Next Issue
Volume 13, February
Previous Issue
Volume 12, December
 
 

Actuators, Volume 13, Issue 1 (January 2024) – 44 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Soft robots have become prominent due to the use of flexible and compliant materials. Precise position control is a key challenge in developing them, necessitating accurate modeling. This study proposes a hybrid-actuated soft robot that uses both the air pressure and tendons for robot-assisted cardiac ablation; this is a minimally invasive procedure used to treat cardiac arrhythmias. The dynamics of the soft robot are modeled using the Cosserat rod theory to predict the robot's response to the control inputs. By incorporating the effects of internal pressure during dynamic formulation, this approach improves upon the existing literature. Through experimental validation and a ranging tendon tension (0-3 N) and air pressure (0-40 kPa), we confirm the model's accuracy, demonstrating the successful prediction of diverse scenarios. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
14 pages, 4568 KiB  
Article
Energy Efficiency of Pneumatic Actuating Systems with Pressure-Based Air Supply Cut-Off
by Vladimir Boyko and Jürgen Weber
Actuators 2024, 13(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13010044 - 22 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1455
Abstract
To exploit the energy-saving potential of pneumatic actuator systems, various energy-saving circuits have been developed in recent decades. However, the principle of a pressure-based air supply cut-off has only been considered to a limited extent. This article introduces a possible pneumatic circuit solution [...] Read more.
To exploit the energy-saving potential of pneumatic actuator systems, various energy-saving circuits have been developed in recent decades. However, the principle of a pressure-based air supply cut-off has only been considered to a limited extent. This article introduces a possible pneumatic circuit solution for this principle and evaluates it via simulation and measurement of the saving potentials and limits of the developed circuit for typical industrial drive tasks. The conducted investigation shows the suitability of the developed energy-saving circuit, especially for the reduction of the actuator oversizing, achieving energy savings of 71% without performance loss. Conversely, applying this principle to an already well-sized cylinder comes with limitations and requires additional damping. The final economic analysis demonstrates that the application of the circuit could achieve comparatively short amortisation times of approx. 1.9 years for a setup with standard pneumatic components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section High Torque/Power Density Actuators)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 6974 KiB  
Article
A Structural Design and Motion Characteristics Analysis of an Inchworm-Inspired Soft Robot Based on Shape Memory Alloy Actuation
by Qiong Wei, Ding Ke, Zihang Sun, Zilong Wu, Yue Zhou and Daode Zhang
Actuators 2024, 13(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13010043 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1333
Abstract
Inchworms are a widely adopted bio-inspired model for soft crawling robots. Taking advantage of the good controllability of Shape Memory Alloy (SMA), this paper designs and manufactures an inchworm-inspired soft robot driven by SMA. Firstly, in the structural design, the paper compares the [...] Read more.
Inchworms are a widely adopted bio-inspired model for soft crawling robots. Taking advantage of the good controllability of Shape Memory Alloy (SMA), this paper designs and manufactures an inchworm-inspired soft robot driven by SMA. Firstly, in the structural design, the paper compares the heat dissipation performance and driving efficiency of SMA actuators with two assembly forms: embedded and external to the silicone body. The external structure assembly design with superior performance is chosen. Secondly, in the analysis of the motion characteristics of the soft robot, a kinematic model is developed. Addressing the issue of inaccurate representation in traditional constitutive models due to difficult-to-measure parameters, such as martensite volume fraction, this paper derives an exclusive new constitutive model starting from traditional models using methods like the Taylor series and thermodynamic laws. The kinematic model is simulated using the Simulink platform to obtain its open-loop step response and sinusoidal signal response. Finally, an experimental platform is set up to conduct crawling tests on the soft robot in different planes. The experimental results show that the inchworm-inspired soft robot can perform continuous crawling motion, with a crawling speed of 0.041 mm/s on sandpaper under a constant current of 4A. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Actuators for Robotics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 5828 KiB  
Article
Flexible Pressure and Temperature Microsensors for Textile-Integrated Wearables
by Dimitri Emmanuel dos Santos, José Bento Queiroz, Inês Sofia Garcia, João Vieira, José Fernandes, Edoardo Sotgiu, Graça Minas, Maria Bouçanova, Luisa Mendes Arruda, Raul Fangueiro, Anabela Salgueiro-Oliveira, Alar Ainla, Filipe Serra Alves and Rosana Alves Dias
Actuators 2024, 13(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13010042 - 20 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1720
Abstract
Environmental factors, such as pressure and temperature, are known to contribute to the formation of ulcers that seriously affect bedridden individuals. Researchers have proposed several technologies to achieve the long-term monitoring of those parameters, usually relying on sensing mats, which poses difficulties in [...] Read more.
Environmental factors, such as pressure and temperature, are known to contribute to the formation of ulcers that seriously affect bedridden individuals. Researchers have proposed several technologies to achieve the long-term monitoring of those parameters, usually relying on sensing mats, which poses difficulties in correlating the measurements with specific parts of the body. In this work, we aim to develop microsensors to be integrated into patient clothing. They should be highly flexible, thin with a small footprint, and can be achieved by taking advantage of the microfabrication on polyimide (PI) thin-film substrates (total device thicknesses below 30 µm). Both resistive and capacitance transduction mechanisms were explored, targeting operation ranges of 1 to 40 kPa and 24 to 42 °C. The sensors were integrated into textiles using silicone elastomers and electrical connections based on conductive silver yarn. The experimental characterization showed a nominal capacitance of 21 pF, a sensitivity of −8.44 fF/kPa for the pressure sensors, and a 0.0021 Ω/Ω°C sensitivity of the temperature sensor (with resistance of 29 kΩ at 22 °C). The proposed approach can potentially be implemented not only in wearable devices but also in many other applications for health monitoring or human–machine interfaces. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 12266 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Pressure Chambers for Integrated Fluidic Actuators in Adaptive Slabs
by Matthias J. Bosch, Markus Nitzlader, Matthias Bachmann, Hansgeorg Binz, Lucio Blandini and Matthias Kreimeyer
Actuators 2024, 13(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13010041 - 19 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1259
Abstract
A high proportion of the CO2 emissions worldwide are caused by the construction sector or are associated with buildings. Every part of the industry needs to reduce its share of emissions, so the building sector must also do its part. One possible [...] Read more.
