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Actuators, Volume 11, Issue 10 (October 2022) – 35 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In this paper, we have developed a climbing and pruning robot for standing trees in fast-growing forests called Monkeybot. Its design was optimized, and related experimental research was carried out. The forest test results show that the Monkeybot could prune trees with a diameter at breast height of 10~20 cm, the average operation time for pruning a tree was less than 30 s, the winter pruning effect was ideal, the maximum climbing height was 7.18 m, and the maximum pruning diameter was 2.79 cm. The development of the machine can provide equipment support for the research of fast-growing forest standing tree pruning and nurturing technology. View this paper
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18 pages, 4880 KiB  
Article
An Enhanced Navigation Algorithm with an Adaptive Controller for Wheeled Mobile Robot Based on Bidirectional RRT
by Bing-Gang Jhong and Mei-Yung Chen
Actuators 2022, 11(10), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11100303 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1732
Abstract
A navigation algorithm providing motion planning for two-wheeled mobile robots is proposed in this paper. The motion planning integrates path planning, velocity planning and controller design. Bidirectional rapidly-exploring random trees algorithms (RRT) with path pruning and smoothing mechanism are firstly used to obtain [...] Read more.
A navigation algorithm providing motion planning for two-wheeled mobile robots is proposed in this paper. The motion planning integrates path planning, velocity planning and controller design. Bidirectional rapidly-exploring random trees algorithms (RRT) with path pruning and smoothing mechanism are firstly used to obtain a collision-free path to the robot destination with directional continuity. Secondly, velocity planning based on trapezoidal velocity profile is used in both linear and angular velocities, but the position error of the endpoint of the curve appears due to the coupling problem of the nonlinear system. To reduce the error, an approximation method is used to gradually modify several parts of time length of the trapezoidal velocity profile, so the continuity of the path can still be maintained. Thirdly, the controller keeping the robot on the planned path and velocity is designed based on the dynamic model of the robot. The parameters of this controller are estimated by the adaptive low, and the gain of controller is dynamic adjusted by fuzzy logic control to avoid the case that the control value is saturated. The controller stability and the convergence of tracking error is guaranteed by Lyapunov theory. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness and efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Control and Robotic System in Path Planning)
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18 pages, 12319 KiB  
Article
Overview of the SmartX Wing Technology Integrator
by Roeland De Breuker, Tigran Mkhoyan, Nakash Nazeer, Vincent Stuber, Xuerui Wang, Iren Mkhoyan, Roger Groves, Sybrand van der Zwaag and Jurij Sodja
Actuators 2022, 11(10), 302; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11100302 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2664
Abstract
This article describes the challenges of integrating smart sensing, actuation, and control concepts into an over-sensed and over-actuated technology integrator. This technology integrator has more control inputs than the expected responses or outputs (over-actuated), and its every state is measured using more than [...] Read more.
This article describes the challenges of integrating smart sensing, actuation, and control concepts into an over-sensed and over-actuated technology integrator. This technology integrator has more control inputs than the expected responses or outputs (over-actuated), and its every state is measured using more than one sensor system (over-sensed). The hardware integration platform is chosen to be a wind tunnel model of a low-speed aircraft wing such that it can be tested in a large university-level wind tunnel. This hardware technology integrator is designed for multiple objectives. The nature of these objectives is aerodynamic, structural, and aeroelastic, or, more specifically; drag reduction, static and dynamics loads control, aeroelastic stability control, and lift control. Enabling technologies, such as morphing, piezoelectric actuation and sensing, and fibre-optic sensing are selected to fulfil the mentioned objectives. The technology integration challenges are morphing, actuation integration, sensor integration, software and data integration, and control system integration. The built demonstrator shows the intended level of technology integration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Actuators for Aerospace Systems)
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28 pages, 8725 KiB  
Article
Theoretical and Experimental Study on Claw-Pole Magnetic Levitation Torque Motor for 2D Valve Using Cogging Torque
by Jiahiu Huang, Shulin Xie, Zhankai Song, Sheng Li and Jian Ruan
Actuators 2022, 11(10), 301; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11100301 - 19 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1424
Abstract
In this paper, a claw-pole magnetic levitation torque motor (CPMLTM) utilizing cogging torque is proposed as an electromechanical converter (EMC) for two-dimensional valves (2D valve). Compared to the existing torque motor, CPMLTM utilizes the cogging torque between the stator and the rotor, and [...] Read more.
In this paper, a claw-pole magnetic levitation torque motor (CPMLTM) utilizing cogging torque is proposed as an electromechanical converter (EMC) for two-dimensional valves (2D valve). Compared to the existing torque motor, CPMLTM utilizes the cogging torque between the stator and the rotor, and has the ability of automatic neutral adjustment, which greatly reduces the difficulty of neutral adjustment of two-dimensional valves and improves the accuracy of neutral adjustment. First, the structure and working principle of CPMLTM are introduced, followed by an analysis of the cogging torque of CPMLTM based on the energy method and Fourier expansion. The effects of the claw pole tooth (CPT) shape and slot opening coefficient on the cogging torque of CPMLTM are investigated. To analyze the sensitivity of the electromagnetic torque to each design parameter, a qualitative expression for the electromagnetic torque containing various design parameters was derived based on the equivalent magnetic circuit method, and a set of orthogonal tests were designed to calculate the electromagnetic torque using the finite element method (FEM). To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed CPMLTM principle and to verify the correctness of the cogging torque analysis model and FEM, a prototype was fabricated and a test rig was constructed for experimental study. The experiments show that CPMLTM can indeed utilize cogging torque to achieve automatic neutral adjustment, and that the neutral adjustment is more accurate. Moreover, the CPMLTM has good static and dynamic characteristics: a neutral electromagnetic torque of 0.1 Nm at a coil magnetomotive force (MMF) of 100 A, step response time up to 4.575 ms, and amplitude frequency bandwidth and phase frequency bandwidth of 173.7 Hz and 86.5 Hz, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Miniaturized and Micro Actuators)
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16 pages, 11871 KiB  
Article
Design of an Acoustic Synthetic Jet Actuator for Flow Control
by Lianshan Lu, Dong Li, Zhenhui Zhang, Yin Yang, Dawei Liu, Yang Tao and Bo Lu
Actuators 2022, 11(10), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11100300 - 18 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1821
Abstract
Synthetic jet technology is widely adopted in active flow control. An actuator with an oscillating diaphragm is a commonly used excitation device for synthetic jet generation. However, it has a disadvantage wherein the volume at the cross-section of the cavity varies unevenly when [...] Read more.
