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Pathogens, Volume 12, Issue 5 (May 2023) – 117 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): ADP ribosylation is an important post-translational modification in the evolutionary arms race between host immunity and viruses. Critical to this host–virus conflict is the reversal of ADP ribosylation by macrodomain-containing proteins. Here, we characterize the ADP ribosylhydrolase activity of individual macrodomains from host macrodomain-containing PARPs (known as macroPARPs), alphaviruses, and coronaviruses. Strikingly, we find that most macroPARP macrodomains either lack catalytic activity, or catalytic activity has been recurrently lost during mammalian evolution. Similarly, we reveal a recurrent loss of macrodomain enzymatic activity throughout alphavirus evolution, while coronavirus macrodomain activity is well conserved. Together, our work highlights a surprising turnover of macrodomain enzymatic activity in both hosts and viruses. View this paper
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0 pages, 1871 KiB  
Article
Insights into the Genetic Diversity of Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis in Panama, Inferred via Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST)
by Daniel Mendieta, Vanessa Vásquez, Luis Jaén, Vanessa Pineda, Azael Saldaña, José Eduardo Calzada and Franklyn Samudio
Pathogens 2023, 12(5), 747; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12050747 - 22 May 2023
Viewed by 1562
Abstract
Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania and transmitted by sand fly vectors. Tegumentary leishmaniasis is the most prevalent clinical outcome in Latin America, afflicting people from 18 countries. In Panama, the annual incidence rate of leishmaniasis is as [...] Read more.
Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania and transmitted by sand fly vectors. Tegumentary leishmaniasis is the most prevalent clinical outcome in Latin America, afflicting people from 18 countries. In Panama, the annual incidence rate of leishmaniasis is as high as 3000 cases, representing a major public health problem. In endemic regions, L. panamensis is responsible for almost eighty percent of human cases that present different clinical outcomes. These differences in disease outcomes could be the result of the local interplay between L. panamensis variants and human hosts with different genetic backgrounds. The genetic diversity of L. panamensis in Panama has only been partially explored, and the variability reported for this species is based on few studies restricted to small populations and/or with poor resolutive markers at low taxonomic levels. Accordingly, in this study, we explored the genetic diversity of sixty-nine L. panamensis isolates from different endemic regions of Panama, using an MLST approach based on four housekeeping genes (Aconitase, ALAT, GPI and HSP70). Two to seven haplotypes per locus were identified, and regional differences in the genetic diversity of L. panamensis were observed. A genotype analysis evidenced the circulation of thirteen L. panamensis genotypes, a fact that might have important implications for the local control of the disease. Full article
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37 pages, 1441 KiB  
Review
Resistance, Tolerance, Virulence and Bacterial Pathogen Fitness—Current State and Envisioned Solutions for the Near Future
by Veronica Lazar, Eliza Oprea and Lia-Mara Ditu
Pathogens 2023, 12(5), 746; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12050746 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2769
Abstract
The current antibiotic crisis and the global phenomena of bacterial resistance, inherited and non-inherited, and tolerance—associated with biofilm formation—are prompting dire predictions of a post-antibiotic era in the near future. These predictions refer to increases in morbidity and mortality rates as a consequence [...] Read more.
The current antibiotic crisis and the global phenomena of bacterial resistance, inherited and non-inherited, and tolerance—associated with biofilm formation—are prompting dire predictions of a post-antibiotic era in the near future. These predictions refer to increases in morbidity and mortality rates as a consequence of infections with multidrug-resistant or pandrug-resistant microbial strains. In this context, we aimed to highlight the current status of the antibiotic resistance phenomenon and the significance of bacterial virulence properties/fitness for human health and to review the main strategies alternative or complementary to antibiotic therapy, some of them being already clinically applied or in clinical trials, others only foreseen and in the research phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Diseases, Bacterial Infections, and Antimicrobial Resistance)
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18 pages, 1915 KiB  
Article
Peptidases Are Potential Targets of Copper(II)-1,10-Phenanthroline-5,6-dione Complex, a Promising and Potent New Drug against Trichomonas vaginalis
by Graziela Vargas Rigo, Fernanda Gomes Cardoso, Matheus Mendonça Pereira, Michael Devereux, Malachy McCann, André L. S. Santos and Tiana Tasca
Pathogens 2023, 12(5), 745; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12050745 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1210
Abstract
Trichomonas vaginalis is responsible for 156 million new cases per year worldwide. When present asymptomatically, the parasite can lead to serious complications, such as development of cervical and prostate cancer. As infection increases the acquisition and transmission of HIV, the control of trichomoniasis [...] Read more.
Trichomonas vaginalis is responsible for 156 million new cases per year worldwide. When present asymptomatically, the parasite can lead to serious complications, such as development of cervical and prostate cancer. As infection increases the acquisition and transmission of HIV, the control of trichomoniasis represents an important niche for the discovery and development of new antiparasitic molecules. This urogenital parasite synthesizes several molecules that allow the establishment and pathogenesis of infection. Among them, peptidases occupy key roles as virulence factors, and the inhibition of these enzymes has become an important mechanism for modulating pathogenesis. Based on these premises, our group recently reported the potent anti-T. vaginalis action of the metal-based complex [Cu(phendione)3](ClO4)2.4H2O (Cu-phendione). In the present study, we evaluated the influence of Cu-phendione on the modulation of proteolytic activities produced by T. vaginalis by biochemical and molecular approaches. Cu-phendione showed strong inhibitory potential against T. vaginalis peptidases, especially cysteine- and metallo-type peptidases. The latter revealed a more prominent effect at both the post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. Molecular Docking analysis confirmed the interaction of Cu-phendione, with high binding energy (−9.7 and −10.7 kcal·mol−1, respectively) at the active site of both TvMP50 and TvGP63 metallopeptidases. In addition, Cu-phendione significantly reduced trophozoite-mediated cytolysis in human vaginal (HMVII) and monkey kidney (VERO) epithelial cell lineages. These results highlight the antiparasitic potential of Cu-phendione by interaction with important T. vaginalis virulence factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trichomonas vaginalis Infection)
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18 pages, 14520 KiB  
Article
Anthelmintic-Like Activity and Ultrastructure Changes Produced by Two Polyphenolic Combinations against Cooperia punctata Adult Worms and Infective Larvae
by Elke von Son-de Fernex, Estefanía Zúñiga-Olivos, Luis Felipe Jiménez-García and Pedro Mendoza-de Gives
Pathogens 2023, 12(5), 744; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12050744 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1069
Abstract
Cooperia punctata is one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal nematodes affecting cattle under grazing conditions, and the increasing reports of anthelmintic resistance forces researchers to look for novel control measures. Previous reports have proposed the use of polyphenolic compound (PC) combinations (Coumarin:Quercetin (CuQ) [...] Read more.