A high proportion of the CO2 emissions worldwide are caused by the construction sector or are associated with buildings. Every part of the industry needs to reduce its share of emissions, so the building sector must also do its part. One possible solution for achieving this reduction in the field of load-bearing structures is the use of adaptive structures. This research focuses on adaptive slab structures, which require specific actuators to be integrated into the system. Conventional actuators are not suitable due to the prevailing requirements, namely installation space and performance. For this investigation, the actuator is divided into different functional components. A rough description of the requirements for one component, namely the energy converter, is given. Different concepts are developed, tested, and compared with numerical results. Due to the requirements, the concepts are limited to hydraulics. The authors then present a comparison of different simulation strategies for the energy converter. Overall, this paper provides a new contribution to the design of energy converter concepts for integrated hydraulic actuators in slabs, along with experimental verification of the working principle of the energy converters to meet the requirements. A simplified numerical model is proposed to estimate the behavior of the energy converter during the early design phase. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1308 KiB  
Article
Distributed Fixed-Time Leader-Following Consensus for Multi-Agent Systems: An Event-Triggered Mechanism
by Cheng Ge, Ling Ma and Shoulin Xu
Actuators 2024, 13(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13010040 - 18 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1242
Abstract
In this work, a fixed-time leader-following event-triggered (ET) consensus problem for multi-agent systems (MASs) with external disturbances is investigated. A distributed observer is developed to achieve the estimated state of the leader. By means of the observation information, the consensus error system for [...] Read more.
In this work, a fixed-time leader-following event-triggered (ET) consensus problem for multi-agent systems (MASs) with external disturbances is investigated. A distributed observer is developed to achieve the estimated state of the leader. By means of the observation information, the consensus error system for multi-agents is reformulated into a tracking error system, wherein individual follower agent aims to track the leader agent. Building upon Lyapunov technology and fixed-time stability theory, a new ET protocol is introduced to mitigate communication wastes. Notably, the proposed controller incorporates a strong robust fixed-time control form with lower complexity, and a reliable dynamic triggering condition also ensures the excellent performance of the system. Rigorous demonstrations underscore the stability and robustness of the ET method, while guaranteeing the avoidance of Zeno behavior. Finally, several numerical simulations are provided to underscore the efficacy of the proposed protocols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Mobile Robotics Navigation, 2nd Volume)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 5176 KiB  
Article
Modeling and Clamping Force Tracking Control of an Integrated Electric Parking Brake System Using Sliding-Mode-Based Observer
by Jiawang Yong, Liang Li, Dongliang Wang and Yahui Liu
Actuators 2024, 13(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13010039 - 17 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1353
Abstract
This article proposes a hierarchical control strategy to address semi-ABS control as well as the precise clamping force control problems for an integrated electric parking brake (iEPB) system. To this end, a detailed system model, including modeling of the motor, transmission mechanism, friction [...] Read more.
This article proposes a hierarchical control strategy to address semi-ABS control as well as the precise clamping force control problems for an integrated electric parking brake (iEPB) system. To this end, a detailed system model, including modeling of the motor, transmission mechanism, friction and braking torque, is constructed for controller and observer design, and a sliding-mode-based observer (SMO) is proposed to estimate the load torque by using the motor rotational speed without installing a force sensor. In addition, a stable and reliable tire–road friction coefficient (TRFC) estimation method is adopted, and the desired slip ratio (DSR) is observed as the target that the rear wheels cycle around. At the upper level of the hierarchical control structure, the desired clamping forces of the rear wheels are generated using a sliding mode control (SMC) technique, and the control objective is to track the DSR to make full use of the road condition. At the lower level, the motor is controlled to track the desired clamping force generated from the upper controller. The hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and high tracking precision of the proposed strategy under different road conditions, and the estimation parameters based on the proposed observers are timely and accurate to satisfy the control requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Actuators for Land Transport)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 7943 KiB  
Article
A Soft Sensor Model for Predicting the Flow of a Hydraulic Pump Based on Graph Convolutional Network–Long Short-Term Memory
by Shengfei Ji, Wei Li, Yong Wang, Bo Zhang and See-Kiong Ng
Actuators 2024, 13(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13010038 - 17 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1347
Abstract
The hydraulic pump plays a pivotal role in engineering machinery, and it is essential to continuously monitor its operating status. However, many vital signals for monitoring cannot be directly obtained in practical applications. To address this, we propose a soft sensor approach for [...] Read more.
The hydraulic pump plays a pivotal role in engineering machinery, and it is essential to continuously monitor its operating status. However, many vital signals for monitoring cannot be directly obtained in practical applications. To address this, we propose a soft sensor approach for predicting the flow signal of the hydraulic pump based on a graph convolutional network (GCN) and long short-term memory (LSTM). Our innovative GCN-LSTM model is intricately designed to capture both spatial and temporal interdependencies inherent in complex machinery, such as hydraulic pumps. We used the GCN to extract spatial features and LSTM to extract temporal features of the process variables. To evaluate the performance of GCN-LSTM in predicting the flow of a hydraulic pump, we construct a real-world experimental dataset with an actual hydraulic shovel. We further evaluated GCN-LSTM on two public datasets, showing the effectiveness of GCN-LSTM for predicting the flow of hydraulic pumps and other complex engineering operations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Actuators for Land Transport)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 11156 KiB  
Article
Autonomous Obstacle Avoidance and Trajectory Planning for Mobile Robot Based on Dual-Loop Trajectory Tracking Control and Improved Artificial Potential Field Method
by Kunming Zheng
Actuators 2024, 13(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13010037 - 17 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1355
Abstract
In order to better meet the practical application needs of mobile robots, this study innovatively designs an autonomous obstacle avoidance and trajectory planning control strategy with low computational complexity, high cost-effectiveness, and the ability to quickly plan a collision-free smooth trajectory curve. This [...] Read more.