Synthetic jet technology is widely adopted in active flow control. An actuator with an oscillating diaphragm is a commonly used excitation device for synthetic jet generation. However, it has a disadvantage wherein the volume at the cross-section of the cavity varies unevenly when the diaphragm vibrates, which makes it difficult to use multiple jets corresponding to one diaphragm. In this paper, an acoustic synthetic jet actuator that can generate multiple jets with one diaphragm was designed. The diaphragm vibrated in a cylindrical cavity, transferring air to another constant-volume square cavity through pipes. The square cavity was covered with a multiple-orifice plate for the expulsion and suction of the ambient air. Through this means, the implementation of multiple jets corresponding to one diaphragm was achieved. The multiple jets are called distributed synthetic jets in this paper. Governing parameters that determined the performance of the distributed synthetic jets were given by theoretical derivation. It was found that, under specific geometry conditions, the governing parameters were mainly the frequency and voltage of the input signal to the actuator. Then, the velocity characteristics of the distributed synthetic jets were measured by using a constant-temperature anemometer and the parameter space was determined. The results showed that it was practicable to apply the acoustic actuator to turbulent boundary layer flow control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Aircraft Actuators)
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27 pages, 3924 KiB  
Article
An Adaptive Dynamic Surface Technology-Based Electromechanical Actuator Fault-Tolerant Scheme for Blair Mine Hoist Wire Rope Tension Control System
by Xiao Chen, Zhencai Zhu, Tianbing Ma, Jucai Chang, Xiangdong Chang and Wanshun Zang
Actuators 2022, 11(10), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11100299 - 18 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2145
Abstract
As an important equipment for deep well hoisting, the safe and stable operation of the Blair mine hoist is vital for the development and utilization of deep mineral resources. However, it is always a challenging task to keep consistent wire rope tension in [...] Read more.
As an important equipment for deep well hoisting, the safe and stable operation of the Blair mine hoist is vital for the development and utilization of deep mineral resources. However, it is always a challenging task to keep consistent wire rope tension in the event of an actuator fault. In this study, an adaptive dynamic surface technology-based actuator fault-tolerant scheme is proposed. A fault observer with a neural network adaptation term is designed to estimate the loss of actuator efficiency caused by faults. Considering the redundant characteristic of the two actuators, a novel dynamic surface technology-based controller with a fuzzy assignment and state constraints is developed to eliminate the impact of fault. The stability of the closed-loop system under the proposed strategy is theoretically proved by rigorous Lyapunov analysis. Comparative experiments under various conditions are carried out on a xPC based mine hoist platform, and the results show the applicability together with the superiority of the proposed scheme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Intelligent Control in Actuators Systems)
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18 pages, 10152 KiB  
Article
An Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian Approach for Estimating Energy Dissipation in Micromirrors
by Daniele Di Cristofaro, Andrea Opreni, Massimiliano Cremonesi, Roberto Carminati and Attilio Frangi 
Actuators 2022, 11(10), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11100298 - 18 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1743
Abstract
Quantification and minimisation of energy consumption in resonant MEMS micromirrors is a key aspect for a proper structural design. In this setting, the quality factor Q of the drive mode of the device needs to be estimated and, eventually, improved. In this work, [...] Read more.
Quantification and minimisation of energy consumption in resonant MEMS micromirrors is a key aspect for a proper structural design. In this setting, the quality factor Q of the drive mode of the device needs to be estimated and, eventually, improved. In this work, we propose a simulation strategy for the numerical computation of MEMS micromirrors quality factors. Full order Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian Navier-Stokes simulations have been performed using a SUPG stabilised Chorin-Themam scheme. Finally, the numerical results are compared with experimental data, highlighting the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Miniaturized and Micro Actuators)
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16 pages, 2360 KiB  
Article
A Multi-Hook Control Strategy for a Semi-Active Device Combining an Adjustable Inerter and Damper
by Xiaoliang Zhang, Yimu Zhang, Yue Zhao and Jiamei Nie
Actuators 2022, 11(10), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11100297 - 16 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1560
Abstract
Neither the separate skyhook damping nor the skyhook inertance control strategy can adapt to the variations of both road and load conditions simultaneously. To address this issue, this work proposed a novel ideal multi-hook system by combining the skyhook inerter and hybrid damper, [...] Read more.
Neither the separate skyhook damping nor the skyhook inertance control strategy can adapt to the variations of both road and load conditions simultaneously. To address this issue, this work proposed a novel ideal multi-hook system by combining the skyhook inerter and hybrid damper, with both of their coefficients optimized. The proposed system can achieve road holding without sacrificing ride comfort. Depending on whether the inerter and damper were adjusted independently or together, this ideal multi-hook was realized semi-actively in two different control models with three different control strategies, i.e., independent, inertance-based and damping-based control. The effects of these strategies were compared and analyzed. The simulation results show that compared with passive suspension, the root mean square value of body acceleration of the three kinds of multi-hook suspension decreases by more than 40% under different loads and by more than 28% on the roads of Classes A, B and C. Compared with the skyhook damping suspension, the dynamic wheel load of the multi-hook suspensions is reduced by more than 27.5%, proving that the semi-active suspension system with multi-hook control guarantees handling stability under various road and load conditions while ensuring ride comfort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Actuators for Land Transport)
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16 pages, 7024 KiB  
Article
Mechanism of Thrust–Power Ratio Improvement Using Plasma Actuator with Discretized Encapsulated Electrodes
by Yoshiki Shima, Ryuya Imai, Hitoshi Ishikawa and Takehiko Segawa
Actuators 2022, 11(10), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11100296 - 14 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1925
Abstract
Plasma actuators (PA) can be utilized as fluid control devices without moving parts, but further improvement in drive efficiency is necessary. Herein, string-type PAs with up to 12 insulated conductive wires were evaluated to replace sheet-type PAs having a single encapsulated electrode. The [...] Read more.
Plasma actuators (PA) can be utilized as fluid control devices without moving parts, but further improvement in drive efficiency is necessary. Herein, string-type PAs with up to 12 insulated conductive wires were evaluated to replace sheet-type PAs having a single encapsulated electrode. The thrust–power ratio of string-type PAs with eight or more wires is nine times that of a single-wire PA. This is due to the substantial increase in the width of the encapsulated electrode and the discrete arrangement of conductors in the streamwise direction. To determine the factors influencing the performance of PAs with discrete encapsulated electrodes, sheet-type PAs with and without discretized encapsulated electrodes and with the same configuration as string-type PAs were characterized. The measurement results revealed that no significant difference exists in the plasma extension length (LDBD) between sheet-type PAs without and with discretization under the same applied voltage, but 25% and 45% decreases in the thrust and power consumption, respectively, were observed compared to those of string-type PAs. The discretization of the encapsulated electrodes in the sheet-type plasma actuator increased the thrust–power ratio by 30%. Efficient non-mechanical fluid control using dielectric barrier discharge is therefore possible with string-type PAs with discrete electrodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuator for Active Flow Control)
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14 pages, 3920 KiB  
Article
Simulation of the Braking Effects of Permanent Magnet Eddy Current Brake and Its Effects on Levitation Characteristics of HTS Maglev Vehicles
by Gaowei Zhang, Jianmei Zhu, Yan Li, Yuhang Yuan, Yuqing Xiang, Peng Lin, Li Wang, Jianxin Liu, Le Liang and Zigang Deng
Actuators 2022, 11(10), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11100295 - 13 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1863
Abstract
High-temperature superconducting (HTS) magnetic levitation (maglev) trains for designed high speed need a non-contact braking method that can produce stable and sufficient braking forces to ensure the safety of the train during emergency braking. In order to study the braking effects of permanent [...] Read more.
High-temperature superconducting (HTS) magnetic levitation (maglev) trains for designed high speed need a non-contact braking method that can produce stable and sufficient braking forces to ensure the safety of the train during emergency braking. In order to study the braking effects of permanent magnet eddy current braking (PMECB) used in HTS maglev vehicles and its effects on the levitation performance of HTS maglev vehicles, an equivalent two-dimensional simulation model of PMECB for a HTS maglev test vehicle under different working air gaps of 5 mm, 10 mm, 15 mm and 20 mm was established in Maxwell software. Then, a 6 degree of freedom dynamic model of the vehicle was established in Universal Mechanism software. In the dynamic simulation, the normal force of PMECB was not considered, and only the detent force of PMECB was taken as the excitation of the vehicle. The simulation results show that PMECBs can reduce the vehicle to relatively low speed in a few seconds. During the operation of PMECBs, the levitation height and levitation force of the maglev Dewar will be affected, and maximum variations in levitation heights and levitation forces occur on the Dewars at both ends of the vehicle. These help us to understand the braking and levitation performance of HTS maglev vehicles under the action of PMECBs and enrich the design idea of braking and levitation systems of HTS maglev vehicles equipped with PMECBs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Technologies in Superconducting Actuators)
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19 pages, 3025 KiB  
Article
Design, Micro-Fabrication, and Characterization of a 3-DoF Micro-Conveyor Based on Digital Actuators
by Pengfei Huyan, Pengchao Li, Yulin Huang and Ximing Cui
Actuators 2022, 11(10), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11100294 - 13 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1503
Abstract
In this paper, a novel optimal 3-DoF micro-conveyor based on electromagnetic digital actuators array is proposed. The micro-conveyor consists of four electromagnetic digital actuators. Two specific control strategies have been built to realize the 3-DoF planner conveyance task. A static analytical model and [...] Read more.
In this paper, a novel optimal 3-DoF micro-conveyor based on electromagnetic digital actuators array is proposed. The micro-conveyor consists of four electromagnetic digital actuators. Two specific control strategies have been built to realize the 3-DoF planner conveyance task. A static analytical model and a dynamic semi-analytical model based on the principle have been built for the optimal design, analysis, and necessary calculation of a prototype. The prototype was manufactured by micro-fabrication technology and several experiments were carried out. The experimental results are in good agreement with the modeling results. Benefited from the optimal design and high fabrication precision, the proposed micro-conveyor is proved to be better in magnetic homogeneity of elementary actuators, output stability, long range conveyance linearity, and have one more DoF (planar rotation) compared to the previous work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Precision Actuators)
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19 pages, 3143 KiB  
Article
Investigations on Nonlinear Dynamic Modeling and Vibration Responses of T-Shaped Beam Structures
by Shuai Chen, Dengqing Cao, Jin Wei, Guiqin He, Bo Fang and Youxia Li
Actuators 2022, 11(10), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11100293 - 12 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1407
Abstract
A novel nonlinear dynamic modeling approach is proposed for the T-shaped beam structures widely used in the field of aerospace. All of the geometrical nonlinearities including the terms in the deformation of the beams, the terms at the connections, and the free ends [...] Read more.
A novel nonlinear dynamic modeling approach is proposed for the T-shaped beam structures widely used in the field of aerospace. All of the geometrical nonlinearities including the terms in the deformation of the beams, the terms at the connections, and the free ends of beams are considered in the dynamic modeling process. The global mode method is employed to determine the natural frequencies and global mode shapes of the linearized system. The validity and accuracy of the derived model are verified by comparing the natural frequencies obtained with those calculated from FEM. Adopting the Galerkin truncation procedure, a set of reduced-order nonlinear ODEs is obtained for the structure. A study on the variation of dynamic responses taking the different numbers of global modes into account is performed to determine the number of modes taken in nonlinear vibration analysis. A comparison between the responses of the system with linear or nonlinear matching and boundary conditions is given to evaluate the importance of neglecting and reserving the nonlinear terms in matching and boundary conditions. It is shown that ignoring the nonlinear terms in both matching and boundary conditions may significantly alter the responses while developing the discretized governing ODEs of the structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Spacecraft Structural Dynamics and Actuation Control)
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17 pages, 13924 KiB  
Article
Linear Parameter-Varying Model Predictive Control for Hydraulic Wind Turbine
by Bin Han and Hongyan Gao
Actuators 2022, 11(10), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11100292 - 12 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1632
Abstract
Wind speed uncertainty and measurement noise affect the control effect in hydraulic wind turbine systems. This paper proposes a model predictive control (MPC) method with a dynamic Kalman filter (KF) based on a linear parameter-varying (LPV) model to address this problem. First of [...] Read more.
Wind speed uncertainty and measurement noise affect the control effect in hydraulic wind turbine systems. This paper proposes a model predictive control (MPC) method with a dynamic Kalman filter (KF) based on a linear parameter-varying (LPV) model to address this problem. First of all, the LPV model for a nonlinear system of a hydraulic wind turbine is established using function substitution. Then, a LPV-based KF is introduced into the MPC to provide more precise estimated results and improve the anti-interference ability of the system. According to the current condition of the hydraulic wind turbine, the method updates the Kalman state estimator at each sampling instant and computes the optimal control input by solving a quadratic programming (QP) optimization problem. The performance and the efficiency of the proposed method is validated in simulation and compared with other methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Control in Theory and Practice)
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15 pages, 3942 KiB  
Article
Dynamic and Thermal Investigations of the Forward Dry-Friction Whirl/Whip of a Vertical Rotor-AMB System during Touchdowns
by Zilin Li, Mindong Lyu, Guojun Yang, Jingjing Zhao, Yuming Wang and Zixi Wang
Actuators 2022, 11(10), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11100291 - 11 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1425
Abstract
When an active magnetic bearing (AMB) rotor drops, it impacts the touchdown bearing (TDB) and produces friction on its surface. The vertical AMB rotor has no stable support in the radial direction, and the rotor exhibits a violent whirl motion in the gap [...] Read more.
When an active magnetic bearing (AMB) rotor drops, it impacts the touchdown bearing (TDB) and produces friction on its surface. The vertical AMB rotor has no stable support in the radial direction, and the rotor exhibits a violent whirl motion in the gap of the TDB. In this study, a complete dynamic and thermal model of the AMB-rotor-TDB system was established, and the complete drop process was simulated. When the rotor dropped, it obtained stable support after several bounces on the thrust surface of the TDB inner ring in the axial direction. In the radial direction, the rotor entered whirl motion after the initial collisions. There is a natural whirl frequency so that the drop forward whirl is divided into the dry-friction whirl and whip states. The contact force and heat generation of the TDB were monitored in the simulation and had different performancs in the two states. Both the initial collisions and the stabilized whirl motions were studied to evaluate the reliability of the TDB. Finally, a series of drop tests were performed, and the experimental results were in good agreement with the simulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Theory and Application of Magnetic Actuators)
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13 pages, 4912 KiB  
Article
Cable-Driven Parallel Robot Actuators: State of the Art and Novel Servo-Winch Concept
by Edoardo Idà and Valentina Mattioni
Actuators 2022, 11(10), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11100290 - 11 Oct 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4878
Abstract
Cable-Driven Parallel Robots (CDPRs) use cables arranged in a parallel fashion to manipulate an end-effector (EE). They are functionally similar to several cranes that automatically collaborate in handling a shared payload. Thus, CDPRs share several types of equipment with [...] Read more.
Cable-Driven Parallel Robots (CDPRs) use cables arranged in a parallel fashion to manipulate an end-effector (EE). They are functionally similar to several cranes that automatically collaborate in handling a shared payload. Thus, CDPRs share several types of equipment with cranes, such as winches, hoists, and pulleys. On the other hand, since CDPRs rely on model-based automatic controllers for their operations, standard crane equipment may severely limit their performance. In particular, to achieve reasonably accurate feedback control of the EE pose during the process, the length of the cable inside the workspace of the robot should be known. Cable length is usually inferred by measuring winch angular displacement, but this operation is simple and accurate only if the winch transmission ratio is constant. This problem called for the design of novel actuation schemes for CDPRs; in this paper, we analyze the existing architectures of so-called servo-winches (i.e., servo-actuators which employ a rotational motor and have a constant transmission ratio), and we propose a novel servo-winch concept and compare the state-of-the-art architectures with our design in terms of pros and cons, design requirements, and applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics and Control of Robot Manipulators)
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15 pages, 2025 KiB  
Article
Optimal Design of a Novel Leg-Based Stair-Climbing Wheelchair Based on the Kinematic Analysis of the Stair Climbing States
by Diego Delgado-Mena, Emiliano Pereira, Cristina Alén-Cordero, Saturnino Maldonado-Bascón and Pedro Gil-Jiménez
Actuators 2022, 11(10), 289; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11100289 - 9 Oct 2022
Viewed by 2172
Abstract
This work presents a method to find the optimal configuration of a leg-based stair-climbing wheelchair. This optimization begins with the definition of a high-level control architecture, in which the kinematics restrictions related to the specific obstacles are considered. Then, the reference trajectories for [...] Read more.
This work presents a method to find the optimal configuration of a leg-based stair-climbing wheelchair. This optimization begins with the definition of a high-level control architecture, in which the kinematics restrictions related to the specific obstacles are considered. Then, the reference trajectories for all the actuators are generated as a function of the physical parameters of the mechanism, the dynamic restrictions of the actuators (velocity and acceleration) and the sensor errors. This work illustrates, based on a set of configurations, how the total time to climb up and climb down a defined stair depends on all these parameters, also reporting the best set of parameters that reduces the time and makes the mechanism more stable for a given scenario. The optimization in this work is performed with a brute-force search within a grid of parameters with a resolution of 1 mm. Thus, as the local minima is located, the complexity of the problem is revealed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics and Control of Robot Manipulators)
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28 pages, 1590 KiB  
Review
A Review on the Development of Pneumatic Artificial Muscle Actuators: Force Model and Application
by Bhaben Kalita, Alexander Leonessa and Santosha K. Dwivedy
Actuators 2022, 11(10), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11100288 - 9 Oct 2022
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 8869
Abstract
Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) are soft and flexible linear pneumatic actuators which produce human muscle like actuation. Due to these properties, the muscle actuators have an adaptable compliance for various robotic platforms as well as medical applications. While a variety of possible actuation [...] Read more.
Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) are soft and flexible linear pneumatic actuators which produce human muscle like actuation. Due to these properties, the muscle actuators have an adaptable compliance for various robotic platforms as well as medical applications. While a variety of possible actuation schemes are present, there is still a need for the development of a soft actuator that is very light-weight, compact, and flexible with high power-to-weight ratio. To achieve this, the development of the PAM actuators has become an interesting topic for many researchers. In this review, the development of the different kinds of PAM available to date are presented along with manufacturing process and the operating principle. The various force models for artificial muscle presented in the literature are broadly reviewed with the constraints. Furthermore, the applications of PAM are included and classified based on the fields of biorobotics, medicine, and industry, along with advanced medical instrumentation. Finally, the needful improvements in terms of the dynamics of the muscle are discussed for the precise control of the PAMs as per the requirements for the applications. This review will be helpful for researchers working in the field of robotics and for designers to develop new type of artificial muscle depending on the applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pneumatic Actuators for Robotics and Automation)
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18 pages, 7704 KiB  
Article
Monkeybot: A Climbing and Pruning Robot for Standing Trees in Fast-Growing Forests
by Yichen Ban, Kun Lyu, Shihong Ba, Jian Wen, Feng Kang and Wenbin Li
Actuators 2022, 11(10), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11100287 - 8 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3314
Abstract
Standing tree pruning in fast-growing forests is an essential part of the targeted nurturing of quality fast-growing forests. Because of the high risk and low efficiency of traditional pruning methods, a climbing and pruning robot was developed, its design was optimized, and related [...] Read more.
Standing tree pruning in fast-growing forests is an essential part of the targeted nurturing of quality fast-growing forests. Because of the high risk and low efficiency of traditional pruning methods, a climbing and pruning robot was developed, its design was optimized, and related experimental research was carried out. This paper describes the design scheme of the Monkeybot mechanical structure and control system and theoretically analyzes the clamping mechanism, walking mechanism, cutting mechanism, and obstacle avoidance mechanism to determine the critical design parameters. On the premise of ensuring a good pruning effect, Ansys Workbench Gui Explicit Dynamics was used for the cutting simulation experiment. The test adopts a three-factor and three-level orthogonal test method to explore the best design parameter combination when reducing the maximum shear stress on branches. A forest work performance evaluation was carried out using prototypes designed with the best variety of parameters. The forest test results show that the Monkeybot could prune trees with a diameter at breast height of 10~20 cm, the average operation time for pruning a tree was less than 30 s, the winter pruning effect was ideal, the maximum climbing height could reach 7.18 m, and the maximum pruning diameter could reach 2.79 cm. The development of the machine can provide equipment support for the research of fast-growing forest standing tree pruning and nurturing technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Actuators for Robotics)
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16 pages, 3866 KiB  
Article
Effects of Flexural Rigidity on Soft Actuators via Adhering to Large Cylinders
by Liuwei Wang, Qijun Jiang, Zhiyuan Weng, Qingsong Yuan and Zhouyi Wang
Actuators 2022, 11(10), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11100286 - 7 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1838
Abstract
This study proposes a soft pneumatic actuator with adhesion (SPAA) consisting of a top fluidic-driven elastic actuator and four bottom adhesive pads for adhering to large cylinders. Finite element models were developed to investigate the bending properties under positive air pressure and the [...] Read more.
This study proposes a soft pneumatic actuator with adhesion (SPAA) consisting of a top fluidic-driven elastic actuator and four bottom adhesive pads for adhering to large cylinders. Finite element models were developed to investigate the bending properties under positive air pressure and the effect of “rib” height on the flexural rigidity of the SPAA. A synchronous testing platform for the adhesive contact state and mechanics was developed, and the bending curvature and flexural rigidity of the SPAA were experimentally measured relative to the pressure and “rib” height, respectively, including the adhesion performance of the SPAA with different rigidities on large cylinders. The obtained results indicate that the SPAA can continuously bend with controllable curvature under positive air pressure and can actively envelop a wide range of cylinders of different curvatures. The increase in the “rib” height from 4 to 8 mm increases the flexural rigidity of the SPAA by approximately 230%, contributing to an average increase of 54% in the adhesion performance of the SPAA adhering to large cylinders. The adhesion performance increases more significantly with an increase in the flexural rigidity at a smaller peeling angle. SPAA has a better adhesion performance on large cylinders than most existing soft adhesive actuators, implying that is more stable and less affected by the curvature of cylinders. To address the low contact ratio of the SPAA during adhesion, the optimization designs of the rigid–flexible coupling hierarchical and differentiated AP structures were proposed to increase the contact ratio to more than 80% in the simulation. In conclusion, this study improved the adhesion performance of soft adhesive actuators on large cylinders and extended the application scope of adhesion technology. SPAA is a basic adhesive unit with a universal structure and large aspect ratio similar to that of the human finger. According to working conditions requirements, SPAAs can be assembled to a multi-finger flexible adhesive gripper with excellent maneuverability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soft Actuators and Robotics)
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25 pages, 13327 KiB  
Article
Design and Analysis of a Lower Limb Loadbearing Exoskeleton
by Qiying Su, Zhongcai Pei, Zhiyong Tang and Quan Liang
Actuators 2022, 11(10), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11100285 - 6 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 5615
Abstract
In recent years, the lower limb exoskeleton has been more and more widely used in military, medical and other fields. In this paper, the muscle–bone model of the lower limb during the human walking process is analyzed, and a lower limb exoskeleton with [...] Read more.
In recent years, the lower limb exoskeleton has been more and more widely used in military, medical and other fields. In this paper, the muscle–bone model of the lower limb during the human walking process is analyzed, and a lower limb exoskeleton with the purpose of loadbearing is designed. The exoskeleton is driven by four hydraulic cylinders to the hip and knee joints whose design load is 50 kg. The kinematic and dynamic model of the exoskeleton designed in this paper is established and analyzed, and it is simulated. Finally, the experiments were carried out on the exoskeleton test platform to verify that the stability, bearing capacity, tracking effect and durability of the exoskeleton can meet the requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Actuators for Robotics)
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11 pages, 3478 KiB  
Article
Design and Analysis of a Compliant End-Effector for Robotic Polishing Using Flexible Beams
by Yanding Qin, Haitao Wu, Zhiyuan Li, Ning Sun and Lei Sun
Actuators 2022, 11(10), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11100284 - 5 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2327
Abstract
The contact force between the polishing tool and the workpiece is crucial in determining the surface quality in robotic polishing. Different from rigid end-effectors, this paper presents a novel compliant end-effector (CEE) for robotic polishing using flexible beams. The flexibility of the CEE [...] Read more.
The contact force between the polishing tool and the workpiece is crucial in determining the surface quality in robotic polishing. Different from rigid end-effectors, this paper presents a novel compliant end-effector (CEE) for robotic polishing using flexible beams. The flexibility of the CEE helps to suppress the excessive displacement caused by the inertia of the polishing robot and avoids damaging the polishing tool and workpiece surface. In addition, the contact force can also be precisely estimated via the measurement of the CEE’s displacement using a capacitive position sensor. The design, modeling and experimental validation of the CEE are presented. Firstly, the analytical model of the CEE is established using the stiffness matrix method. Subsequently, the analytical model is verified by finite element analysis. Further, a prototype is manufactured, and its characteristics and performance are experimentally tested. The equivalent stiffness is measured to be 0.335 N/μm, and the first natural frequency along its working direction is 42.1 Hz. Finally, the contact force measurement using the CEE is compared with a force sensor. Under open-loop condition, the resolution of the contact force measurement is found to be 0.025 N, which makes the fine tuning of the contact force possible in robotic polishing. Full article
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15 pages, 29248 KiB  
Article
Adhesion State Estimation for Electrostatic Gripper Based on Online Capacitance Measure
by Ion-Dan Sîrbu, Marco Bolignari, Salvatore D’Avella, Francesco Damiani, Lorenzo Agostini, Paolo Tripicchio, Rocco Vertechy, Lucio Pancheri and Marco Fontana
Actuators 2022, 11(10), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11100283 - 5 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2201
Abstract
Electroadhesion is a suitable technology for developing grippers for applications where fragile, compliant or variable shape objects need to be grabbed and where a retention action is typically preferred to a compression force. This article presents a self-sensing technique for electroadhesive devices (EAD) [...] Read more.
Electroadhesion is a suitable technology for developing grippers for applications where fragile, compliant or variable shape objects need to be grabbed and where a retention action is typically preferred to a compression force. This article presents a self-sensing technique for electroadhesive devices (EAD) based on the capacitance measure. Specifically, we demonstrate that measuring the variation of the capacitance between electrodes of an EAD during the adhesion can provide useful information to automatically detect the successful grip of an object and the possible loss of adhesion during manipulation. To this aim, a dedicated electronic circuit is developed that is able to measure capacitance variations while the high voltage required for the adhesion is activated. A test bench characterization is presented to evaluate the self-sensing of capacitance during different states: (1) the EAD is far away from the object to be grasped; (2) the EAD is in contact with the object, but the voltage is not active (i.e., no adhesion); and (3) the EAD is activated and attached to the object. Correlation between the applied voltage, object material and shape and capacitance is made. The self-sensing EAD is then demonstrated in a closed-loop robotic application that employs a robot manipulator arm to pick and place objects of different kinds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Dielectric Elastomer Actuator and Sensor Systems)
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23 pages, 8014 KiB  
Article
A Variable Stiffness Actuator Based on Leaf Springs: Design, Model and Analysis
by Yifan Lu, Yifei Yang, Yuan Xue, Jun Jiang, Qiang Zhang and Honghao Yue
Actuators 2022, 11(10), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11100282 - 4 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2791
Abstract
In order to adapt to complex and changeable mechanical conditions and make the deformable mechanisms perform well statically and dynamically, variable stiffness joints have been studied extensively. The variable stiffness actuator is the key driving component to adjust stiffness of the joint. By [...] Read more.
In order to adapt to complex and changeable mechanical conditions and make the deformable mechanisms perform well statically and dynamically, variable stiffness joints have been studied extensively. The variable stiffness actuator is the key driving component to adjust stiffness of the joint. By inserting flexible elements between the driving and driven ends of rigid motion, the variable stiffness actuator makes the joint move precisely and allows humans to interact with machines safely. At present, many kinds of variable stiffness actuators have been applied, among which the way of changing the length of the force arm of leaf springs has obvious advantages. However, overall configuration design, accurate stiffness model, mechanical characteristics and safety analysis have not been studied in depth. This paper investigates a variable stiffness actuator based on leaf spring by design, model and mechanical analysis. The composition and configuration of the actuator is analyzed and optimized. Using the deflection theory of the beam, a new rotational stiffness model of the actuator is established, and a safe position criterion is set up upon the deformation constraint conditions. The variation law of stiffness and the influence of parameters on mechanical characteristics are studied. The finite element analysis method verified the rotational stiffness model, and static test proved that the actuator could effectively work in the joint. Full article
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13 pages, 3047 KiB  
Article
Refined Modeling Method and Analysis of an Electromagnetic Direct-Drive Hydrostatic Actuation System
by Jiayu Lu, Chaofan Gu, Yanjun Zhao, Cao Tan, Yingtao Lu and Changzhong Fu
Actuators 2022, 11(10), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11100281 - 30 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1905
Abstract
The hydrostatic actuation system based on linear actuators improves the complex piston force and long transmission path of the traditional electro-hydrostatic actuator (EHA). However, new nonlinear factors in the linear actuator and direct-driven piston are introduced into the system, which present challenges to [...] Read more.
The hydrostatic actuation system based on linear actuators improves the complex piston force and long transmission path of the traditional electro-hydrostatic actuator (EHA). However, new nonlinear factors in the linear actuator and direct-driven piston are introduced into the system, which present challenges to system modeling and control. To improve the accuracy of system performance prediction, this paper analyzed the working characteristics of an electromagnetic direct-drive hydrostatic actuation system (EDHAS). A dynamic model of the electromagnetic linear actuator including the LuGre friction model was established. The high-pressure internal leakage of the direct-drive pump was described by an inclined eccentric leakage model. The Karnopp friction model was applied to solve the problem of switching between viscous and sliding friction in a cylinder. The hydraulic components model was established based on AMESim, and the electromagnetic linear actuator model and the system controller model were established in Matlab/Simulink, to establish a refined electromechanical–hydraulic co-simulation model of the EDHAS with electromagnetic, mechanical, hydraulic, and control coupling. A system performance test platform was built. The simulation results of the direct-drive piston displacement, the system pressure, the system flow rate, and the cylinder displacement match well with experimental results, which verifies the validity and accuracy of the refined modeling method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flow Control Actuators and Their Diverse Fluid Dynamic Applications)
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17 pages, 5644 KiB  
Article
Enhancement of Shock Absorption Using Hybrid SMA-MRF Damper by Complementary Operation
by Kiran Jacob, Aditya Suryadi Tan, Thomas Sattel and Manfred Kohl
Actuators 2022, 11(10), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11100280 - 30 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1693
Abstract
A hybrid damper concept is presented here using a combination of a Magnetorheological (MR) Fluid (MRF) and Shape Memory Alloy (SMA)-based energy dissipation. A demonstration is performed utilizing the shear operating mode of the MRF and the one-way effect of the SMA. The [...] Read more.
A hybrid damper concept is presented here using a combination of a Magnetorheological (MR) Fluid (MRF) and Shape Memory Alloy (SMA)-based energy dissipation. A demonstration is performed utilizing the shear operating mode of the MRF and the one-way effect of the SMA. The damping performance of different MRF-SMA configurations is investigated and the corresponding energy consumption is evaluated. We demonstrate that the operation of MRF and SMA dampers complement each other, compensating for each other’s weaknesses. In particular, the slow response from the MR damper is compensated by passive SMA damping using the pseudoplastic effect of martensite reorientation, which can dissipate a significant amount of shock energy at the beginning of the shock occurrence. The MR damper compensates for the incapability of the SMA to dampen subsequent vibrations as long as the magnetic field is applied. The presented hybrid SMA-MR damper demonstrates superior performance compared to individual dampers, allowing for up to five-fold reduction in energy consumption of the MR damper alone and thereby opening up the possibility of reducing the construction volume of the MR damper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Actuator Materials)
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19 pages, 1939 KiB  
Article
A New Positioning Strategy Based on Parameter Tuning and Optimal Control Technique for Pneumatic Control Valve
by Bo Zhang, Aipeng Jiang, Jiaji Jiang, Yanying Qi, Li Xue and Yan Wang
Actuators 2022, 11(10), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11100279 - 30 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2126
Abstract
To improve the accuracy, rapidity, and versatility of pneumatic control valves, mechanism modeling, and optimization analysis on pneumatic actuators were carried out, and then a new positioning strategy based on parameter tuning and optimal control technique was proposed consequently. Firstly, a dynamic model [...] Read more.
To improve the accuracy, rapidity, and versatility of pneumatic control valves, mechanism modeling, and optimization analysis on pneumatic actuators were carried out, and then a new positioning strategy based on parameter tuning and optimal control technique was proposed consequently. Firstly, a dynamic model of valve position based on optimal control under constraint conditions was established, and the characteristic parameters of valve position motion were determined. Then, the adaptive processing of switching points was introduced into the optimal control strategy to improve the versatility of the control. Finally, according to different control strategy partitions, the interactive control of the piezoelectric air switch by fully open control and PWM improves the control accuracy of the algorithm. The experimental analysis of the control effect with other brand positioners shows that the proposed control strategy shortens the system adjustment time, improves the accuracy of valve position, and avoids the overshoot. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Control Systems)
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15 pages, 5070 KiB  
Article
Two-Phase Stator Vibration Amplitude Compensation of Traveling-Wave Ultrasonic Motor
by Xiaochen Gao, Ming Yang, Yuanfei Zhu and Yinghua Hu
Actuators 2022, 11(10), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11100278 - 30 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1710
Abstract
The consistency of the two-phase mode responses is essential to ensure the mechanical performance and stability of traveling-wave ultrasonic motors. Due to the asymmetry of the stator, inevitable manufacturing errors, or imbalance of the excitation voltages, the amplitudes of the two-phase standing waves [...] Read more.
The consistency of the two-phase mode responses is essential to ensure the mechanical performance and stability of traveling-wave ultrasonic motors. Due to the asymmetry of the stator, inevitable manufacturing errors, or imbalance of the excitation voltages, the amplitudes of the two-phase standing waves cannot be exactly the same, resulting in unstable operating of USM. To improve the stability of the motor and decrease the velocity fluctuation, a closed-loop velocity control scheme considering two-phase consistency compensation based on the vibration amplitude of the stator is proposed. This scheme is implemented under the framework of the stator vibration amplitude-based velocity control and parallel resonance frequency tracking (VCBVF). Based on the relationship between the velocity and stator vibration amplitude (SVA), two-phase excitation signals are adjusted individually and simultaneously. Compared with the single-phase feedback VCBVF control scheme, experimental results show that the proposed scheme can reduce the overshoot from 17.50% to 6.90% and velocity fluctuations from 7.69 rpm to 2.40 rpm, under different load torques. The proposed scheme can compensate for the two-phase electrical inconsistency and improve the velocity stability and output power of motor operation under various conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Actuator Materials)
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15 pages, 3739 KiB  
Article
Study on Fault Detection of Plastic Micro-Drive System: An Experimental Analysis of Grille Controller
by Qingqing Huang, Jing Li, Ziqiang Zhang, Xin Liu, Jiufei Luo and Bin Zhang
Actuators 2022, 11(10), 277; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11100277 - 30 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1381
Abstract
Plastic micro-drive systems are used in an increasing number of applications in manufacturing industries. The operational status of the plastic micro-drive system directly affects the performance of the host system. However, the fault diagnosis of the plastic micro-drive system remains a challenge due [...] Read more.
Plastic micro-drive systems are used in an increasing number of applications in manufacturing industries. The operational status of the plastic micro-drive system directly affects the performance of the host system. However, the fault diagnosis of the plastic micro-drive system remains a challenge due to its miniaturization. In this paper, a fault-detection study using the electrical-parameter analysis method is proposed for the grille controller, which provides a basis for typical plastic micro-drive systems. The structure and working principle of grille controllers are analyzed, and typical faults are summarized. Then, the fault-mechanism analysis of typical faults is presented, and the identification indicators of faults are developed. A strategy of fault-feature frequency extraction based on the improved reconstruction method of empirical-mode decomposition (EMD) is proposed. Finally, the experimental results reveal that the proposed indicators and method demonstrate high accuracy for the grille-controller fault detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Control Systems)
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15 pages, 2736 KiB  
Article
Development of a Sinusoidal Corrugated Dual-Axial Flexure Mechanism for Planar Nanopositioning
by Yuhan Niu, Xingyou Chen, Li Chen, Zhiwei Zhu and Peng Huang
Actuators 2022, 11(10), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11100276 - 29 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1827
Abstract
Taking advantage of the concurrent stretching and bending property of corrugated flexure hinges, a sinusoidal corrugated flexure linkage was proposed and applied for the construction of a corrugated dual-axial mechanism with structural symmetry and decoupled planar motion guidance. Castigliano’s second theorem was employed [...] Read more.
Taking advantage of the concurrent stretching and bending property of corrugated flexure hinges, a sinusoidal corrugated flexure linkage was proposed and applied for the construction of a corrugated dual-axial mechanism with structural symmetry and decoupled planar motion guidance. Castigliano’s second theorem was employed to derive the complete compliance for a basic sinusoidal corrugated flexure unit, and matrix-based compliance modeling was then applied to find the stiffness of the sinusoidal corrugated flexure linkage and the corrugated dual-axial mechanism. Using established analytical models, the influence of structural parameters on the stiffness of both the corrugated flexure linkage and the dual-axial mechanism were investigated, with further verification by finite element analysis, with errors less than 20% compared to the analytical results for all cases. In addition, the stiffness of the corrugated flexure mechanism was practically tested, and its deviation between practical and analytical was around 7.4%. Further, the feasibility of the mechanism was demonstrated by successfully applying it for a magnetic planar nanopositioning stage, for which both open-loop and closed-loop performances were systematically examined. The stage has a stroke around 130 μm for the two axes and a maximum cross-talk less than 2.5%, and the natural frequency is around 590 Hz. Full article
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24 pages, 25893 KiB  
Article
ECNN: Intelligent Fault Diagnosis Method Using Efficient Convolutional Neural Network
by Chao Zhang, Qixuan Huang, Chaoyi Zhang, Ke Yang, Liye Cheng and Zhan Li
Actuators 2022, 11(10), 275; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11100275 - 26 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1978
Abstract
With outstanding deep feature learning and nonlinear classification abilities, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) have been gradually applied to deal with various fault diagnosis tasks. Affected by variable working conditions and strong noises, the empirical datum always has different probability distributions, and then different [...] Read more.
With outstanding deep feature learning and nonlinear classification abilities, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) have been gradually applied to deal with various fault diagnosis tasks. Affected by variable working conditions and strong noises, the empirical datum always has different probability distributions, and then different data segments may have inconsistent contributions, so more attention should be assigned to the informative data segments. However, most of the CNN-based fault diagnosis methods still retain black-box characteristics, especially the lack of attention mechanisms and ignoring the special contributions of informative data segments. To address these problems, we propose a new intelligent fault diagnosis method comprised of an improved CNN model named Efficient Convolutional Neural Network (ECNN). The extensive view can cover the special characteristic periods, and the small view can locate the essential feature using Pyramidal Dilated Convolution (PDC). Consequently, the receptive field of the model can be greatly enlarged to capture the location information and excavate the remarkable informative data segments. Then, a novel residual network feature calibration and fusion (ResNet-FCF) block was designed, which uses local channel interactions and residual networks based on global channel interactions for weight-redistribution. Therefore, the corresponding channel weight is increased, which puts more attention on the information data segment. The ECNN model has achieved encouraging results in information extraction and feature channel allocation of the feature. Three experiments are used to test different diagnosis methods. The ECNN model achieves the highest average accuracy of fault diagnosis. The comparison results show that ECNN has strong domain adaptation ability, high stability, and superior diagnostic performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Control Systems)
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18 pages, 2706 KiB  
Article
An Intelligent Tracking System for Moving Objects in Dynamic Environments
by Nada Ali Hakami, Hanan Ahmed Hosni Mahmoud and Abeer Abdulaziz AlArfaj
Actuators 2022, 11(10), 274; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11100274 - 25 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1458
Abstract
Localization of suspicious moving objects in dynamic environments requires high accuracy mapping. A deep learning model is proposed to track crossing moving objects in the opposite direction. Moving objects locus measurements are computed from the space included in the boundaries of the images [...] Read more.
Localization of suspicious moving objects in dynamic environments requires high accuracy mapping. A deep learning model is proposed to track crossing moving objects in the opposite direction. Moving objects locus measurements are computed from the space included in the boundaries of the images in the intersecting cameras. Object appearance is designated by the color and textural histograms in the intersecting camera views. The incorrect mapping of moving objects in a dynamic environment through synchronized localization can be considerably increased in complex areas. This is done due to the presence of unfit points that are triggered by moving targets. To face this problem, a robust model using the dynamic province rejection technique (DPR) is presented. We are proposing a novel model that incorporates a combination of the deep learning method and a tracking system that rejects dynamic areas which are not within the environment boundary of interest. The technique detects the dynamic points from sequential video images and partitions the current video image into super blocks and tags the border differences. In the last stage, dynamic areas are computed from dynamic points and superblock boundaries. Static regions are utilized to compute the positions to enhance the path computation precision of the model. Simulation results show that the introduced model has better performance than the state-of-the-art similar models in both the VID and MOVSD4 datasets and is higher than the state-of-the-art tracking systems with better speed performance. The experiments prove that the computed path error in the dynamic setting can be decreased by 81%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Technologies and Applications in Robotics)
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