Cooperia punctata is one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal nematodes affecting cattle under grazing conditions, and the increasing reports of anthelmintic resistance forces researchers to look for novel control measures. Previous reports have proposed the use of polyphenolic compound (PC) combinations (Coumarin:Quercetin (CuQ) and Caffeic-acid:Rutin (CaR)) against free-living stages (L3) of C. punctata. The objective of this study was to assess the in vitro motility inhibition of C. punctata adult worms and infective larvae using the Larval Motility Inhibition Assay (LMIA) and Adult Motility Inhibition Assay (AMIA), and to assess the structural and ultrastructural changes induced by both treatments using Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy. For the LMIA, infective larvae were incubated for 3 h in 0.8 mg mL−1 and 0.84 mg mL−1 of CuQ and CaR, respectively. For AMIA, six concentrations and five incubation periods (2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 h) were assessed using each PC combination. Cooperia punctata motility was calculated as a percentage and corrected using control motility percentages. A multiple comparisons Brown–Forsythe and Welch ANOVA test was used to compare larval motility; and to fit the dose–response in AMIA, data were analyzed with a non-linear regression four-parameter logistic equation with a variable slope, using the computer program GraphPad Prism® V.9.2.0. Although larval motility was barely affected by both treatments (p > 0.05), adult worm motility was inhibited 100% and 86.9% after 24 h incubation with CuQ and CaR, respectively (p < 0.05). The best fit EC50 for adult worm motility inhibition were 0.073 ± 0.071 mg mL−1 and 0.051 ± 0.164 mg mL−1 for CuQ and CaR, respectively. Main structural and ultrastructural lesions observed in both biological stages were: (i) L3 sheath–cuticle complex disruption, (ii) collagen fibers degradation; (iii) hypodermic detachment, (iv) seam cell apoptosis and (v) mitochondrial swelling. The alterations observed suggest that the PC combinations interfere with the anatomy and physiology of the locomotive apparatus of the nematodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Parasitic Pathogens)
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24 pages, 917 KiB  
Review
ESKAPE and Beyond: The Burden of Coinfections in the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Miguel Ángel Loyola-Cruz, Luis Uriel Gonzalez-Avila, Arturo Martínez-Trejo, Andres Saldaña-Padilla, Cecilia Hernández-Cortez, Juan Manuel Bello-López and Graciela Castro-Escarpulli
Pathogens 2023, 12(5), 743; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12050743 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2002
Abstract
The ESKAPE group constitute a threat to public health, since these microorganisms are associated with severe infections in hospitals and have a direct relationship with high mortality rates. The presence of these bacteria in hospitals had a direct impact on the incidence of [...] Read more.
The ESKAPE group constitute a threat to public health, since these microorganisms are associated with severe infections in hospitals and have a direct relationship with high mortality rates. The presence of these bacteria in hospitals had a direct impact on the incidence of healthcare-associated coinfections in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. In recent years, these pathogens have shown resistance to multiple antibiotic families. The presence of high-risk clones within this group of bacteria contributes to the spread of resistance mechanisms worldwide. In the pandemic, these pathogens were implicated in coinfections in severely ill COVID-19 patients. The aim of this review is to describe the main microorganisms of the ESKAPE group involved in coinfections in COVID-19 patients, addressing mainly antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, epidemiology, and high-risk clones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance in Bacteria)
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12 pages, 1304 KiB  
Article
Comparative study of Plasmodium falciparum msp-1 and msp-2 Genetic Diversity in Isolates from Rural and Urban Areas in the South of Brazzaville, Republic of Congo
by Marcel Tapsou Baina, Abel Lissom, Naura Veil Assioro Doulamo, Jean Claude Djontu, Dieu Merci Umuhoza, Jacques Dollon Mbama-Ntabi, Steve Diafouka-Kietela, Jolivet Mayela, Georges Missontsa, Charles Wondji, Ayola Akim Adegnika, Etienne Nguimbi, Steffen Borrmann and Francine Ntoumi
Pathogens 2023, 12(5), 742; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12050742 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1496
Abstract
Polymorphisms in the genes encoding the merozoite surface proteins msp-1 and msp-2 are widely used markers for characterizing the genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum. This study aimed to compare the genetic diversity of circulating parasite strains in rural and urban settings in the [...] Read more.
Polymorphisms in the genes encoding the merozoite surface proteins msp-1 and msp-2 are widely used markers for characterizing the genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum. This study aimed to compare the genetic diversity of circulating parasite strains in rural and urban settings in the Republic of Congo after the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in 2006. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from March to September 2021 in rural and urban areas close to Brazzaville, during which Plasmodium infection was detected using microscopy (and nested-PCR for submicroscopic infection). The genes coding for merozoite proteins-1 and -2 were genotyped by allele-specific nested PCR. Totals of 397 (72.4%) and 151 (27.6%) P. falciparum isolates were collected in rural and urban areas, respectively. The K1/msp-1 and FC27/msp-2 allelic families were predominant both in rural (39% and 64%, respectively) and urban (45.4% and 54.5% respectively) areas. The multiplicity of infection (MOI) was higher (p = 0.0006) in rural areas (2.9) compared to urban settings (2.4). The rainy season and the positive microscopic infection were associated with an increase in MOI. These findings reveal a higher P. falciparum genetic diversity and MOI in the rural setting of the Republic of Congo, which is influenced by the season and the participant clinical status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genomics and Epidemiology of Protozoan Parasites)
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10 pages, 1481 KiB  
Article
Hatchability of Fascioloides magna Eggs in Cervids
by Tibor Halász, Tamás Tari, Eszter Nagy, Gábor Nagy and Ágnes Csivincsik
Pathogens 2023, 12(5), 741; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12050741 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1172
Abstract
The giant liver fluke (Fascioloides magna) is an invasive parasite found permanently in three foci in Europe. The fluke has an indirect life cycle involving a final and an intermediate host. The currently accepted terminology determines three types of final hosts: [...] Read more.
The giant liver fluke (Fascioloides magna) is an invasive parasite found permanently in three foci in Europe. The fluke has an indirect life cycle involving a final and an intermediate host. The currently accepted terminology determines three types of final hosts: definitive, dead-end, and aberrant hosts. Recently, roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) has been classified as an aberrant host, which cannot contribute to the reproduction of F. magna. This study investigated the hatchability of F. magna eggs of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer origin to compare the suitability of the two host species for the maintenance of the parasite. The study was carried out on a newly invaded area, two years after the first reported observation of F. magna. The prevalence of the parasite proved to be 68.4% (CI95% 44.6–85.3%) in red deer and 36.7% (CI95% 24.8–50.0%) in roe deer. The difference between the two species was confirmed to be significant (p = 0.02). The mean intensity proved to be 10.0 (CI95% 4.9–22.6) and 7.59 (CI95% 2.7–24.2) in the red deer and the roe deer, respectively. The difference of the mean intensities did not prove to be significant (p = 0.72). Of the 70 observed pseudocysts, 67 originated from red deer and 3 from roe deer. Most of the pseudocysts contained two flukes, while a few pseudocysts contained one or three parasites. Egg production was observed in all three types of pseudocysts. We did not find more than three flukes in any pseudocyst. The apparent proportion of self-fertilisation in flukes without mating partners was 23.5% and 100% in red deer and roe deer, respectively. The survival of single-parent eggs was not confirmed to be worse than that of gregarious parents. The viability of offspring originating from roe and red deer differed significantly. Our findings suggest that F. magna adapted to the new populations of susceptible hosts rather than vice versa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Parasitic Pathogens)
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18 pages, 3142 KiB  
Article
Mapping the Dynamics of Contemporary PRRSV-2 Evolution and Its Emergence and Spreading Hotspots in the U.S. Using Phylogeography
by Nakarin Pamornchainavakul, Igor A. D. Paploski, Dennis N. Makau, Mariana Kikuti, Albert Rovira, Samantha Lycett, Cesar A. Corzo and Kimberly VanderWaal
Pathogens 2023, 12(5), 740; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12050740 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2942
Abstract
The repeated emergence of new genetic variants of PRRSV-2, the virus that causes porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), reflects its rapid evolution and the failure of previous control efforts. Understanding spatiotemporal heterogeneity in variant emergence and spread is critical for future outbreak [...] Read more.
The repeated emergence of new genetic variants of PRRSV-2, the virus that causes porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), reflects its rapid evolution and the failure of previous control efforts. Understanding spatiotemporal heterogeneity in variant emergence and spread is critical for future outbreak prevention. Here, we investigate how the pace of evolution varies across time and space, identify the origins of sub-lineage emergence, and map the patterns of the inter-regional spread of PRRSV-2 Lineage 1 (L1)—the current dominant lineage in the U.S. We performed comparative phylogeographic analyses on subsets of 19,395 viral ORF5 sequences collected across the U.S. and Canada between 1991 and 2021. The discrete trait analysis of multiple spatiotemporally stratified sampled sets (n = 500 each) was used to infer the ancestral geographic region and dispersion of each sub-lineage. The robustness of the results was compared to that of other modeling methods and subsampling strategies. Generally, the spatial spread and population dynamics varied across sub-lineages, time, and space. The Upper Midwest was a main spreading hotspot for multiple sub-lineages, e.g., L1C and L1F, though one of the most recent emergence events (L1A(2)) spread outwards from the east. An understanding of historical patterns of emergence and spread can be used to strategize disease control and the containment of emerging variants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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12 pages, 2809 KiB  
Article
Kudoa septempunctata Spores Cause Acute Gastroenteric Symptoms in Mouse and Musk Shrew Models as Evidenced In Vitro in Human Colon Cells
by Sung-Hee Hong, Ji-Young Kwon, Soon-Ok Lee, Hee-Il Lee, Sung-Jong Hong and Jung-Won Ju
Pathogens 2023, 12(5), 739; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12050739 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1759
Abstract
Kudoa septempunctata is a myxosporean parasite that infects the trunk muscles of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and has been reported to cause foodborne illnesses in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying K. septempunctata spore toxicity remain largely unknown. In this study, [...] Read more.
Kudoa septempunctata is a myxosporean parasite that infects the trunk muscles of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and has been reported to cause foodborne illnesses in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying K. septempunctata spore toxicity remain largely unknown. In this study, the gastroenteropathy of K. septempunctata was examined in human colon adenocarcinoma cells as well as experimental mice inoculated with spores. We found that K. septempunctata decreased transepithelial resistance and disrupted epithelial tight junctions by deleting ZO-1 in Caco-2 monolayers. Additionally, serotonin (5-HT), an emetic neurotransmitter, was increased in K. septempunctata-inoculated cells. In vivo, K. septempunctata spores induced diarrhea in suckling mice (80% in ddY and 70% in ICR mice), with a minimum provocative dose of 2 × 105 K. septempunctata spores. In house musk shrews, K. septempunctata induced emesis within 1 h and induced serotonin secretion in the intestinal epithelium. In conclusion, K. septempunctata may induce diarrhea and emesis by increasing intestinal permeability and serotonin secretion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Parasitic Diseases—Second Edition)
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11 pages, 1028 KiB  
Article
A Comparative Analysis of the Fecal Bacterial Communities of Light and Heavy Finishing Barrows Raised in a Commercial Swine Production Environment
by Emily C. Fowler, Ryan S. Samuel and Benoit St-Pierre
Pathogens 2023, 12(5), 738; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12050738 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1237
Abstract
For commercial swine producers, the natural variation in body weight amongst pigs in a herd presents a challenge in meeting the standards of meat processors who incentivize target carcass weights by offering more favorable purchase prices. Body weight variation in a swine herd [...] Read more.
For commercial swine producers, the natural variation in body weight amongst pigs in a herd presents a challenge in meeting the standards of meat processors who incentivize target carcass weights by offering more favorable purchase prices. Body weight variation in a swine herd is evident as early as birth, and it is typically maintained throughout the entire production cycle. Amongst the various factors that can affect growth performance, the gut microbiome has emerged as an important factor that can affect efficiency, as it contributes to vital functions such as providing assimilable nutrients from feed ingredients that are inedible to the host, as well as resistance to infection by a pathogen. In this context, the objective of the study described in this report was to compare the fecal microbiomes of light and heavy barrows (castrated male finishing pigs) that were part of the same research herd that was raised under commercial conditions. Using high-throughput sequencing of amplicons generated from the V1-V3 regions of the 16S rRNA gene, two abundant candidate bacterial species identified as operational taxonomic units (OTUs), Ssd-1085 and Ssd-1144, were found to be in higher abundance in the light barrows group. Ssd-1085 was predicted to be a potential strain of Clostridium jeddahitimonense, a bacterial species capable of utilizing tagatose, a monosaccharide known to act as a prebiotic that can enhance the proliferation of beneficial microorganisms while inhibiting the growth of bacterial pathogens. OTU Ssd-1144 was identified as a candidate strain of C. beijerinckii, which would be expected to function as a starch utilizing symbiont in the swine gut. While it remains to be determined why putative strains of these beneficial bacterial species would be in higher abundance in lower weight pigs, their overall high levels in finishing pigs could be the result of including ingredients such as corn and soybean-based products in swine diets. Another contribution from this study was the determination that these two OTUs, along with five others that were also abundant in the fecal bacterial communities of the barrows that were analyzed, had been previously identified in weaned pigs, suggesting that these OTUs can become established as early as the nursery phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modulation of Gut Microbiota & Microbiome in Pigs)
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14 pages, 1975 KiB  
Article
The Involvement of Neutrophil in the Immune Dysfunction Associated with BVDV Infection
by Karim Abdelsalam, Radhey S Kaushik and Christopher Chase
Pathogens 2023, 12(5), 737; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12050737 - 20 May 2023
Viewed by 1008
Abstract
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) induces immune dysfunction that often results in a secondary bacterial infection in the infected animals. The underlying mechanism of BVDV-induced immune dysfunction is not well understood. The role of BVDV-infected macrophage-secreted factors was investigated. BVDV-infected monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM) [...] Read more.
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) induces immune dysfunction that often results in a secondary bacterial infection in the infected animals. The underlying mechanism of BVDV-induced immune dysfunction is not well understood. The role of BVDV-infected macrophage-secreted factors was investigated. BVDV-infected monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM) supernatants down-regulated the expression of neutrophil L-selectin and CD18. Regardless of the biotype, phagocytic activity and oxidative burst were downregulated by BVDV-infected MDM supernatants. However, only supernatants from cytopathic (cp) BVDV down-regulated nitric oxide production and neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) induction. Our data suggested that BVDV-induced macrophage-secreted factors caused immune dysfunction in neutrophils. Unlike lymphocyte depletion, the negative impact on neutrophils seems to be specific to cp BVDV biotype. Interestingly the majority of modified live BVDV vaccines are based on cp strain of BVDV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host Immune Responses to RNA Viruses)
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16 pages, 3707 KiB  
Article
Effect of Temperature, Water Activity and Incubation Time on Trichothecene Production by Fusarium cerealis Isolated from Durum Wheat Grains
by Jessica G. Erazo, Sofía A. Palacios, Nuria A. Veliz, Agostina Del Canto, Silvana Plem, María L. Ramirez and Adriana M. Torres
Pathogens 2023, 12(5), 736; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12050736 - 19 May 2023
Viewed by 1193
Abstract
Fusarium cerealis is a causal agent of Fusarium Head Blight in wheat, and it produces both deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV). Nevertheless, the effect of environmental factors on the growth and mycotoxin production of this species has not been studied so far. The [...] Read more.
Fusarium cerealis is a causal agent of Fusarium Head Blight in wheat, and it produces both deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV). Nevertheless, the effect of environmental factors on the growth and mycotoxin production of this species has not been studied so far. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of environmental factors on the growth and mycotoxin production of F. cerealis strains. All strains were able to grow in a wide range of water activity (aW) and temperatures, but their mycotoxin production was influenced by strain and environmental factors. NIV was produced at high aW and temperatures, while optimal conditions for DON production were observed at low aW. Interestingly, some strains were able to simultaneously produce both toxins, which could pose a more significant risk for grain contamination. Full article
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22 pages, 2064 KiB  
Review
Mechanisms of Innate Immune Sensing of HTLV-1 and Viral Immune Evasion
by Suchitra Mohanty and Edward W. Harhaj
Pathogens 2023, 12(5), 735; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12050735 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2687
Abstract
Human T lymphotropic virus-1 (HTLV-1) was the first identified oncoretrovirus, which infects and establishes a persistent infection in approximately 10–20 million people worldwide. Although only ~5% of infected individuals develop pathologies such as adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) or a neuroinflammatory disorder termed HTLV-1-asssociated [...] Read more.
Human T lymphotropic virus-1 (HTLV-1) was the first identified oncoretrovirus, which infects and establishes a persistent infection in approximately 10–20 million people worldwide. Although only ~5% of infected individuals develop pathologies such as adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) or a neuroinflammatory disorder termed HTLV-1-asssociated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), asymptomatic carriers are more susceptible to opportunistic infections. Furthermore, ATLL patients are severely immunosuppressed and prone to other malignancies and other infections. The HTLV-1 replication cycle provides ligands, mainly nucleic acids (RNA, RNA/DNA intermediates, ssDNA intermediates, and dsDNA), that are sensed by different pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to trigger immune responses. However, the mechanisms of innate immune detection and immune responses to HTLV-1 infection are not well understood. In this review, we highlight the functional roles of different immune sensors in recognizing HTLV-1 infection in multiple cell types and the antiviral roles of host restriction factors in limiting persistent infection of HTLV-1. We also provide a comprehensive overview of intricate strategies employed by HTLV-1 to subvert the host innate immune response that may contribute to the development of HTLV-1-associated diseases. A more detailed understanding of HTLV-1-host pathogen interactions may inform novel strategies for HTLV-1 antivirals, vaccines, and treatments for ATLL or HAM/TSP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human T-cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1))
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13 pages, 2766 KiB  
Article
The Ascosphaera apis Infection (Chalkbrood Disease) Alters the Gut Bacteriome Composition of the Honeybee
by Dae Yoon Kim, Soohyun Maeng, Sung-Jin Cho, Hui Jin Park, Kyungsu Kim, Jae Kwon Lee and Sathiyaraj Srinivasan
Pathogens 2023, 12(5), 734; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12050734 - 19 May 2023
Viewed by 2548
Abstract
The declining honeybee populations are a significant risk to the productivity and security of agriculture worldwide. Although there are many causes of these declines, parasites are a significant one. Disease glitches in honeybees have been identified in recent years and increasing attention has [...] Read more.
The declining honeybee populations are a significant risk to the productivity and security of agriculture worldwide. Although there are many causes of these declines, parasites are a significant one. Disease glitches in honeybees have been identified in recent years and increasing attention has been paid to addressing the issue. Between 30% and 40% of all managed honeybee colonies in the USA have perished annually over the past few years. American foulbrood (AFB) and European foulbrood (EFB) have been reported as bacterial diseases, Nosema as a protozoan disease, and Chalkbrood and Stonebrood as fungal diseases. The study aims to compare the bacterial community related to the Nosema ceranae and Ascosphaera apis infection on the gut of the honeybee and compare it with the weakly active honeybees. The Nosema-infected honeybees contain the phyla Proteobacteria as the significantly dominant bacterial phyla, similar to the weakly active honeybees. In contrast, the Ascosphaera (Chalkbrood) infected honeybee contains large amounts of Firmicutes rather than Proteobacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diseases of Insect Pollinators)
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17 pages, 3976 KiB  
Article
Monodelphis domestica as a Fetal Intra-Cerebral Inoculation Model for Zika Virus Pathogenesis
by John Thomas, Juan Garcia, Matthew Terry, Susan Mahaney, Oscar Quintanilla, Dionn Carlo Silva, Marisol Morales and John L VandeBerg
Pathogens 2023, 12(5), 733; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12050733 - 19 May 2023
Viewed by 1179
Abstract
Monodelphis domestica (the laboratory opossum) is a marsupial native to South America. At birth, these animals are developmentally equivalent to human embryos at approximately 5 weeks of gestation, which, when coupled with other characteristics including the size of the animals, the development of [...] Read more.
Monodelphis domestica (the laboratory opossum) is a marsupial native to South America. At birth, these animals are developmentally equivalent to human embryos at approximately 5 weeks of gestation, which, when coupled with other characteristics including the size of the animals, the development of a robust immune system during juvenile development, and the relative ease of experimental manipulation, have made M. domestica a valuable model in many areas of biomedical research. However, their suitability as models for infectious diseases, especially neurotropic viruses such as Zika virus (ZIKV), is currently unknown. Here, we describe the replicative effects of ZIKV using a fetal intra-cerebral model of inoculation. Using immunohistology and in situ hybridization, we found that opossum embryos and fetuses are susceptible to infection by ZIKV administered intra-cerebrally, that the infection persists, and that viral replication results in neural pathology and may occasionally result in global growth restriction. These results demonstrate the utility of M. domestica as a new animal model for investigating ZIKV infection in vivo and facilitate further inquiry into viral pathogenesis, particularly for those viruses that are neurotropic, that require a host with the ability to sustain sustained viremia, and/or that may require intra-cerebral inoculations of large numbers of embryos or fetuses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Models of Infectious Disease-2nd Volume)
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18 pages, 1641 KiB  
Systematic Review
Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy and Effectiveness of Pneumococcal Vaccines in Adults
by Jennifer L. Farrar, Lana Childs, Mahamoudou Ouattara, Fahmina Akhter, Amadea Britton, Tamara Pilishvili and Miwako Kobayashi
Pathogens 2023, 12(5), 732; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12050732 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2864
Abstract
New pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs), 15- and 20-valent (PCV15 and PCV20), have been licensed for use among U.S. adults based on safety and immunogenicity data compared with the previously recommended 13-valent PCV (PCV13) and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines (PPSV23). We conducted a systematic [...] Read more.
New pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs), 15- and 20-valent (PCV15 and PCV20), have been licensed for use among U.S. adults based on safety and immunogenicity data compared with the previously recommended 13-valent PCV (PCV13) and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines (PPSV23). We conducted a systematic review of the literature on PCV13 and PPSV23 efficacy (randomized controlled trials [RCTs]) or effectiveness (observational studies) against vaccine type (PCV13 type or PPSV23 type, respectively), invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), and pneumococcal pneumonia (PP) in adults. We utilized the search strategy from a previous systematic review of the literature published during the period from January 2016 to April 2019, and updated the search through March 2022. The certainty of evidence was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias 2.0 tool and the Newcastle–Ottawa scale. When feasible, meta-analyses were conducted. Of the 5085 titles identified, 19 studies were included. One RCT reported PCV13 efficacy of 75% (PCV13-type IPD) and 45% (PCV13-type PP). Three studies each reported PCV13 effectiveness against PCV13-type IPD (range 47% to 68%) and against PCV13-type PP (range 38% to 68%). The pooled PPSV23 effectiveness was 45% (95% CI: 37%, 51%) against PPSV23-type IPD (nine studies) and 18% (95% CI: −4%, 35%) against PPSV23-type PP (five studies). Despite the heterogeneity across studies, our findings suggest that PCV13 and PPSV23 protect against VT-IPD and VT-PP in adults. Full article
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8 pages, 622 KiB  
Communication
Plasmodium falciparum Chloroquine-pfcrt Resistant Haplotypes in Brazilian Endemic Areas Four Decades after CQ Withdrawn
by Rebecca de Abreu-Fernandes, Natália Ketrin Almeida-de-Oliveira, Bianca Ervatti Gama, Larissa Rodrigues Gomes, Aline Rosa De Lavigne Mello, Lucas Tavares de Queiroz, Jacqueline de Aguiar Barros, Maria das Graças Costa Alecrim, Rodrigo Medeiros de Souza, Lilian Rose Pratt-Riccio, Patrícia Brasil, Cláudio Tadeu Daniel-Ribeiro and Maria de Fátima Ferreira-da-Cruz
Pathogens 2023, 12(5), 731; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12050731 - 17 May 2023
Viewed by 1354
Abstract
(1) Background: Malaria is a public health problem worldwide. Despite global efforts to control it, antimalarial drug resistance remains a great challenge. In 2009, our team identified, for the first time in Brazil, chloroquine (CQ)-susceptible Plasmodium falciparum parasites in isolates from the Brazilian [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Malaria is a public health problem worldwide. Despite global efforts to control it, antimalarial drug resistance remains a great challenge. In 2009, our team identified, for the first time in Brazil, chloroquine (CQ)-susceptible Plasmodium falciparum parasites in isolates from the Brazilian Amazon. The present study extends those observations to include survey samples from 2010 to 2018 from the Amazonas and Acre states for the purpose of tracking pfcrt molecular changes in P. falciparum parasites. (2) Objective: to investigate SNPs in the P. falciparum gene associated with chemoresistance to CQ (pfcrt). (3) Methods: Sixty-six P. falciparum samples from the Amazonas and Acre states were collected from 2010 to 2018 in patients diagnosed at the Reference Research Center for Treatment and Diagnosis of Malaria (CPD-Mal/Fiocruz), FMT-HVD and Acre Health Units. These samples were subjected to PCR and DNA Sanger sequencing to identify mutations in pfcrt (C72S, M74I, N75E, and K76T). (4) Results: Of the 66 P. falciparum samples genotyped for pfcrt, 94% carried CQ-resistant genotypes and only 4 showed a CQ pfcrt sensitive-wild type genotype, i.e., 1 from Barcelos and 3 from Manaus. (5) Conclusion: CQ-resistant P. falciparum populations are fixed, and thus, CQ cannot be reintroduced in malaria falciparum therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parasites: Epidemiology, Treatment and Control)
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22 pages, 3625 KiB  
Article
Genome Characteristics of Two Ranavirus Isolates from Mandarin Fish and Largemouth Bass
by Xue-Dong Yu, Fei Ke, Qi-Ya Zhang and Jian-Fang Gui
Pathogens 2023, 12(5), 730; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12050730 - 17 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1301
Abstract
Ranaviruses are promiscuous pathogens that threaten lower vertebrates globally. In the present study, two ranaviruses (SCRaV and MSRaV) were isolated from two fishes of the order Perciformes: mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). The two ranaviruses [...] Read more.
Ranaviruses are promiscuous pathogens that threaten lower vertebrates globally. In the present study, two ranaviruses (SCRaV and MSRaV) were isolated from two fishes of the order Perciformes: mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). The two ranaviruses both induced cytopathic effects in cultured cells from fish and amphibians and have the typical morphologic characteristics of ranaviruses. Complete genomes of the two ranaviruses were then sequenced and analyzed. Genomes of SCRaV and MSRaV have a length of 99, 405, and 99, 171 bp, respectively, and both contain 105 predicted open reading frames (ORFs). Eleven of the predicted proteins have differences between SCRaV and MSRaV, in which only one (79L) possessed a relatively large difference. A comparison of the sequenced six ranaviruses from the two fish species worldwide revealed that sequence identities of the six proteins (11R, 19R, 34L, 68L, 77L, and 103R) were related to the place where the virus was isolated. However, there were obvious differences in protein sequence identities between the two viruses and iridoviruses from other hosts, with more than half lower than 55%. Especially, 12 proteins of the two isolates had no homologs in viruses from other hosts. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ranaviruses from the two fishes clustered in one clade. Further genome alignment showed five groups of genome arrangements of ranaviruses based on the locally collinear blocks, in which the ranaviruses, including SCRaV and MSRaV, constitute the fifth group. These results provide new information on the ranaviruses infecting fishes of Perciformes and also are useful for further research of functional genomics of the type of ranaviruses. Full article
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9 pages, 249 KiB  
Communication
Role of the European Pharmacist in the Implementation of the Latest WHO Guidelines for Malaria
by Anita Cohen
Pathogens 2023, 12(5), 729; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12050729 - 17 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1242
Abstract
Following the publication a few months ago of the new WHO guidelines for malaria, the European pharmacist, even out of endemic areas, as a health care professional and advisor, has a major role to play in their effective implementation and in the interest [...] Read more.
Following the publication a few months ago of the new WHO guidelines for malaria, the European pharmacist, even out of endemic areas, as a health care professional and advisor, has a major role to play in their effective implementation and in the interest of public health. The pharmacist is central in the health care system to ensure the correct application of these recommendations and to perform a decisive role in the prevention of malaria infections, both in the adapted pharmaceutical advice on personal protection against biting vector insects on the one hand, and in the pharmaceutical analysis and recommendations concerning antimalarial chemoprophylaxis prescriptions on the other hand. Physicians and pharmacist biologists, as well as hospital pharmacists, are also important for the analysis and treatment of effective malaria cases, particularly in the management of the diagnostic and therapeutic emergency that a P. falciparum infection represents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Vaccines and Therapeutic Developments)
9 pages, 705 KiB  
Review
Treatment of Infection as a Core Strategy to Prevent Rifampicin-Resistant/Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis
by Anja Reuter and Jennifer Furin
Pathogens 2023, 12(5), 728; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12050728 - 17 May 2023
Viewed by 1218
Abstract
An estimated 19 million people are infected with rifampicin-resistant/multidrug-resistant strains of tuberculosis worldwide. There is little done to prevent these individuals from becoming sick with RR/MDR-TB, a disease that is associated with high rates of morbidity, mortality, and suffering. There are multiple phase [...] Read more.
An estimated 19 million people are infected with rifampicin-resistant/multidrug-resistant strains of tuberculosis worldwide. There is little done to prevent these individuals from becoming sick with RR/MDR-TB, a disease that is associated with high rates of morbidity, mortality, and suffering. There are multiple phase III trials currently being conducted to assess the effectiveness of treatment of infection (i.e., “preventive therapy”) for RR/MDR-TB, but their results are likely years away. In the meantime, there is sufficient evidence to support a more comprehensive management of people who have been exposed to RR/MDR-TB so that they can maintain their health. We present a patient scenario and share our experience in implementing a systematic post-exposure management program in South Africa with the goal of inspiring similar programs in other high-burden RR/MDR-TB settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Responding to the Challenge of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis)
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14 pages, 2287 KiB  
Article
Thermal Tolerance Data and Molecular Identification Are Useful for the Diagnosis, Control and Modeling of Diseases Caused by Thielaviopsis paradoxa
by Abiodun Abeeb Azeez, Daniel Ofeoritse Esiegbuya, Emad Jaber, Wenzi Ren, Adebola Azeez Lateef, Amarachi Ojieabu and Fred O. Asiegbu
Pathogens 2023, 12(5), 727; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12050727 - 17 May 2023
Viewed by 1378
Abstract
Several economically important diseases of forest trees and agricultural crops in many parts of the world have been linked to the ascomycete fungal pathogen Thielaviopsis paradoxa. This study compared the growth rate of 41 isolates of T. paradoxa sourced from different hosts [...] Read more.
Several economically important diseases of forest trees and agricultural crops in many parts of the world have been linked to the ascomycete fungal pathogen Thielaviopsis paradoxa. This study compared the growth rate of 41 isolates of T. paradoxa sourced from different hosts and two countries (Nigeria and Papua New Guinea (PNG)) under six temperature levels (22 °C, 25 °C, 30 °C, 32 °C, 34 °C and 35 °C). Phylogenetic relationships were obtained from the analysis of their nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed sequence (ITS) data. While all the isolates from PNG and few from Nigeria grew optimally between 22 °C and 32 °C, the majority had their highest growth rate (2.9 cm/day) between 25 °C and 32 °C. Growth performances were generally low between 34 °C and 35 °C; no isolate from the sugar cane grew at these high temperatures. The oil palm isolate DA029 was the most resilient, with the highest growth rate (0.97 cm/day) at 35 °C. Phylogenetic analysis delineated five clusters: a very large clade which accommodates the majority (30 Nigerian and 3 PNG oil palm isolates) and four small clades containing two members each. To a large extent, the clustering pattern failed to address the temperature–isolate relationship observed. However, only the four small clades represent isolates with similar temperature tolerances. It is most likely that wider and robust analyses with more diverse isolates and genetic markers will provide better insight on thermal resilience of T. paradoxa. Additionally, future research to establish relationships between vegetative growth at different temperatures and of different pathogenicity and disease epidemiology merits being explored. The results might provide useful information for the formulation of effective management and control strategies against the pathogen, especially in this era of climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevention and Management of Tree Diseases)
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12 pages, 657 KiB  
Review
Bacterial Pathogens Causing Pneumonia Post Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant: The Chronic GVHD Population
by Said Chaaban, Andrea Zimmer, Vijaya Raj Bhatt, Cynthia Schmidt and Ruxana T. Sadikot
Pathogens 2023, 12(5), 726; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12050726 - 17 May 2023
Viewed by 1536
Abstract
Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is a lifesaving treatment for many malignancies. Post-transplant patients may suffer from graft versus host disease in the acute and/or the chronic form(s). Post-transplantation immune deficiency due to a variety of factors is a major cause of morbidity and [...] Read more.
Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is a lifesaving treatment for many malignancies. Post-transplant patients may suffer from graft versus host disease in the acute and/or the chronic form(s). Post-transplantation immune deficiency due to a variety of factors is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, immunosuppression can lead to alterations in host factors that predisposes these patients to infections. Although patients who receive stem cell transplant are at an increased risk of opportunistic pathogens, which include fungi and viruses, bacterial infections remain the most common cause of morbidity. Here, we review bacterial pathogens that lead to pneumonias specifically in the chronic GVHD population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Pathogenesis of Bacterial Lung Infections)
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11 pages, 1121 KiB  
Brief Report
The Burden of HPV-Related Hospitalizations: Analysis of Hospital Discharge Records from the Years 2015–2021 from a Southern Italian Region
by Giuseppe Di Martino, Fabrizio Cedrone, Pamela Di Giovanni, Livia Tognaccini, Edoardo Trebbi, Ferdinando Romano and Tommaso Staniscia
Pathogens 2023, 12(5), 725; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12050725 - 17 May 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1133
Abstract
(1) Background: The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common agent related to sexually transmitted infections in the general population. Its genotypes are classified into two main classes, high-risk genotypes and low-risk genotypes, according to their capacity to induce cancers. The low-risk class [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common agent related to sexually transmitted infections in the general population. Its genotypes are classified into two main classes, high-risk genotypes and low-risk genotypes, according to their capacity to induce cancers. The low-risk class (types 6 and 11) is associated with anogenital and genital lesions. The high-risk class is responsible for up to 4.5% of all new cancer cases yearly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of HPV-related hospitalizations and its trend in a southern Italian region for the years 2015–2021. (2) Methods: This was a retrospective study performed in the Abruzzo region, Italy. All admissions for the period 2015–2021 were extracted from the hospital discharge record (HDR). (3) Results: During the study period (2015–2021), a total of 5492 hospitalizations attributable to HPV infection occurred in the Abruzzo region, Italy. A significant number of admissions were related to cervical cancer (3386 cases) and genital warts (638 cases). The trend declined for all diagnoses except for penile cancer admissions. Considering the first year of the pandemic (year 2020), a decrease in the standardized incidence of the majority of the diseases considered was reported, particularly among cases of cervical cancer. (4) Conclusions: HPV-related hospitalizations decreased in Abruzzo during study period. These results could be useful to LHAs and policy-makers in improving vaccination coverage and screening adherence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology of Human Papillomavirus Infection)
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3 pages, 181 KiB  
Editorial
Current Research on Infectious Diseases of Domestic Animals from a One Health Perspective
by Alfonso Zecconi
Pathogens 2023, 12(5), 724; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12050724 - 17 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 839
Abstract
One Health is a well-known strategy for promoting and developing interdisciplinary collaboration across all aspects of health in human, animal, and environmental domains [...] Full article
6 pages, 547 KiB  
Communication
Do Seropositive Wild Boars Pose a Risk for the Spread of African Swine Fever? Analysis of Field Data from Latvia and Lithuania
by Edvīns Oļševskis, Marius Masiulis, Mārtiņš Seržants, Kristīne Lamberga, Žanete Šteingolde, Laura Krivko, Svetlana Cvetkova, Jūratė Buitkuvienė, Simona Pilevičienė, Laura Zani, Nicolai Denzin and Klaus Depner
Pathogens 2023, 12(5), 723; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12050723 - 17 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1325
Abstract
In 2020, ASF occurred in wild boars throughout Latvia and Lithuania, and more than 21,500 animals were hunted and tested for the presence of the virus genome and antibodies in the framework of routine disease surveillance. The aim of our study was to [...] Read more.
In 2020, ASF occurred in wild boars throughout Latvia and Lithuania, and more than 21,500 animals were hunted and tested for the presence of the virus genome and antibodies in the framework of routine disease surveillance. The aim of our study was to re-examine hunted wild boars that tested positive for the antibodies and negative for the virus genome in the blood (n = 244) and to see if the virus genome can still be found in the bone marrow, as an indicator of virus persistence in the animal. Via this approach, we intended to answer the question of whether seropositive animals play a role in the spread of the disease. In total, 2 seropositive animals out of 244 were found to be positive for the ASF virus genome in the bone marrow. The results indicate that seropositive animals, which theoretically could also be virus shedders, can hardly be found in the field and thus do not play an epidemiological role regarding virus perpetuation, at least not in the wild boar populations we studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue An Update on African Swine Fever)
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15 pages, 957 KiB  
Review
Old and Novel Enteric Parvoviruses of Dogs
by Paolo Capozza, Alessio Buonavoglia, Annamaria Pratelli, Vito Martella and Nicola Decaro
Pathogens 2023, 12(5), 722; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12050722 - 16 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1737
Abstract
Parvovirus infections have been well known for around 100 years in domestic carnivores. However, the use of molecular assays and metagenomic approaches for virus discovery and characterization has led to the detection of novel parvovirus species and/or variants in dogs. Although some evidence [...] Read more.
Parvovirus infections have been well known for around 100 years in domestic carnivores. However, the use of molecular assays and metagenomic approaches for virus discovery and characterization has led to the detection of novel parvovirus species and/or variants in dogs. Although some evidence suggests that these emerging canine parvoviruses may act as primary causative agents or as synergistic pathogens in the diseases of domestic carnivores, several aspects regarding epidemiology and virus–host interaction remain to be elucidated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Pathogens Involved in Canine and Feline Enteritidis)
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13 pages, 4043 KiB  
Article
Static Aerated Composting of African Swine Fever Virus-Infected Swine Carcasses with Rice Hulls and Sawdust
by Mark Hutchinson, Hoang Minh Duc, Gary A. Flory, Pham Hong Ngan, Hoang Minh Son, Tran Thi Khanh Hoa, Nguyen Thi Lan, Dale W. Rozeboom, Marta D. Remmenga, Matthew Vuolo, Robert Miknis, Lori P. Miller, Amira Burns and Renée Flory
Pathogens 2023, 12(5), 721; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12050721 - 16 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1420
Abstract
Identifying and ensuring the inactivation of the African Swine Fever virus in deadstock is a gap in the swine industry’s knowledge and response capabilities. The results of our study demonstrate that ASFv in deadstock was inactivated using static aerated composting as the carcass [...] Read more.
Identifying and ensuring the inactivation of the African Swine Fever virus in deadstock is a gap in the swine industry’s knowledge and response capabilities. The results of our study demonstrate that ASFv in deadstock was inactivated using static aerated composting as the carcass disposal method. Replicated compost piles with whole market hogs and two different carbon sources were constructed. In-situ bags containing ASFv-infected spleen tissue were placed alongside each of the carcasses and throughout the pile. The bags were extracted at days 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, 56, and 144 for ASFv detection and isolation. Real-time PCR results showed that DNA of ASFv was detected in all samples tested on day 28. The virus concentration identified through virus isolation was found to be below the detection limit by day 3 in rice hulls and by day 7 in sawdust. Given the slope of the decay, near-zero concentration with 99.9% confidence occurred at 5.0 days in rice hulls and at 6.4 days in sawdust. Additionally, the result of virus isolation also showed that the virus in bone marrow samples collected at 28 days was inactivated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue An Update on African Swine Fever)
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10 pages, 2752 KiB  
Article
Differentiation of African Swine Fever Virus Strains Isolated in Estonia by Multiple Genetic Markers
by Annika Vilem, Imbi Nurmoja, Lea Tummeleht and Arvo Viltrop
Pathogens 2023, 12(5), 720; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12050720 - 16 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1176
Abstract
The African swine fever virus (ASFV) was first detected in Estonia, in September 2014. In the subsequent three years, the virus spread explosively all over the country. Only one county, the island of Hiiumaa, remained free of the disease. Due to the drastic [...] Read more.
The African swine fever virus (ASFV) was first detected in Estonia, in September 2014. In the subsequent three years, the virus spread explosively all over the country. Only one county, the island of Hiiumaa, remained free of the disease. Due to the drastic decrease in the wild boar population in the period of 2015–2018, the number of ASFV-positive cases among wild boar decreased substantially. From the beginning of 2019 to the autumn of 2020, no ASFV-positive wild boar or domestic pigs were detected in Estonia. A new occurrence of ASFV was detected in August 2020, and by the end of 2022, ASFV had been confirmed in seven counties in Estonia. Investigations into proven molecular markers, such as IGR I73R/I329L, MGF505-5R, K145R, O174L, and B602L, were performed with the aim of clarifying whether these cases of ASFV were new entries or remnants of previous epidemics. The sequences from the period of 2014–2022 were compared to the Georgia 2007/1 reference sequence and the variant strains present in Europe. The results indicated that not all the molecular markers of the virus successfully used in other geographical regions were suitable for tracing the spread of ASFV in Estonia. Only the B602L-gene analysis enabled us to place the ASFV isolates spreading in 2020–2022 into two epidemiologically different clusters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue An Update on African Swine Fever)
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14 pages, 1317 KiB  
Article
Clinical Application of a Multiplex Droplet Digital PCR in the Rapid Diagnosis of Children with Suspected Bloodstream Infections
by Wenxin Liu, Chun Wang, Fen Pan, Jingbo Shao, Yun Cui, Dingding Han and Hong Zhang
Pathogens 2023, 12(5), 719; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12050719 - 16 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1489
Abstract
Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) recently has been shown to be a potential diagnostic tool for adults with bloodstream infections (BSIs); however, its application in children remains obscure. In this study, 76 blood samples of children with suspected BSIs were synchronously detected by traditional [...] Read more.
Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) recently has been shown to be a potential diagnostic tool for adults with bloodstream infections (BSIs); however, its application in children remains obscure. In this study, 76 blood samples of children with suspected BSIs were synchronously detected by traditional blood cultures (BCs) and ddPCRs. Our team validated the diagnostic performance of ddPCR including sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values. The 76 pediatric patients from the hematology department (67.1%), the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU, 27.6%), and other departments (5.2%) were enrolled. The positive rate of ddPCR results was 47.9%, whereas that for BC was 6.6%. In addition, the time consumption of ddPCR was shorter, only for 4.7 ± 0.9 h, in comparison with the detection timing of BC (76.7 ± 10.4 h, p < 0.01). The levels of agreement and disagreement between BC and ddPCR were 96.1% and 4.2%, and the negative agreement reached 95.6%. The sensitivity of ddPCR was 100%, with corresponding specificities ranging from 95.3 to 100.0%. In addition, a total of nine viruses were identified by ddPCR. In China, the multiplexed ddPCR first could be a tool for the rapid and accurate diagnosis of children with suspected BSIs and can be an early indicator of the possibility of viraemia in children with immunosuppression. Full article
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13 pages, 1859 KiB  
Article
Characterization of an Aedes ADP-Ribosylation Protein Domain and Role of Post-Translational Modification during Chikungunya Virus Infection
by Ramesh Kumar, Divya Mehta, Debasis Nayak and Sujatha Sunil
Pathogens 2023, 12(5), 718; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12050718 - 16 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1328
Abstract
Poly ADP-ribose polymerases (PARPs) catalyze ADP-ribosylation, a subclass of post-translational modification (PTM). Mono-ADP-ribose (MAR) moieties bind to target molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids, and are added as part of the process which also leads to formation of polymer chains of ADP-ribose. [...] Read more.
Poly ADP-ribose polymerases (PARPs) catalyze ADP-ribosylation, a subclass of post-translational modification (PTM). Mono-ADP-ribose (MAR) moieties bind to target molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids, and are added as part of the process which also leads to formation of polymer chains of ADP-ribose. ADP-ribosylation is reversible; its removal is carried out by ribosyl hydrolases such as PARG (poly ADP-ribose glycohydrolase), TARG (terminal ADP-ribose protein glycohydrolase), macrodomain, etc. In this study, the catalytic domain of Aedes aegypti tankyrase was expressed in bacteria and purified. The tankyrase PARP catalytic domain was found to be enzymatically active, as demonstrated by an in vitro poly ADP-ribosylation (PARylation) experiment. Using in vitro ADP-ribosylation assay, we further demonstrate that the chikungunya virus (CHIKV) nsp3 (non-structural protein 3) macrodomain inhibits ADP-ribosylation in a time-dependent way. We have also demonstrated that transfection of the CHIKV nsP3 macrodomain increases the CHIKV viral titer in mosquito cells, suggesting that ADP-ribosylation may play a significant role in viral replication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ADP-Ribosylation in Pathogens)
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