In order to better meet the practical application needs of mobile robots, this study innovatively designs an autonomous obstacle avoidance and trajectory planning control strategy with low computational complexity, high cost-effectiveness, and the ability to quickly plan a collision-free smooth trajectory curve. This article constructs the kinematic model of the mobile robot, designs a dual-loop trajectory tracking control strategy for position control law and attitude control law algorithms, and improves the traditional artificial potential field method to achieve a good obstacle avoidance strategy for mobile robots. Based on the dual-loop trajectory tracking control and the improved artificial potential field method, the autonomous obstacle avoidance and trajectory planning scheme of the mobile robot is designed, and closed-loop stability verification and analysis are conducted on the overall control system. And through the detailed simulation and experiments, the advantages of the proposed method in trajectory tracking accuracy and motion stability compared to the existing methods are verified, showing good effectiveness and feasibility and laying a good foundation for the application of mobile robots in practical complex scenes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Mobile Robotics Navigation, 2nd Volume)
Show Figures

Figure 1

28 pages, 18100 KiB  
Article
Design, Manufacturing, and Open-Loop Control of a Soft Pneumatic Arm
by Jorge Francisco García-Samartín, Adrián Rieker and Antonio Barrientos
Actuators 2024, 13(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13010036 - 17 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1663
Abstract
Soft robots distinguish themselves from traditional robots by embracing flexible kinematics. Because of their recent emergence, there exist numerous uncharted territories, including novel actuators, manufacturing processes, and advanced control methods. This research is centred on the design, fabrication, and control of a pneumatic [...] Read more.
Soft robots distinguish themselves from traditional robots by embracing flexible kinematics. Because of their recent emergence, there exist numerous uncharted territories, including novel actuators, manufacturing processes, and advanced control methods. This research is centred on the design, fabrication, and control of a pneumatic soft robot. The principal objective is to develop a modular soft robot featuring multiple segments, each one with three degrees of freedom. This yields a tubular structure with five independent degrees of freedom, enabling motion across three spatial dimensions. Physical construction leverages tin-cured silicone and a wax-casting method, refined through an iterative processes. PLA moulds that are 3D-printed and filled with silicone yield the desired model, while bladder-like structures are formed within using solidified paraffin wax-positive moulds. For control, an empirically fine-tuned open-loop system is adopted. This paper culminates in rigorous testing. Finally, the bending ability, weight-carrying capacity, and possible applications are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soft Actuators for Soft Robotics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 6568 KiB  
Article
Design of an Optical Path Scanning Control System in a Portable Fourier Transform Spectrometer Based on Adaptive Feedforward–Nonlinear Proportional-Integral Cascade Composite Control
by Liangjie Zhi, Min Huang, Qin Wen, Han Gao and Wei Han
Actuators 2024, 13(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13010035 - 16 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1372
Abstract
In order to obtain highly accurate infrared spectra, the optical path scanning control system in a portable Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) must be able to realize highly stable reciprocal scanning. To address the positional localization and speed fluctuation problems of optical path scanning [...] Read more.
In order to obtain highly accurate infrared spectra, the optical path scanning control system in a portable Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) must be able to realize highly stable reciprocal scanning. To address the positional localization and speed fluctuation problems of optical path scanning control systems, an adaptive feedforward–nonlinear PI cascade composite control algorithm (AF-NLPI) is proposed. A physical model of an optical path scanning control system is established. Moreover, an adaptive feedforward compensator using a dynamic forgetting factor is proposed, and it was combined with a nonlinear PI cascade controller to form a composite controller. The control parameters were tuned using the atomic orbital search algorithm. Further, the simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the AF-NLPI can effectively improve the control accuracy and anti-interference ability of an optical path scanning control system in a portable FTS with high feasibility and practicality. By setting the scanning stroke of the system to 8 mm and scanning at 10 mm/s, the stability of the optical scanning speed reached 99.47% when controlled by the controller proposed in this paper, thus fulfilling the motion requirements for optical path scanning control systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Control Schemes for Actuators—2nd Edition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 4219 KiB  
Article
A Novel Control Method for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Linear Motor Based on Model Predictive Control and Extended State Observer
by Zhuobo Dong, Zheng Sun, Hao Sun, Wenjun Wang and Xuesong Mei
Actuators 2024, 13(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13010034 - 14 Jan 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1293
Abstract
Permanent magnet synchronous linear motor (PMSLM) is widely used to meet the requirement of high dynamic accuracy positioning, such as in machine tools and devices of semiconductor manufacturing. A new 2-DOF control structure is proposed in this paper to improve the dynamic performance [...] Read more.
Permanent magnet synchronous linear motor (PMSLM) is widely used to meet the requirement of high dynamic accuracy positioning, such as in machine tools and devices of semiconductor manufacturing. A new 2-DOF control structure is proposed in this paper to improve the dynamic performance of the positioning servo system with PMSLM. Aiming at the position tracking performance, a control algorithm based on the model predictive control (MPC) is developed with position and speed as the feedback state variables. In addition, an extended state observer (ESO) is designed for the rejection of various disturbances, which are not involved in the control model and are regarded as the lumped disturbance to be estimated and compensated by the ESO. The experimental results show that, compared with the commonly used PPI controller (proportional position controller and proportional–integral speed controller), the proposed method enhances the position bandwidth and servo stiffness effectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Control Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 4077 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Response Analysis of a Magnetically Suspended Dual-Rotor System Considering the Uncertainty of Interference-Fit Value
by Nianxian Wang, Wenqiang Tao, Mingzheng Liu and Yunfei Nai
Actuators 2024, 13(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13010033 - 14 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1184
Abstract
Interference fit is often used in rotating machinery to transmit torque and force. The actual interference value is uncertain due to factors such as manufacturing errors and operating conditions, resulting in a gap between the response of the system and theoretical results. Therefore, [...] Read more.
Interference fit is often used in rotating machinery to transmit torque and force. The actual interference value is uncertain due to factors such as manufacturing errors and operating conditions, resulting in a gap between the response of the system and theoretical results. Therefore, the interval method is used to study the magnetically suspended dual-rotor system (MSDS) with uncertainty of interference-fit value. Firstly, a theoretical model of the MSDS was established using the finite element method, and the influence mechanism of the interference value on the rotor bending stiffness was derived. Then, the rotor stiffness range was obtained from the uncertain range of interference value. Finally, the dynamic response of the MSDS was studied based on the Chebyshev interval method. The research results indicate that the uncertainty of interference value has an effect on the vibration response of the MSDS. The vibration response of the system is most affected near the first-order bending critical speed, and the effect on rotor response is relatively small in other angular speed regions. The research results can provide a basis for the design of rotor systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Miniaturized and Micro Actuators)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 5563 KiB  
Article
Cartesian Stiffness Shaping of Compliant Robots—Incremental Learning and Optimization Based on Sequential Quadratic Programming
by Nikola Knežević, Miloš Petrović and Kosta Jovanović
Actuators 2024, 13(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13010032 - 13 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1275
Abstract
Emerging robotic systems with compliant characteristics, incorporating nonrigid links and/or elastic actuators, are opening new applications with advanced safety features, as well as improved performance and energy efficiency in contact tasks. However, the complexity of such systems poses challenges in modeling and control [...] Read more.
Emerging robotic systems with compliant characteristics, incorporating nonrigid links and/or elastic actuators, are opening new applications with advanced safety features, as well as improved performance and energy efficiency in contact tasks. However, the complexity of such systems poses challenges in modeling and control due to their nonlinear nature and model variations over time. To address these challenges, the paper introduces Locally Weighted Projection Regression (LWPR) and its online learning capabilities to keep the model of compliant actuators accurate and enable the model-based controls to be more robust. The approach is experimentally validated in Cartesian position and stiffness control for a 4 DoF planar robot driven by Variable Stiffness Actuators (VSA), whose real-time implementation is supported by the Sequential Least Squares Programming (SLSQP) optimization approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Actuators in Robotic Control: Volume II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

31 pages, 9856 KiB  
Article
Research on Some Control Algorithms to Compensate for the Negative Effects of Model Uncertainty Parameters, External Interference, and Wheeled Slip for Mobile Robot
by Vo Thu Hà, Than Thi Thuong, Nguyen Thi Thanh and Vo Quang Vinh
Actuators 2024, 13(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13010031 - 12 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1411
Abstract
In this article, the research team systematically developed a method to model the kinematics and dynamics of a 3-wheeled robot subjected to external disturbances and sideways wheel sliding. These models will be used to design control laws that compensate for wheel slippage, model [...] Read more.
In this article, the research team systematically developed a method to model the kinematics and dynamics of a 3-wheeled robot subjected to external disturbances and sideways wheel sliding. These models will be used to design control laws that compensate for wheel slippage, model uncertainties, and external disturbances. These control algorithms were developed based on dynamic surface control (DSC). An adaptive trajectory tracking DSC algorithm using a fuzzy logic system (AFDSC) and a radial neural network (RBFNN) with a fuzzy logic system were used to overcome the disadvantages of DSC and expand the application domain for non-holonomic wheeled mobile robots with lateral slip (WMR). However, this adaptive fuzzy neural network dynamic surface control (AFNNDSC) adaptive controller ensures the closed system is stable, follows the preset trajectory in the presence of wheel slippage model uncertainty, and is affected by significant amplitude disturbances. The stability and convergence of the closed-loop system are guaranteed based on the Lyapunov analysis. The AFNNDSC adaptive controller is evaluated by simulation on the Matlab/simulink software R2022b and in a steady state. The maximum position error on the right wheel and left wheel is 0.000572 (m) and 0.000523 (m), and the angular velocity tracking error in the right and left wheels of the control method is 0.000394 (rad/s). The experimental results show the theoretical analysis’ correctness, the proposed controller’s effectiveness, and the possibility of practical applications. Orbits are set as two periodic functions of period T as follows. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Actuators for Robotics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

26 pages, 14646 KiB  
Article
Numerical Investigation on the Evolution Process of Different Vortex Structures and Distributed Blowing Control for Dynamic Stall Suppression of Rotor Airfoils
by Guoqiang Li, Shihe Yi, Binbin Li and Xin Zhang
Actuators 2024, 13(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13010030 - 11 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1197
Abstract
The influencing characteristic for the evolution mechanism of a dynamic stall vortex structure and distributed blowing control on rotor airfoils was investigated. Based on the moving-embedded grid method, the finite volume scheme, and Roe’s FDS scheme, a simulation method for the unsteady flow [...] Read more.
The influencing characteristic for the evolution mechanism of a dynamic stall vortex structure and distributed blowing control on rotor airfoils was investigated. Based on the moving-embedded grid method, the finite volume scheme, and Roe’s FDS scheme, a simulation method for the unsteady flow field of a pitch-oscillating airfoil was established. The flow field of the NACA63-218 airfoil was calculated using Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. The evolution processes of different vortex structures during dynamic stall and the principal controlled vortex mechanism affecting aerodynamic nonlinearity were analyzed based on the pressure contours Cp and Q of the flow field structure and the spatiotemporal evolution characteristics of the wall pressure distribution. The research indicated that dynamic stall vortices (DSVs) and shear layer vortices (SLVs) were the major sources of the increase in aerodynamic coefficients and the onset of nonlinear hysteresis. Building upon these findings, the concept of distributed blowing control for DSVs and shear layer vortices (SLVs) was introduced. A comparative analysis was conducted to assess the control effectiveness of dynamic stall with different blowing locations and blowing coefficients. The results indicated that distributed blowing control effectively inhibited the formation of DSVs and reduced the intensity of SLVs. This led to a significant decrease in the peak values of the drag and pitch moment coefficients and the disappearance of secondary peaks in the aerodynamic coefficients. Furthermore, an optimal blowing coefficient existed. When the suction coefficient Cμ exceeded 0.03, the effectiveness of the blowing control no longer showed a significant improvement. Finally, with a specific focus on the crucial motion parameters in dynamic stall, the characteristics of dynamic stall controlled by air blowing were investigated. The results showed that distributed air blowing control significantly reduced the peak pitching moment coefficient and drag coefficient. The peak pitching moment coefficient was reduced by 72%, the peak drag coefficient was reduced by 70%, and the lift coefficient hysteresis loop area decreased by 46%. Distributed blowing jet control effectively suppressed the dynamic stall characteristics of the airfoil, making the unsteady load changes gentler. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 45034 KiB  
Article
Internal Model Principle-Based Extended State Observer for the Uncertain Systems with Nonconstant Disturbances
by Jiahao Liu, Zhiqiang Zeng, Shangyao Shi and Pengyun Chen
Actuators 2024, 13(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13010029 - 11 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1153
Abstract
Existing traditional expansion state observers exhibit good tracking performance for constant and low-frequency disturbances. However, their ability to track non-constant disturbances such as ramp and high-frequency harmonics is inadequate. This paper proposes an extended state observer design method based on the internal model [...] Read more.
Existing traditional expansion state observers exhibit good tracking performance for constant and low-frequency disturbances. However, their ability to track non-constant disturbances such as ramp and high-frequency harmonics is inadequate. This paper proposes an extended state observer design method based on the internal model principle. This method achieves precise tracking of non-constant disturbances in the system, effectively addressing the issue of disturbance estimation errors in conventional expansion state observers. When applied to control systems, this approach significantly mitigates or suppresses system vibrations caused by non-constant disturbances, thereby enhancing control accuracy. Furthermore, it demonstrates the stability of the controlled system and the active disturbance rejection controller parameters over a wide range of variations. Simulation results indicate that the ADRC controller based on the proposed observer in this paper offers notable advantages, including high tracking accuracy, strong disturbance rejection capability, and good stability, leading to commendable control performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Control Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 3650 KiB  
Article
Hierarchical Understanding in Robotic Manipulation: A Knowledge-Based Framework
by Runqing Miao, Qingxuan Jia, Fuchun Sun, Gang Chen and Haiming Huang
Actuators 2024, 13(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13010028 - 10 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1556
Abstract
In the quest for intelligent robots, it is essential to enable them to understand tasks beyond mere manipulation. Achieving this requires a robust parsing mode that can be used to understand human cognition and semantics. However, the existing methods for task and motion [...] Read more.
In the quest for intelligent robots, it is essential to enable them to understand tasks beyond mere manipulation. Achieving this requires a robust parsing mode that can be used to understand human cognition and semantics. However, the existing methods for task and motion planning lack generalization and interpretability, while robotic knowledge bases primarily focus on static manipulation objects, neglecting the dynamic tasks and skills. To address these limitations, we present a knowledge-based framework for hierarchically understanding various factors and knowledge types in robotic manipulation. Using this framework as a foundation, we collect a knowledge graph dataset describing manipulation tasks from text datasets and an external knowledge base with the assistance of large language models and construct the knowledge base. The reasoning tasks of entity alignment and link prediction are accomplished using a graph embedding method. A robot in real-world environments can infer new task execution plans based on experience and knowledge, thereby achieving manipulation skill transfer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Actuators for Robotics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 10358 KiB  
Article
Design and Control of a Reconfigurable Robot with Rolling and Flying Locomotion
by Qing Chang, Biao Yu, Hongwei Ji, Haifeng Li, Tiantian Yuan, Xiangyun Zhao, Hongsheng Ren and Jinhao Zhan
Actuators 2024, 13(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13010027 - 09 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1268
Abstract
Given the continual rise in mission diversity and environmental complexity, the adept integration of a robot’s aerial and terrestrial locomotion modes to address diverse application scenarios has evolved into a formidable challenge. In this paper, we design a reconfigurable airframe robot endowed with [...] Read more.
Given the continual rise in mission diversity and environmental complexity, the adept integration of a robot’s aerial and terrestrial locomotion modes to address diverse application scenarios has evolved into a formidable challenge. In this paper, we design a reconfigurable airframe robot endowed with the dual functionalities of rolling and flying. This innovative design not only ensures a lightweight structure but also incorporates morphing capabilities facilitated by a slider-crank mechanism. Subsequently, a land-to-air transformation strategy for the robot is introduced, achieved through the coordinated movement of the robotic arm and the servo motor. To ensure stable control of the robot amid external wind disturbances, we leverage the collaboration between a Generative Adversarial Network (GAN)and a Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (NMPC) controller. After the wind force magnitude is predicted through the neural network, the robot’s adeptness in flexible trajectory tracking is verified. Under simulated wind conditions of 12.1 m/s, the trajectory error consistently remains within the range of 10–15 cm, affirming the effectiveness of this control method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Actuators for Robotics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 11299 KiB  
Article
Experimental Research on Avoidance Obstacle Control for Mobile Robots Using Q-Learning (QL) and Deep Q-Learning (DQL) Algorithms in Dynamic Environments
by Vo Thanh Ha and Vo Quang Vinh
Actuators 2024, 13(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13010026 - 09 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1304
Abstract
This study provides simulation and experimental results on techniques for avoiding static and dynamic obstacles using a deep Q-learning (DQL) reinforcement learning algorithm for a two-wheel mobile robot with independent control. This method integrates the Q-learning (QL) algorithm with a neural network, where [...] Read more.
This study provides simulation and experimental results on techniques for avoiding static and dynamic obstacles using a deep Q-learning (DQL) reinforcement learning algorithm for a two-wheel mobile robot with independent control. This method integrates the Q-learning (QL) algorithm with a neural network, where the neural networks in the DQL algorithm act as approximators for the Q matrix table for each pair (state–action). The effectiveness of the proposed solution was confirmed through simulations, programming, and practical experimentation. A comparison was drawn between the DQL algorithm and the QL algorithm. Initially, the mobile robot was connected to the control script using the Robot Operating System (ROS). The mobile robot was programmed in Python within the ROS operating system, and the DQL controller was programmed in Gazebo software. The mobile robot underwent testing in a workshop with various experimental scenarios considered. The DQL controller displayed improvements in computation time, convergence time, trajectory planning accuracy, and obstacle avoidance. As a result, the DQL controller surpassed the QL algorithm in terms of performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Actuators for Robotics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 9386 KiB  
Article
Diagnosis of Power Switch Faults in Three-Phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors via Current-Signature Technique
by Aleksander Suti and Gianpietro Di Rito
Actuators 2024, 13(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13010025 - 08 Jan 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1223
Abstract
The paper deals with the development of a model-based current-signature algorithm for the detection and isolation of power switch faults in three-phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSMs). The algorithm, by elaborating the motor currents feedbacks, reconstructs the current phasor trajectories in the Clarke [...] Read more.
The paper deals with the development of a model-based current-signature algorithm for the detection and isolation of power switch faults in three-phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSMs). The algorithm, by elaborating the motor currents feedbacks, reconstructs the current phasor trajectories in the Clarke plane through elliptical fittings, up to detecting and isolating the fault depending on the characteristics of the signature deviation from the nominal one. As a rough approximation, as typically proposed in the literature, the fault of one out of six power switches implies that, at constant speed operation, the phasor trajectory deviates from the nominal circular path up to a semi-circular “D-shape” signature, the inclination of which depends on the failed converter leg. However, this evolution can significantly deviate in practical cases, due to the dynamics related to the transition of motor phase connections from failed to active switches. The study demonstrates that an online ellipse fitting of the current signature can be effective for diagnosis, through correlating the ellipse centre to the location of the failed switch. The performances of the proposed monitoring technique are here assessed via the nonlinear simulation of a PMSM employed for the propulsion of a lightweight fixed-wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), by quantifying the fault latencies and the related transients. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 13007 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Path Planning for Mobile Robots by Integrating Improved Sparrow Search Algorithm and Dynamic Window Approach
by Junting Hou, Wensong Jiang, Zai Luo, Li Yang, Xiaofeng Hu and Bin Guo
Actuators 2024, 13(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13010024 - 08 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1462
Abstract
To overcome the limitations of the sparrow search algorithm and the challenges of dynamic obstacle avoidance in mobile robots, an integrated method combining the enhanced sparrow search algorithm with the dynamic window approach is introduced. First, logistic–tent chaotic mapping is utilized for the [...] Read more.
To overcome the limitations of the sparrow search algorithm and the challenges of dynamic obstacle avoidance in mobile robots, an integrated method combining the enhanced sparrow search algorithm with the dynamic window approach is introduced. First, logistic–tent chaotic mapping is utilized for the initialization of the sparrow population, thereby achieving a uniform distribution of the sparrow population and simultaneously enhancing the exploratory capability of the algorithm. The implementation of the elite reverse learning strategy aims to diversify the sparrow population, thus improving the quality of initial solutions and the algorithm’s search accuracy. Additionally, the position update dynamic self-adaptive adjustment strategy is adopted to enhance the optimization capability of the algorithm by refining the position update formulas for both producers and scroungers. By combining the Lévy flight strategy and the optimal position perturbation strategy, the algorithm’s efficacy in escaping local optima can be improved. Second, an adaptive velocity adjustment strategy is presented for the dynamic window approach and optimized for its evaluation function to enhance the safety of the path. Third, the enhanced sparrow search algorithm is integrated with the dynamic window approach to tackle the problems of the non-smooth global path and inadequate dynamic obstacle avoidance capability. Both simulation and experimental results show the superiority of the enhanced sparrow search algorithm in comparison to other algorithms in terms of the path length, total rotation angle, and algorithm execution time. Notably, in comparison to the basic sparrow search algorithm, there is a decrease in average path lengths by 15.31% and 11.92% in the improved sparrow search algorithm. The integrated algorithm not only crafts local paths rooted in global paths but also adeptly facilitates real-time dynamic obstacle evasion, ensuring the robot’s safe arrival at its destination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Motion Planning and Control of Robot Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

27 pages, 24165 KiB  
Article
Multi-Objective Optimization for Forming Quality of Laser and CMT-P Arc Hybrid Additive Manufacturing Aluminum Alloy Using Response Surface Methodology
by Shiwei He, Zhiqiang Zhang, Hanxi Li, Tiangang Zhang, Xuecheng Lu and Jiajie Kang
Actuators 2024, 13(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13010023 - 08 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1332
Abstract
A thin-walled structure of high-strength aluminum alloy 2024 (AA2024) was fabricated using novel laser and cold metal transfer and pulse (CMT-P) arc hybrid additive manufacturing (LCAHAM) technology. The influence of the wire feeding speed, scanning speed, and laser power on the forming quality [...] Read more.
A thin-walled structure of high-strength aluminum alloy 2024 (AA2024) was fabricated using novel laser and cold metal transfer and pulse (CMT-P) arc hybrid additive manufacturing (LCAHAM) technology. The influence of the wire feeding speed, scanning speed, and laser power on the forming quality was systematically studied by the response surface methodology, probability statistical theory, and multi-objective optimization algorithm. The result showed that the forming accuracy was significantly more affected by the laser power than by the wire feeding speed and scanning speed. Specifically, there was an obvious correlation between the interaction of the laser power and wire feeding speed and the resulting formation accuracy of LCAHAM AA2024. Moreover, the laser power, wire feeding speed, and scanning speed all had noticeable effects on the spattering degree during the LCAHAM AA2024 process, with the influence of the laser power surpassing that of the other two factors. Importantly, these three factors demonstrated minimal mutual interaction on spattering. Furthermore, the scanning speed emerged as the most significant factor influencing porosity compared to the wire feeding speed and laser power. It was crucial to highlight that the combined effects of the wire feed speed and laser power played an obvious role in reducing porosity. Considering the forming accuracy, spattering degree, and porosity collectively, the recommended process parameters were as follows: a wire feeding speed ranging from 4.2 to 4.3 m/min, a scanning speed between 15 and 17 mm/s, and a laser power set at approximately 2000 W, where the forming accuracy was 84–85%, the spattering degree fell within 1.0–1.2%, and the porosity was 0.7–0.9%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aerospace Mechanisms and Actuation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 8994 KiB  
Article
Design Method of the Stroke Ring Based on Deformation Pre-Compensation
by Gaocheng An, Kai Gao, Hongquan Dong, Baoyu Liu, Lin Li and Zhenhua Hu
Actuators 2024, 13(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13010022 - 08 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1180
Abstract
A common consensus is that an optimized curve profile of the stroke ring in the multiple-stroke piston motor can make the output torque more stable. However, the ring generates elastic deformation during operation, which causes the piston component movement trajectory to deviate from [...] Read more.
A common consensus is that an optimized curve profile of the stroke ring in the multiple-stroke piston motor can make the output torque more stable. However, the ring generates elastic deformation during operation, which causes the piston component movement trajectory to deviate from the ideal design curve. To address this issue, first, a liquid–solid coupling simulation model was established to obtain the deformation of the ring, and the accuracy of the model was verified through experiments. Second, a stroke ring curve design method based on elastic deformation pre-compensation was proposed. Through this method, a compensated curve can be obtained to make the actual working curve more in line with the ideal curve. Finally, the dynamic characteristics of three different types of multiple-stroke piston motor curves were analyzed—the ideal design curve, the uncompensated working curve, and the compensated working curve. The results showed that the motor torque pulsation rates are 0.821%, 4.723%, and 0.986%, respectively, and the compensated working curve has a relatively reduced pulsation rate of 79.12% compared to the uncompensated working curve, which verifies that this design method can effectively improve motor performance. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 7165 KiB  
Article
An Improved Analytical Model of a Thrust Stand with a Flexure Hinge Structure Considering Stiffness Drift and Rotation Center Offset
by Xingyu Chen, Liye Zhao, Jiawen Xu and Zhikang Liu
Actuators 2024, 13(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13010021 - 05 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1165
Abstract
Micro-newton thrust stands are widely used in thruster ground calibration procedures for a variety of space missions. The conventional analytical model does not consider the gravity-induced extension effect and systematic error in displacement for thrust stands consisting of hanging pendulums based on flexure [...] Read more.
Micro-newton thrust stands are widely used in thruster ground calibration procedures for a variety of space missions. The conventional analytical model does not consider the gravity-induced extension effect and systematic error in displacement for thrust stands consisting of hanging pendulums based on flexure hinge structures. This paper proposes an improved analytical model of a hanging pendulum for thrust measurement, where an elliptical notched flexure hinge is the key component. A parametric model of the bending stiffness of the flexure hinge is developed. Equally, both the bending stiffness shift under the gravity-induced extension effect and the systematic error in displacement due to the assumed rotational center offset of the hinge are investigated. The presented stiffness equations for elliptical notched hinges can be degenerated into stiffness equations for circular notched as well as leaf-type hinges. The improved model aims to evaluate and highlight the influence of the two considered factors for use in thrust stand parameter design and thrust analysis. A finite element modeling solution is proposed to validate the proposed analytical model. The results show that the proposed model can quantify the hinge bending stiffness shift, which also demonstrates that even a small bending stiffness shift may introduce great uncertainty into the thrust analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments in Precision Actuation Technologies)
Show Figures

Figure 1

26 pages, 9753 KiB  
Article
Design and Research of Series Actuator Structure and Control System Based on Lower Limb Exoskeleton Rehabilitation Robot
by Chenglong Zhao, Zhen Liu, Liucun Zhu and Yuefei Wang
Actuators 2024, 13(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13010020 - 05 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1386
Abstract
Lower limb exoskeleton rehabilitation robots have become an important direction for development in today’s society. These robots can provide support and power to assist patients in walking and movement. In order to achieve better interaction between humans and machines and achieve the goal [...] Read more.
Lower limb exoskeleton rehabilitation robots have become an important direction for development in today’s society. These robots can provide support and power to assist patients in walking and movement. In order to achieve better interaction between humans and machines and achieve the goal of flexible driving, this paper addresses the shortcomings of traditional elastic actuators and designs a series elastic–damping actuator (SEDA). The SEDA combines elastic and damping components in parallel, and the feasibility of the design and material selection is demonstrated through finite element static analysis. By modeling the dynamics of the SEDA, using the Bode plot and Nyquist plot, open-loop and closed-loop frequency domain comparisons and analyses were carried out, respectively, to verify the effect of damping coefficients on the stability of the system, and the stiffness coefficient ks = 25.48 N/mm was selected as the elastic element and the damping coefficient cs = 1 Ns/mm was selected as the damping element. A particle swarm optimization (PSO)-based algorithm was proposed to introduce the fuzzy controller into the PID control system, and five parameters, namely the the fuzzy controller’s fuzzy factor (ke, kec) and de-fuzzy factor (kp1, ki1, kd1), are taken as the object of the algorithm optimization to obtain the optimal fuzzy controller parameters of ke = 0.8, kec = 0.2, kp1 = 0.5, ki1 = 8, kd1 = −0.1. The joint torque output with and without external interference is simulated, and the simulation model is established in the MATLAB/Simulink environment The results show that when fuzzy PID control is used, the amount of overshooting in the system is 14.6%, and the regulation time is 0.66 s. This has the following advantages: small overshooting amount, short rise time, fast response speed, short regulation time, good stability performance, and strong anti-interference ability. The SEDA design structure and control method breaks through limitations of the traditional series elastic actuator (SEA) such as its lack of flexibility and stability, which is very helpful to improve the output effect of flexible joints. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Actuators and Robots for Biomedical Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 611 KiB  
Article
Direct Adaptive Fuzzy Control with Prescribed Tracking Accuracy for Orbit Adjustment of Satellites
by Weijun Yang, Shizhuan Zou, Liang Li, Kai Huang and Guanyu Lai
Actuators 2024, 13(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13010019 - 04 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1186
Abstract
In this paper, we investigate the orbit-adjustment problem of satellite systems in the presence of nonlinear uncertainties in kinematics and dynamics. We propose a novel direct adaptive fuzzy control scheme with prescribed tracking accuracy to address uncertain nonlinear dynamics by employing advanced fuzzy [...] Read more.
In this paper, we investigate the orbit-adjustment problem of satellite systems in the presence of nonlinear uncertainties in kinematics and dynamics. We propose a novel direct adaptive fuzzy control scheme with prescribed tracking accuracy to address uncertain nonlinear dynamics by employing advanced fuzzy logic systems and integrating a class of sophisticated smooth functions, thereby ensuring convergence of the tracking error within a precisely defined interval. The ingeniously designed control scheme guarantees negative semi-definiteness of the Lyapunov function, ensuring boundedness for all variables. Moreover, our groundbreaking control approach requires only one adaptive law, completely eliminating any direct correlation with the number of nonlinear functions. Simulation results unequivocally validate the remarkable effectiveness and superiority of our innovative control approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Control Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 7977 KiB  
Article
Energy Consumption Minimization of Quadruped Robot Based on Reinforcement Learning of DDPG Algorithm
by Zhenzhuo Yan, Hongwei Ji and Qing Chang
Actuators 2024, 13(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13010018 - 02 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1429
Abstract
Energy consumption is one of the most critical factors in determining the kinematic performance of quadruped robots. However, existing research methods often encounter challenges in quickly and efficiently reducing the energy consumption associated with quadrupedal robotic locomotion. In this paper, the deep deterministic [...] Read more.
Energy consumption is one of the most critical factors in determining the kinematic performance of quadruped robots. However, existing research methods often encounter challenges in quickly and efficiently reducing the energy consumption associated with quadrupedal robotic locomotion. In this paper, the deep deterministic policy gradient (DDPG) algorithm was used to optimize the energy consumption of the Cyber Dog quadruped robot. Firstly, the kinematic and energy consumption models of the robot were established. Secondly, energy consumption was optimized by reinforcement learning using the DDPG algorithm. The optimized plantar trajectory was then compared with two common plantar trajectories in simulation experiments, with the same period and the number of synchronizations but varying velocities. Lastly, real experiments were conducted using a prototype machine to validate the simulation data. The analysis results show that, under the same conditions, the proposed method can reduce energy consumption by 7~9% compared with the existing optimal trajectory methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Motion Planning and Control of Robot Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 7057 KiB  
Article
Design and Analysis of a New Dual-Stator Hybrid Magnet Flux Modulation Machine
by Yao Meng, Xinyu Yang, Haitao Wang and Xingzhen Bai
Actuators 2024, 13(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13010017 - 01 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1140
Abstract
This paper proposes a new dual-stator hybrid-magnet flux modulation machine (DS-FMHMM) for direct-drive applications, which employs NdFeB magnet excitation and Ferrite magnet excitation on the rotor and outer stator sides, respectively. With this design, the proposed DS-FMHMM can not only fully use the [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a new dual-stator hybrid-magnet flux modulation machine (DS-FMHMM) for direct-drive applications, which employs NdFeB magnet excitation and Ferrite magnet excitation on the rotor and outer stator sides, respectively. With this design, the proposed DS-FMHMM can not only fully use the bidirectional flux modulation effect, but also effectively alleviate the magnetic saturation issue. The machine configuration is described, together with the operating principle. Then, the design parameters of DS-FMHMM are globally optimized for obtaining high torque quality, and the influence of magnet dimensions on torque is analyzed. To evaluate the merits of the proposed DS-FMHMM, the electromagnetic performances of machines under different magnet excitation sources are analyzed, and a comprehensive electromagnetic performance comparison of DS-FMHMM and two existing dual-stator flux modulation machines (DSFMMs) is developed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section High Torque/Power Density Actuators)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 4435 KiB  
Article
Optimization Design and Experiment of High-Speed Drag-Reducing Trencher Based on Conservation Tillage
by Weipeng Zhang, Suchun Liu, Yuxi Ji, Shengbo Gao, Bo Zhao, Liming Zhou, Ping Xie, Xin Jin, Zhaomei Qiu and Yanwu Ma
Actuators 2024, 13(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13010016 - 31 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1141
Abstract
In the realm of high-speed precision broadcasting, the existing seeder opener proves inadequate for the speed of the seeding operation. We focus on the duckbill opener and employ the quadratic regression orthogonal rotation combination test design method to optimize the structural parameters of [...] Read more.
In the realm of high-speed precision broadcasting, the existing seeder opener proves inadequate for the speed of the seeding operation. We focus on the duckbill opener and employ the quadratic regression orthogonal rotation combination test design method to optimize the structural parameters of the opener. Throughout the experiment, the primary performance metrics encompassed the opener’s working resistance and the side dumping distance. The selected experimental factors comprised the penetration angle, the angle of soil entry gap, the shovel body width, and the shovel length. The optimal arrangement of structural parameters has been determined: a penetration angle, a soil entry gap angle, a shovel body width of 21 mm, and a shovel length of 142 mm. These parameters contribute to increased velocity, reduced operational resistance, and minimal soil disturbance. Under this combination, the relative deviations between the recorded measurements and the theoretical outcomes for working resistance and the side dumping distance stand at 4.24% and 1.06%, respectively; these confirm the credibility of the optimization results. We performed adaptability testing and conducted a comparative analysis under various operational conditions to assess the innovative opener’s ability to reduce force, minimize soil disruption, and maintain depth stability. The findings are as follows: At a depth of 5 cm and velocities ranging from 6 km/h to 8 km/h, an average working resistance reduction of 19.73%, a 5.64% decrease in the side dumping distance, and an average depth stability of 89.5% were observed. When operated at a speed of 7 km/h with a depth ranging from 3 cm to 5 cm, an average reduction of 19.66% in operational resistance, a 2.59% decrease in the side dumping distance, and an average depth stability of 91.1% were recorded. These results illustrate the innovative opener’s capacity to significantly reduce working resistance and side dumping distance while satisfying the depth stability requisites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Control of Agricultural Robotics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 6233 KiB  
Article
Electric Actuation of Transport Vehicles: Overview of Technical Characteristics and Propulsion Solutions through a Systematic Patent Analysis
by Davide Consolati, Paolo Marmaglio, Lorenzo Canziani, Monica Tiboni and Cinzia Amici
Actuators 2024, 13(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13010015 - 30 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1536
Abstract
Electric transport vehicles offer sustainable transportation solutions with benefits, such as reduced emissions, noise, and operating costs. This paper draws an overview of the available technical solutions to actuate transport vehicles with electric drives, as depicted by patent literature. A dataset of 1784 [...] Read more.
Electric transport vehicles offer sustainable transportation solutions with benefits, such as reduced emissions, noise, and operating costs. This paper draws an overview of the available technical solutions to actuate transport vehicles with electric drives, as depicted by patent literature. A dataset of 1784 patents was created; the documents were selected through a systematic approach, and the patents were then classified according to a number of user-defined categories. The dataset was analyzed by applying two different methods: (i) a quantitative analysis (literature overview), enabling glance evaluations about the defined categories, and (ii) a qualitative analysis (detailed analysis), which focuses on the detection of interesting design features or innovative solutions. The results of this work not only provide an alternative and complementary overview to the analysis of solutions that may emerge from a scientific literature review, but can also offer support in strategic planning to companies wishing to protect their innovations and remain competitive in the evolving market of transport vehicles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Actuators for Land Transport)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop