incorporate the obtained vibration displacements into the sweep surfaces. In addition, milling experiments are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, showing a good agreement between predicted and measured surface roughness. Furthermore, the findings offer valuable insights into the impact of process parameters and robot posture on surface quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Actuators for Manufacturing Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 967 KiB  
Article
Interval Type-2 Fuzzy-Model-Based Sampled-Data Control of an AUV Depth System with Input Saturation
by Ji Ho An and Han Sol Kim
Actuators 2024, 13(2), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13020071 - 13 Feb 2024
Viewed by 964
Abstract
This paper proposes a sampled-data fuzzy controller design technique for an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) depth system represented by an interval type-2 (IT-2) fuzzy model, considering input saturation. In the Takagi–Sugeno (T–S) fuzzy model of an AUV depth system, surge velocity is chosen [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a sampled-data fuzzy controller design technique for an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) depth system represented by an interval type-2 (IT-2) fuzzy model, considering input saturation. In the Takagi–Sugeno (T–S) fuzzy model of an AUV depth system, surge velocity is chosen as a premise variable. To address the associated uncertainty with this variable, we employ the IT-2 fuzzy modeling technique. Also, the controller proposed in this paper utilizes time-varying gains, ensuring superior exponential stability compared with traditional fixed gain approaches. Furthermore, a membership function-dependent (MFD) H criterion is employed to enhance robustness for each subsystem individually. Taking into account the mentioned aspects, the controller design condition is derived in the form of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is validated through simulation examples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Aircraft Actuators)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 5305 KiB  
Article
Modeling of Precise Tension with Passive Dancers for Automated Fiber Placement
by Yan Li, Zhe Che, Chenggan Zheng, Zhi Li, Han Wang, Liang Cheng and Junxia Jiang
Actuators 2024, 13(2), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13020070 - 12 Feb 2024
Viewed by 995
Abstract
This paper modeled the tension fluctuation during automated fiber placement (AFP), which depicted the tension variations under different operating conditions. The stability and validity of the model were demonstrated using Bode plots and experiments, respectively. According to the model, the tension fluctuations of [...] Read more.
This paper modeled the tension fluctuation during automated fiber placement (AFP), which depicted the tension variations under different operating conditions. The stability and validity of the model were demonstrated using Bode plots and experiments, respectively. According to the model, the tension fluctuations of AFP at different stages were obtained. Additionally, the passive dancer parameters with the better system performance were determined using the evaluation methodology presented in this paper. Moreover, it was discovered that the damping coefficient affects the tension variation more significantly than the elasticity coefficient. Finally, the placement experiments showed that the determined passive dancer parameters improved the laying quality significantly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aerospace Mechanisms and Actuation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 9504 KiB  
Article
Actuators for Improving Robotic Arm Safety While Maintaining Performance: A Comparison Study
by Jiawei Xu and Gary M. Bone
Actuators 2024, 13(2), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13020069 - 11 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1426
Abstract
Since robotic arms operating close to people are becoming increasingly common, there is a need to better understand how they can be made safe when unintended contact occurs, while still providing the required performance. Several actuators and methods for improving robot safety are [...] Read more.
Since robotic arms operating close to people are becoming increasingly common, there is a need to better understand how they can be made safe when unintended contact occurs, while still providing the required performance. Several actuators and methods for improving robot safety are studied and compared in this paper. A robotic arm moving its end effector horizontally and colliding with a person’s head is simulated. The use of a conventional electric actuator (CEA), series elastic actuator (SEA), pneumatic actuator (PA) and hybrid pneumatic electric actuator (HPEA) with model-based controllers are studied. The addition of a compliant covering to the arm and the use of collision detection and reaction strategies are also studied. The simulations include sensor noise and modeling error to improve their realism. A systematic method for tuning the controllers fairly is proposed. The motion control performance and safety of the robot are quantified using root mean square error (RMSE) between the desired and actual joint angle trajectories and maximum impact force (MIF), respectively. The results show that the RMSE values are similar when the CEA, SEA, and HPEA drive the robot’s first joint. Regarding safety, using the PA or HPEA with a compliant covering can reduce the MIF below the safety limit established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). To satisfy this ISO safety limit with the CEA and SEA, a collision detection and reaction strategy must be used in addition to the compliant covering. The influences of the compliant covering’s stiffness and the detection delay are also studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Actuators for Robotics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 13841 KiB  
Article
Distributed Fixed-Time Formation Tracking Control for the Multi-Agent System and an Application in Wheeled Mobile Robots
by Ling Ma, Yufeng Gao and Bo Li
Actuators 2024, 13(2), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13020068 - 11 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1014
Abstract
This work addresses the issue of multi-agent system (MAS) formation control under external disturbances and a directed communication topology. Firstly, a new disturbance observer is proposed to effectively reconstruct and compensate for external disturbances within a short period of time. Then, the integral [...] Read more.
This work addresses the issue of multi-agent system (MAS) formation control under external disturbances and a directed communication topology. Firstly, a new disturbance observer is proposed to effectively reconstruct and compensate for external disturbances within a short period of time. Then, the integral terminal sliding mode technology is introduced to devise a novel distributed formation control protocol, ultimately realizing the stability of the MAS within a fixed time. Moreover, by means of rigorous Lyapunov theory analyses, a faster formation convergence rate and more accurate consensus accuracies are achieved in the proposed fixed-time strategy with variable exponent form. Finally, the formation tracking control scheme is applied to a multi-wheeled mobile robot (WMR) system. The experimental results strongly support the fine effectiveness of the control scheme designed in this work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Mobile Robotics Navigation, 2nd Volume)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 1970 KiB  
Article
New Tuning Rules of PI+CI Controllers for First-Order Systems
by José Carlos Moreno, José González, Ana Navarro and José Luis Guzmán
Actuators 2024, 13(2), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13020067 - 11 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1020
Abstract
The reset control is a simple nonlinear control approach where the states of the controller are conducted to zero when a particular condition is satisfied. The PI+CI is a controller that mixes the simplicity of PI controllers with the benefits of a reset [...] Read more.
The reset control is a simple nonlinear control approach where the states of the controller are conducted to zero when a particular condition is satisfied. The PI+CI is a controller that mixes the simplicity of PI controllers with the benefits of a reset action to mitigate the fundamental limitations of linear control. However, the tuning of this kind of controller, with three parameters, two for the linear part and one for the nonlinear one, is not trivial. In this paper, simple tuning rules for PI+CI are proposed for both tracking and regulation problems, assuming first-order dynamics for the plant. The resulting control scheme, for which the reset coefficient is computed from exponential functions, is simulated and compared with an ideal PI+CI where the reset coefficient is obtained using rules available in the literature. Similar results are obtained for the tracking problem, and optimal performance based on the Integral Absolute Error (IAE) is also obtained for the regulation problem. These new rules, in contrast to those already existing in the literature, depend only on closed-loop specifications. Furthermore, the framework based on the minimization of IAE, used to obtain the proposed rules, makes it possible to consider for the first time the tracking and regulation problems simultaneously, i.e., cases where setpoint changes and disturbance arrivals can occur at the same time before reaching a new steady state. The results are validated using a set of study cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Control Schemes for Actuators—2nd Edition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 10813 KiB  
Article
Active Disturbance-Rejection Controller (ADRC)-Based Torque Control for a Pneumatic Rotary Actuator with Positional Interference
by Qiong Wei, Zilong Wu, Yue Zhou, Ding Ke and Daode Zhang
Actuators 2024, 13(2), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13020066 - 11 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1068
Abstract
The compressibility of air, the uncertainty of dynamic models, and the existence of friction make pneumatic servo systems exhibit strong nonlinearity. Furthermore, the confluence of pneumatic-system nonlinearity and interference from the position system induces oscillations within the system, thereby posing a formidable challenge [...] Read more.
The compressibility of air, the uncertainty of dynamic models, and the existence of friction make pneumatic servo systems exhibit strong nonlinearity. Furthermore, the confluence of pneumatic-system nonlinearity and interference from the position system induces oscillations within the system, thereby posing a formidable challenge for achieving precise torque control. This study ensures precise torque control in a pneumatic actuator amid interference from the position system and proposes a novel active disturbance-rejection controller integrated with a Kalman filter. Firstly, in response to the oscillation stemming from the inherent nonlinearity of the pneumatic system and interference from the position system, this paper designs an active disturbance-rejection controller (ADRC) with robust anti-interference capabilities aimed at mitigating system oscillations. Secondly, to address the issue of sensor noise interfering with the ADRC and causing system oscillation, a first-order Kalman filter is designed to provide real-time and more accurate state estimation, effectively reducing oscillations and improving the robustness of the system. Finally, using the Lyapunov stability theory, the effectiveness of both the nonlinear extended observer and the convergence of the nonlinear error-state controller in the ADRC is proven. Experimental results indicate that the proposed controller reduces system oscillations and improves control accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section High Torque/Power Density Actuators)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 10873 KiB  
Article
Topology Optimization of Shape Memory Alloy Actuators for Prescribed Two-Way Transforming Shapes
by Kaike Yang, Junpeng Luo, Zhaoting Yuan, Wenjing Ma, Jie Hou, Xiaojun Gu, Deen Wang and Qiang Yuan
Actuators 2024, 13(2), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13020065 - 11 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1123
Abstract
This paper proposes a new topology optimization formulation for obtaining shape memory alloy actuators which are designed with prescribed two-way transforming shapes. The actuation behaviors of shape memory alloy structures are governed by austenite-martensite phase transformations effected by thermal-mechanical loading processes; therefore, to [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a new topology optimization formulation for obtaining shape memory alloy actuators which are designed with prescribed two-way transforming shapes. The actuation behaviors of shape memory alloy structures are governed by austenite-martensite phase transformations effected by thermal-mechanical loading processes; therefore, to realize the precise geometric shape variations of shape memory alloy actuators, traditional methods involve iteration processes including heuristic structural design, numerical predictions and experimental validation. Although advanced structural optimization methods such as topology optimization have been used to design three-dimensional (3D) shape memory alloy actuators, the maximization/minimization of quantities such as structural compliance or inaccurate stroke distances has usually been selected as the optimization objective to obtain feasible solutions. To bridge the gap between precise shape-morphing requirements and efficient shape memory alloy actuator designs, this paper formulates optimization criteria with quantitatively desired geometric shapes, and investigates the automatic designs of two-way prescribed shape morphing shape memory alloy structures based on the proposed topology optimization method. The super element method and adjoint method are used to derive the analytical sensitivities of the objective functions with respect to the design variables. Numerical examples demonstrate that the proposed method can obtain 3D actuator designs that have the desired two-way transforming shapes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Actuator Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

28 pages, 4290 KiB  
Review
A Review of Mechanisms to Vary the Stiffness of Laminar Jamming Structures and Their Applications in Robotics
by Freddy Caro and Marc G. Carmichael
Actuators 2024, 13(2), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13020064 - 08 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1685
Abstract
Laminar jamming (LJ) is a method to achieve variable stiffness in robotics that has attracted notable attention because of its simple working principle and potential high stiffness variation. This article reviews the lock/unlock mechanisms of LJ structures. The application of these mechanisms in [...] Read more.
Laminar jamming (LJ) is a method to achieve variable stiffness in robotics that has attracted notable attention because of its simple working principle and potential high stiffness variation. This article reviews the lock/unlock mechanisms of LJ structures. The application of these mechanisms in robotics is discussed, including grippers, continuum robots, wearable robots, robot arms, and more. Furthermore, the performance and limitations of the mechanisms to vary the stiffness of LJ are qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. This performance analysis focuses mainly on the potential of LJ mechanisms to be applied in robot arms with variable stiffness and their potential to attenuate the impact between human beings and robot arms. The modeling of LJ through analytical and finite element methods is described, and their evolution towards design methodologies is discussed. To conclude, the directions and recommendations that should be followed in research on LJ are discussed. These include the improvement of existing lock/unlock mechanisms, the development of new lock/unlock mechanisms, and the development of more control algorithms for robot arms that incorporate LJ structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Technologies in Soft Actuators)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 7348 KiB  
Article
Improving the Efficiency of the Drive of the Test Bench of Rotary Hydraulic Machines
by Alexander Rybak, Besarion Meskhi, Dmitry Rudoy, Anastasiya Olshevskaya, Yuliya Serdyukova, Svetlana Teplyakova and Alexey Pelipenko
Actuators 2024, 13(2), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13020063 - 06 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1133
Abstract
Volumetric hydraulic drive systems are quite widespread in many industrial sectors. To determine the degree of reliability of hydraulic machines, it is necessary to conduct resource tests. The main requirement for such tests is the compliance of the load level with the operating [...] Read more.
Volumetric hydraulic drive systems are quite widespread in many industrial sectors. To determine the degree of reliability of hydraulic machines, it is necessary to conduct resource tests. The main requirement for such tests is the compliance of the load level with the operating mode of the hydraulic machine. Analysis of existing methods of creating such a load showed a significant drawback of bench tests—the lack of useful work. Therefore, a number of authors suggest the use of stands with a regenerative drive system. One peculiarity of the work of such stands is the possibility of returning part of the spent energy back to the test system. However, such systems are insufficiently studied and have significant drawbacks. The purpose of this work is to increase the efficiency of the regenerative drive system of the test bench of volumetric hydraulic machines of rotational action by improving the theory and methodology of its calculation and design. This article describes the principle of operation of the circuit of the regenerative drive of the test bench of rotary hydraulic machines. A model of the elastic-dissipative state of the sections of the elements of the hydro-mechanical drive system of the stand is also proposed, which allows for the calculation of the structural and energy parameters of the regenerative hydro-mechanical system. The main structural and functional parameters affecting the operational performance of the system as a whole are also identified. A “test efficiency coefficient” is proposed, which allows for evaluation of the energy efficiency of the test process. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 19538 KiB  
Article
Force Tracking Control Method for Robotic Ultrasound Scanning System under Soft Uncertain Environment
by Jinlei Jiang, Jingjing Luo, Hongbo Wang, Xiuhong Tang, Fan Nian and Lizhe Qi
Actuators 2024, 13(2), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13020062 - 06 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1169
Abstract
Robotic ultrasound scanning has excellent potential to reduce physician workload, obtain higher-quality imaging, and reduce costs. However, the traditional admittance control strategy for robotics cannot meet the high-precision force control requirements for robots, which are critical for improving image quality and ensuring patient [...] Read more.
Robotic ultrasound scanning has excellent potential to reduce physician workload, obtain higher-quality imaging, and reduce costs. However, the traditional admittance control strategy for robotics cannot meet the high-precision force control requirements for robots, which are critical for improving image quality and ensuring patient safety. In this study, an integral adaptive admittance control strategy is proposed for contact force control between an ultrasound probe and human skin to enhance the accuracy of force tracking. First, a robotic ultrasound scanning system is proposed, and the system’s overall workflow is introduced. Second, an adaptive admittance control strategy is designed to estimate the uncertain environmental information online, and the estimated parameters are used to modify the reference trajectory. On the basis of ensuring the stability of the system, an integral controller is then introduced to improve the steady-state response. Subsequently, the stability of the proposed strategy is analysed. In addition, a gravity compensation process is proposed to obtain the actual contact force. Finally, through a simulation analysis, the effectiveness of the strategy is discussed. Simultaneously, a series of experiments are carried out on the robotic ultrasound scanning system, and the results show that the strategy can successfully maintain a constant contact force under soft uncertain environments, which effectively improves the efficiency of scanning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Actuators for Robotics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1238 KiB  
Article
Optimization Design Method for Non-Rectangular Constant Stress Accelerated Testing Considering Parameter Estimation Precision
by Ping Qian, Zheng Feng, Wenhua Chen, Guotai Zhang and Jian Zhang
Actuators 2024, 13(2), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13020061 - 04 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1098
Abstract
In addressing the design challenges for constant-stress accelerated life testing in non-rectangular experimental domains, we aim to optimize the precision in estimating parameters for the product reliability statistical model. Following the principles of regression orthogonal design theory to determine the combinations of stress [...] Read more.
In addressing the design challenges for constant-stress accelerated life testing in non-rectangular experimental domains, we aim to optimize the precision in estimating parameters for the product reliability statistical model. Following the principles of regression orthogonal design theory to determine the combinations of stress levels, we constrain the maximum stress levels of each experimental stress along the boundary curve of the non-rectangular experimental domain. The remaining stress levels and the allocation ratios of specimens for each test serve as design variables in the optimization process. We establish a mathematical model for the optimal design of constant-stress accelerated life testing in non-rectangular experimental domains. The results of the optimized design for comprehensive stress accelerated life testing in non-rectangular experimental regions of aerospace electrical connectors indicate that, with the same sample size, the optimized testing scheme not only enhances the precision of model parameter estimation but also reduces the number of required tests. At an equivalent number of tests and testing duration, the optimization scheme proposed in this study demonstrates an improvement of over 63% in the precision of model parameter estimation compared to the EM-optimized testing scheme in non-rectangular experimental regions. Using the mean, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation of the determinant values of the information matrix as criteria for evaluating the precision and robustness of experimental designs, a simulated evaluation was conducted for the optimized experimental design, a conventional experimental design, and an EM experimental design. The results indicate that the optimal experimental design outperforms both the conventional experimental design and the EM experimental design in terms of precision and robustness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Control Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

30 pages, 2829 KiB  
Article
Multiphysics Modeling of a Synthetic Jet Actuator in Operation
by Matthew G. M. Butler, Alis Ekmekci and Pierre E. Sullivan
Actuators 2024, 13(2), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13020060 - 04 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1230
Abstract
Active flow control is a promising technology for reducing noise, emissions, and power consumption in various applications. To better understand the performance of synthetic jet actuators, a computational model that couples structural mechanics with electrostatics, pressure acoustics, and fluid dynamics is needed. The [...] Read more.
Active flow control is a promising technology for reducing noise, emissions, and power consumption in various applications. To better understand the performance of synthetic jet actuators, a computational model that couples structural mechanics with electrostatics, pressure acoustics, and fluid dynamics is needed. The model presented here was validated against experimental data and then used to investigate the fluid behavior inside and outside the synthetic jet actuator cavity, the impacts of thermoviscous losses on capturing the acoustic response of the actuator, and the viability of different modeling methods of diaphragms in computational simulations. The results capture the feedback from the fluid onto the diaphragm and highlight the need for careful acoustic modeling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Aircraft Actuators)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 4497 KiB  
Article
Design and Analysis of an MRI-Compatible Soft Needle Manipulator
by Jie Chen, Jingyu Zhang, Tianyu Jiang, Yu Dang and Jianda Han
Actuators 2024, 13(2), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13020059 - 03 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1285
Abstract
Needle manipulation with the guidance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in minimally invasive procedures such as biopsy and ablation. However, the confined bore and strong magnetic field of the MR environment pose great challenges in developing a robotic system [...] Read more.
Needle manipulation with the guidance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in minimally invasive procedures such as biopsy and ablation. However, the confined bore and strong magnetic field of the MR environment pose great challenges in developing a robotic system that fulfills the needle manipulation function. This paper presents the design and analysis of a soft needle manipulator (SoNIM) that can achieve needle manipulation in the MR environment. This pneumatically actuated manipulator consists of two bending actuators and one elongation actuator that are completely made of non-magnetic materials. These soft pneumatic actuators can generate flexible movements while maintaining a compact design, ensuring that the SoNIM is accommodated within the MRI bore. The kinematic modeling and closed-loop control of the SoNIM are investigated to achieve the position control of the needle tip. Experiments showed that the SoNIM was capable of directing the needle tip to reach the targets with a satisfactory accuracy of 2.9 ± 0.98 mm. Furthermore, the functionality and MRI compatibility of the SoNIM were validated in the clinical setting, demonstrating the capability of the SoNIM to perform needle manipulation in the MRI bore with negligible degradation to the image quality. With excellent MRI compatibility, compact design, and flexible movements, the SoNIM provides a promising solution for manipulating surgical needles in MRI-guided minimally invasive surgeries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soft Actuators for Medical Robotics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 8476 KiB  
Article
Active Edgewise Blade Damping Control of Large Wind Turbines by Using the Pitch Controller and an Interval Observer
by Suryans Chamoli and Adrian Gambier
Actuators 2024, 13(2), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13020058 - 03 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1063
Abstract
Large wind turbines have typically poorly damped structures. Hence, the absence of damping leads to aeroelastic oscillations, and the operational rotor speed can approach the critical rotor speed. By using damping injection, the control system can actively introduce some additional damping. In the [...] Read more.
Large wind turbines have typically poorly damped structures. Hence, the absence of damping leads to aeroelastic oscillations, and the operational rotor speed can approach the critical rotor speed. By using damping injection, the control system can actively introduce some additional damping. In the present work, a control approach to reduce oscillations of the rotor blades in the edgewise direction is proposed. The concept is based on the damping injection mechanism, and an additional level of safety is obtained by introducing the Dynamic Safety Margin (DSM) in the control law. The feedback control scheme requires some unmeasurable variables. This aspect is covered by using an interval observer. The control approach is tested by using simulations on a high-definition model implemented in an aeroservoelastic code. Simulation results are very satisfactory and promising for future experiments using hardware-in-the-loop equipment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Control Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 7075 KiB  
Article
Waterproofing a Thermally Actuated Vibrational MEMS Viscosity Sensor
by Luis Gan, Shreyas Choudhary, Kavana Reddy, Connor Levine, Lukas Jander, Amogh Uchil and Ivan Puchades
Actuators 2024, 13(2), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13020057 - 02 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1099
Abstract
An efficient and inexpensive post-process method to waterproof an electrically actuated microtransducer has been studied. The electrical signals of microtransducers operating in electrically conductive fluids must be effectively isolated from the surrounding environment while remaining in contact for sensing purposes. A thermally actuated [...] Read more.
An efficient and inexpensive post-process method to waterproof an electrically actuated microtransducer has been studied. The electrical signals of microtransducers operating in electrically conductive fluids must be effectively isolated from the surrounding environment while remaining in contact for sensing purposes. A thermally actuated MEMS viscosity sensor uses electrical signals for both actuation and sensing. Three post-processing materials, (1) Parylene-C, (2) flouroacrylate-based polymer, and (3) nitrocellulose-based polymer, were coated as thin layers of waterproofing materials on different sensors. All three coating materials provided adequate protection when tested under normal operating conditions. Although the vibration response of the sensors was slightly modified, it did not affect their functionality in a significant way when measuring conductive fluids based on glycerol–water mixtures. All the treated sensors lasted over 1.2 million actuations without any decay in performance or failures. When the test bias conditions were increased by 5x to accelerate failures, the flouroacrylate-based polymer samples lasted 2x longer than the others. Visual analysis of the failures indicates that the edge of the diaphragm, which undergoes the most significant stress and strain values during actuation, was the location of the mechanical failure. This work guides post-processed waterproofing coatings for microscale actuators operating in harsh and damaging environments. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

26 pages, 24180 KiB  
Article
Fundamental Study on Force-Projecting Bilateral Control for Pneumatically Driven Follower Device
by Daisuke Haraguchi and Rin Monden
Actuators 2024, 13(2), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13020056 - 31 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1095
Abstract
This paper proposes the application of force-projecting bilateral control to a master-follower teleoperation system with pneumatic drive on the follower side and evaluates its effectiveness. The proposed method directly projects the operating force on the master side to the driving force on the [...] Read more.
This paper proposes the application of force-projecting bilateral control to a master-follower teleoperation system with pneumatic drive on the follower side and evaluates its effectiveness. The proposed method directly projects the operating force on the master side to the driving force on the follower side, eliminating the need for both position control and external force detection on the follower side, thereby solving the problem of low rigidity and response delay of a pneumatic servo system and providing highly stable sensor-less force presentation against variable environments. In this study, dynamic response analyses of a 1-DOF master-follower system were performed by numerical simulation using a linear system model, followed by experimental verification by implementing an actual system with an external force estimator. The results showed that the proposed force-projecting bilateral control has significantly higher positioning rigidity and better force control stability than the conventional force-reflecting bilateral control. A theoretical consideration was also given using the equivalent transformation of force transfer functions to provide evidence of high stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Actuators for Robotics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 7340 KiB  
Article
Modeling and Control of a Linear Piezoelectric Actuator
by Huaiyong Li, Yujian Tong and Chong Li
Actuators 2024, 13(2), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13020055 - 31 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1330
Abstract
To improve the output displacement of piezoelectric actuators, a linear piezoelectric actuator based on a multistage amplifying mechanism with a small volume, large thrust, high resolution, high precision, and fast response speed is proposed. However, inherent nonlinear characteristics, such as hysteresis and creep, [...] Read more.
To improve the output displacement of piezoelectric actuators, a linear piezoelectric actuator based on a multistage amplifying mechanism with a small volume, large thrust, high resolution, high precision, and fast response speed is proposed. However, inherent nonlinear characteristics, such as hysteresis and creep, significantly affect the output accuracy of piezoelectric actuators and may cause system instability. Therefore, a complex nonlinear hysteresis mathematical model with a high degree of fit was established. A Play operator was introduced into the backpropagation neural network, and a genetic algorithm (GA) was used to reduce the probability of the fitting of the neural network model falling into a local minimum. Moreover, simulation and experimental test platforms were constructed. The results showed that the maximum displacement of the actuator was 558.3 μm under a driving voltage of 150 V and a driving frequency of 1 Hz. The complex GA-BP neural network model of the piezoelectric actuator not only exhibited high modeling accuracy but also solved the problems of strong randomness and slow convergence. Compared with other control algorithms, the GA-BP fuzzy PID control exhibited higher control precision. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 3375 KiB  
Article
Optimizing Exoskeleton Assistance: Muscle Synergy-Based Actuation for Personalized Hip Exoskeleton Control
by Yehao Ma, Dewei Liu, Zehao Yan, Linfan Yu, Lianghong Gui, Canjun Yang and Wei Yang
Actuators 2024, 13(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13020054 - 31 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1156
Abstract
Exoskeleton robots hold promising prospects for rehabilitation training in individuals with weakened muscular conditions. However, achieving improved human–machine interaction and delivering customized assistance remains a challenging task. This paper introduces a muscle synergy-based human-in-the-loop (HIL) optimization framework for hip exoskeletons to offer more [...] Read more.
Exoskeleton robots hold promising prospects for rehabilitation training in individuals with weakened muscular conditions. However, achieving improved human–machine interaction and delivering customized assistance remains a challenging task. This paper introduces a muscle synergy-based human-in-the-loop (HIL) optimization framework for hip exoskeletons to offer more personalized torque assistance. Initially, we propose a muscle synergy similarity index to quantify the similarity of synergy while walking with and without the assistance of an exoskeleton. By integrating surface electromyography (sEMG) signals to calculate metrics evaluating muscle synergy and iteratively optimizing assistance parameters in real time, a muscle synergy-based HIL optimized torque configuration is presented and tested on a portable hip exoskeleton. Iterative optimization explores the optimal and suboptimal assistance torque profiles for six healthy volunteers, simultaneously testing zero torque and predefined assistance configurations, and verified the corresponding muscle synergy similarity indices through experimental testing. In our validation experiments, the assistance parameters generated through HIL optimization significantly enhance muscle synergy similarity during walking with exoskeletal assistance, with an optimal average of 0.80 ± 0.04 (mean ± std), marking a 6.3% improvement over prior assistive studies and achieving 96.4% similarity compared with free walking. This demonstrates that the proposed muscle synergy-based HIL optimization can ensure robotic exoskeleton-assisted walking as “natural” as possible. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 18726 KiB  
Article
Environment Aware Friction Observer with Applications to Force Control Benchmarking
by Eldison Dimo and Andrea Calanca
Actuators 2024, 13(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13020053 - 31 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1048
Abstract
The benchmarking of force control algorithms has been significantly investigated in recent years. High-fidelity experimental benchmarking outcomes may require high-end electronics and mechanical systems not to compromise the algorithm’s evaluation. However, affordability may be highly desired to spread benchmarking tools within the research [...] Read more.
The benchmarking of force control algorithms has been significantly investigated in recent years. High-fidelity experimental benchmarking outcomes may require high-end electronics and mechanical systems not to compromise the algorithm’s evaluation. However, affordability may be highly desired to spread benchmarking tools within the research community. Mechanical inaccuracies due to affordability can lead to undesired friction effects which in this paper are tackled by exploiting a novel friction compensation technique based on an environment-aware friction observer (EA-FOB). Friction compensation capabilities of the proposed EA-FOB are assessed through simulation and experimental comparisons with a widely used static friction model: Coulomb friction combined with viscous friction. Moreover, a comprehensive stability comparison with state-of-the-art disturbance observers (DOBs) is conducted. Results show higher stability margins for the EA-FOB with respect to traditional DOBs. The research is carried on within the Forecast project, which aims to provide tools and metrics to benchmark force control algorithms relying on low-cost electronics and affordable hardware. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Control Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

33 pages, 16524 KiB  
Review
Unlocking the Potential of Cable-Driven Continuum Robots: A Comprehensive Review and Future Directions
by Haotian Bai, Boon Giin Lee, Guilin Yang, Wenjun Shen, Shuwen Qian, Haohao Zhang, Jianwei Zhou, Zaojun Fang, Tianjiang Zheng, Sen Yang, Liang Huang and Bohan Yu
Actuators 2024, 13(2), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13020052 - 31 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1727
Abstract
Rigid robots have found wide-ranging applications in manufacturing automation, owing to their high loading capacity, high speed, and high precision. Nevertheless, these robots typically feature joint-based drive mechanisms, possessing limited degrees of freedom (DOF), bulky structures, and low manipulability in confined spaces. In [...] Read more.
Rigid robots have found wide-ranging applications in manufacturing automation, owing to their high loading capacity, high speed, and high precision. Nevertheless, these robots typically feature joint-based drive mechanisms, possessing limited degrees of freedom (DOF), bulky structures, and low manipulability in confined spaces. In contrast, continuum robots, drawing inspiration from biological structures, exhibit characteristics such as high compliance, lightweight designs, and high adaptability to various environments. Among them, cable-driven continuum robots (CDCRs) driven by multiple cables offer advantages like higher dynamic response compared to pneumatic systems and increased working space and higher loading capacity compared to shape memory alloy (SMA) drives. However, CDCRs also exhibit some shortcomings, including complex motion, drive redundancy, challenging modeling, and control difficulties. This study presents a comprehensive analysis and summary of CDCR research progress across four key dimensions: configuration design, kinematics and dynamics modeling, motion planning, and motion control. The objective of this study is to identify common challenges, propose solutions, and unlock the full potential of CDCRs for a broader range of applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Actuators for Robotics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 7916 KiB  
Article
Indirect Adaptive Control Using Neural Network and Discrete Extended Kalman Filter for Wheeled Mobile Robot
by Mohammed Yousri Silaa, Aissa Bencherif and Oscar Barambones
Actuators 2024, 13(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13020051 - 30 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1273
Abstract
This paper presents a novel approach to address the challenges associated with the trajectory tracking control of wheeled mobile robots (WMRs). The proposed control approach is based on an indirect adaptive control PID using a neural network and discrete extended Kalman filter (IAPIDNN-DEKF). [...] Read more.
This paper presents a novel approach to address the challenges associated with the trajectory tracking control of wheeled mobile robots (WMRs). The proposed control approach is based on an indirect adaptive control PID using a neural network and discrete extended Kalman filter (IAPIDNN-DEKF). The proposed IAPIDNN-DEKF scheme uses the NN to identify the system Jacobian, which is used for tuning the PID gains using the stochastic gradient descent algorithm (SGD). The DEKF is proposed for state estimation (localization), and the NN adaptation improves the tracking error performance. By augmenting the state vector, the NN captures higher-order dynamics, enabling more accurate estimations, which improves trajectory tracking. Simulation studies in which a WMR is used in different scenarios are conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the IAPIDNN-DEKF control. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the IAPIDNN-DEKF control, its performance is compared with direct adaptive NN (DA-NN) control, backstepping control (BSC) and an adaptive PID. On lemniscate, IAPIDNN-DEKF achieves RMSE values of 0.078769, 0.12086 and 0.1672. On sinusoidal trajectories, the method yields RMSE values of 0.01233, 0.015138 and 0.088707, and on sinusoidal with perturbation, RMSE values are 0.021495, 0.016504 and 0.090142 in x, y and θ, respectively. These results demonstrate the superior performance of IAPIDNN-DEKF for achieving accurate control and state estimation. The proposed IAPIDNN-DEKF offers advantages in terms of accurate estimation, adaptability to dynamic environments and computational efficiency. This research contributes to the advancement of robust control techniques for WMRs and showcases the potential of IAPIDNN-DEKF to enhance trajectory tracking and state estimation capabilities in real-world applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Actuators for Robotics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop