Next Issue
Volume 11, December
Previous Issue
Volume 11, October
 
 

Pathogens, Volume 11, Issue 11 (November 2022) – 173 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The present study aimed to assess the seroprevalence of West Nile, Usutu, and Sindbis viruses in blood samples from wild birds, in endemic areas for mosquito-borne viruses from Romania. All the samples were serologically tested by ELISA and a serum neutralization test. A seroprevalence of 8.72% was registered for West Nile virus, 2.71% for Usutu virus, and 0% for Sindbis virus. This is the first large-scale comprehensive study to assess the West Nile virus seropositivity in wild birds and the first serological confirmation of Usutu virus in wild birds in Romania. Moreover, this is the only follow-up study reviewing the current seroprevalence of Sindbis virus in Romania since 1975. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
12 pages, 1433 KiB  
Article
A New Comestible Formulation of Parasiticide Fungi to Reduce the Risk of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections in a Canine Shelter
by Cándido Viña, Rami Salmo, María Vilá Pena, Antonio Miguel Palomero, José Ángel Hernández, Cristiana Cazapal-Monteiro, María Sol Arias, Rita Sánchez-Andrade and Adolfo Paz-Silva
Pathogens 2022, 11(11), 1391; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11111391 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1412
Abstract
Dogs cared for in a shelter are dewormed every three–four months, but they all become infected one–two months later by the soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Trichuris vulpis, and Ancylostoma caninum. For the purpose of reducing their risk [...] Read more.
Dogs cared for in a shelter are dewormed every three–four months, but they all become infected one–two months later by the soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Trichuris vulpis, and Ancylostoma caninum. For the purpose of reducing their risk of infection by decreasing the survival of helminths’ infective stages in soil, chlamydospores of two parasiticide fungi, Mucor circinelloides (ovicide) and Duddingtonia flagrans (larvicide) were formulated as handmade edible gelatins and given three days per week for 17 months to 18 dogs (DRF, dogs receiving fungi); a second group was maintained without fungi (CD, control dogs). All individuals were dewormed at months 0, 3, 7, 10 and 13, and it was observed that the levels of helminths egg-output were reduced by 96–98% fourteen days after each treatment. Fecal egg counts of STHs were similar in both groups until the 6th–8th months, and then remained significantly lower in DRF than in CD (42–100% ascarids; 30–100% trichurids and ancylostomatids). According to the results, and considering that gelatin treats have always been fully accepted, it is concluded that this new formulation offers an efficient solution to decrease the risk of infection among dogs maintained in shelters, and is therefore recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Control of the Helminthosis in Domestic Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 1271 KiB  
Brief Report
SARS-CoV-2 Infection Prompts IL-1β-Mediated Inflammation and Reduces IFN-λ Expression in Human Lung Tissue
by Bianca Vezzani, Margherita Neri, Stefano D’Errico, Alberto Papi, Marco Contoli and Carlotta Giorgi
Pathogens 2022, 11(11), 1390; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11111390 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1456
Abstract
Two years after its spreading, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still responsible for more than 2000 deaths per day worldwide, despite vaccines and monoclonal antibody countermeasures. Therefore, there is a need to understand the immune–inflammatory pathways that prompt the [...] Read more.
Two years after its spreading, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still responsible for more than 2000 deaths per day worldwide, despite vaccines and monoclonal antibody countermeasures. Therefore, there is a need to understand the immune–inflammatory pathways that prompt the manifestation of the disease to identify a novel potential target for pharmacological intervention. In this context, the characterization of the main players in the SARS-CoV-2-induced cytokine storm is mandatory. To date, the most characterized have been IL-6 and the class I and II interferons, while less is known about the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β and class III interferons. Here, we report a preliminary study aimed at the characterization of the lung inflammatory context in COVID-19 patients, with a special focus on IFN-λ and IL-1β. By investigating IFN and inflammatory cytokine patterns by IHC in 10 deceased patients due to COVID-19 infection, compared to 10 control subjects, we reveal that while IFN-β production was increased in COVID-19 patients, IFN-λ was almost abolished. At the same time, the levels of IL-1β were dramatically improved, while IL-6 lung levels seem to be unaffected by the infection. Our findings highlight a central role of IL-1β in prompting lung inflammation after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Together, we show that IFN-λ is negatively affected by viral infection, supporting the idea that IFN-λ administration together with the pharmaceutical blockage of IL-1β represents a promising approach to revert the COVID-19-induced cytokine storm. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 2964 KiB  
Article
Clinical Evaluation of Three Commercial RT-PCR Kits for Routine COVID-19 Diagnosis
by Rifat Tasnim Juthi, Saiful Arefeen Sazed, Md Fahad Zamil and Mohammad Shafiul Alam
Pathogens 2022, 11(11), 1389; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11111389 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1907
Abstract
Amongst the multiple ways to diagnose coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) remains the reference gold standard, providing fast and accurate results. This study evaluated and compared the performance of three commercially available COVID-19 RT-PCR kits-Aridia® COVID-19 Real-Time PCR [...] Read more.
Amongst the multiple ways to diagnose coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) remains the reference gold standard, providing fast and accurate results. This study evaluated and compared the performance of three commercially available COVID-19 RT-PCR kits-Aridia® COVID-19 Real-Time PCR Test (CTK Biotech, Inc., Poway, CA, USA), Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Nucleic Acid Detection Kit (Sansure Biotech Inc., Changsha, China) and AllplexTM 2019-nCoV assay (Seegene Inc., Seoul, Republic of Korea) for the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A total of 326 clinically suspected patients were enrolled for the study, and among them, 209 were diagnosed as positive and 117 as negative when tested with the reference method, US CDC 2019-Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Real Time RT-PCR Diagnostic Panel. The Aridia® kit showed total agreement with the reference test, with a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 98.25% to 100.0%) and a specificity of 100% (96.90% to 100.00%). The AllplexTM kit also showed 100% specificity (95% CI: 96.90% to 100.00%), but a lower sensitivity (98.09%, 95% CI: 95.17% to 99.48%). Among the three kits, the Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Nucleic Acid Detection Kit showed the worst performance, with a sensitivity of 98.6% (95% CI: 95.9% to 99.7%) and a specificity of 95.73, 95% (CI: 90.31% to 98.60%). While all these kits conform to the requirement for routine molecular diagnosis with high performances, the Aridia® COVID-19 Real-Time PCR Test showed the best performance among the three kits. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 1266 KiB  
Article
Re-Emergence of Circulation of Seasonal Influenza during COVID-19 Pandemic in Russia and Receptor Specificity of New and Dominant Clade 3C.2a1b.2a.2 A(H3N2) Viruses in 2021–2022
by Natalia P. Kolosova, Tatiana N. Ilyicheva, Vasily V. Unguryan, Alexey V. Danilenko, Svetlana V. Svyatchenko, Galina S. Onhonova, Natalia I. Goncharova, Maksim N. Kosenko, Andrey S. Gudymo, Vasiliy Y. Marchenko, Alexander N. Shvalov, Ivan M. Susloparov, Tatiana V. Tregubchak, Elena V. Gavrilova, Rinat A. Maksyutov and Alexander B. Ryzhikov
Pathogens 2022, 11(11), 1388; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11111388 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1895
Abstract
The circulation of seasonal influenza in 2020–2021 around the world was drastically reduced after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic and the implementation of mitigation strategies. The influenza virus circulation reemerged in 2021–2022 with the global spread of the new genetic clade 3C.2a1b.2a.2 [...] Read more.
The circulation of seasonal influenza in 2020–2021 around the world was drastically reduced after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic and the implementation of mitigation strategies. The influenza virus circulation reemerged in 2021–2022 with the global spread of the new genetic clade 3C.2a1b.2a.2 of A(H3N2) viruses. The purpose of this study was to characterize influenza viruses in the 2021–2022 season in Russia and to analyze the receptor specificity properties of the 3C.2a1b.2a.2 A(H3N2) viruses. Clinical influenza samples were collected at the local Sanitary-and-Epidemiological Centers of Rospotrebnadzor. Whole genome sequencing was performed using NGS. The receptor specificity of hemagglutinin was evaluated using molecular modeling and bio-layer interferometry. Clinical samples from 854 cases of influenza A and B were studied; A(H3N2) viruses were in the majority of the samples. All genetically studied A(H3N2) viruses belonged to the new genetic clade 3C.2a1b.2a.2. Molecular modeling analysis suggested a higher affinity of hemagglutinin of 3C.2a1b.2a.2. A(H3N2) viruses to the α2,6 human receptor. In vitro analysis using a trisaccharide 6’-Sialyl-N-acetyllactosamine receptor analog did not resolve the differences in the receptor specificity of 3C.2a1b.2a.2 clade viruses from viruses belonging to the 3C.2a1b.2a.1 clade. Further investigation of the A(H3N2) viruses is required for the evaluation of their possible adaptive advantages. Constant monitoring and characterization of influenza are critical for epidemiological analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Pathogens—Feature Papers)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 344 KiB  
Article
Association of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Interleukin Genes with Microbial Keratitis in a South Indian Population
by Nagaraju Konda, Subhabrata Chakrabarti, Prashant Garg and Mark D. P. Willcox
Pathogens 2022, 11(11), 1387; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11111387 - 20 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1713
Abstract
Background: To examine the relationship between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in interleukin (IL) genes and keratitis and its clinical manifestations. Methods: SNPs in IL1B, IL6, CXCL8, IL10, and IL12B were analysed. Differences in frequencies of alleles, genotypes and haplotypes between cases [...] Read more.
Background: To examine the relationship between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in interleukin (IL) genes and keratitis and its clinical manifestations. Methods: SNPs in IL1B, IL6, CXCL8, IL10, and IL12B were analysed. Differences in frequencies of alleles, genotypes and haplotypes between cases and controls as well as associations between SNPs and clinical variables were calculated by χ2 tests with odds ratios. Results: The minor homologous genotype in IL1B rs16944 (p = 0.036; odds ratio (OR) = 2.063, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.048–4.061) and CXCL8 rs4073 (p = 0.041; OR = 0.463, 95% CI: 0.224–0.956) and the heterologous genotypes in IL6 rs1800795 (p = 0.046; OR = 0.563, 95% CI: 0.326–0.972) and IL12B rs2569254 (p = 0.0446; OR = 0.557, 95% CI: 0.314–0.989) or rs730691 (p = 0.0051; OR = 0.451, 95% CI: 0.260–0.784) were associated with keratitis. The minor genotype of rs16944 was associated with severe infection (p = 0.046). The heterologous genotype in rs2569254 was associated with hospital admission, photophobia, and mode of contact lens wear (p ≤ 0.041). The heterologous genotype in rs730691 was associated with blurred vision, discharge, anterior chamber reaction, and mode of wear (p ≤ 0.047). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that SNPs in IL1B and CXCL8 are associated with risk of developing keratitis. The study also found relationships between SNPs and clinical measures of keratitis. The potential for ethnic differences in frequency of SNPs and their association with keratitis should be followed up using different populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ocular Surface Infections)
27 pages, 4978 KiB  
Article
Pathology of African Swine Fever in Wild Boar Carcasses Naturally Infected with German Virus Variants
by Julia Sehl-Ewert, Paul Deutschmann, Angele Breithaupt and Sandra Blome
Pathogens 2022, 11(11), 1386; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11111386 - 20 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2515
Abstract
In 2020, African swine fever (ASF) was first identified in German wild boar, reaching a case number of about 4400 to date. Upon experimental infection, pathology is well documented; however, data on field infections are scarce in domestic pigs and not available from [...] Read more.
In 2020, African swine fever (ASF) was first identified in German wild boar, reaching a case number of about 4400 to date. Upon experimental infection, pathology is well documented; however, data on field infections are scarce in domestic pigs and not available from wild boar, respectively. Although the ASF viral genome is considered exceptionally stable, a total of five lineages with 10 distinct virus variants of genotype II have emerged in Eastern Germany. To investigate the pathology in naturally infected wild boar and to evaluate virus variants II, III and IV for their virulence, wild boar carcasses were obtained from three different outbreak areas. The carcasses underwent virological and pathomorphological investigation. The animals revealed characteristic ASF lesions of the highest severity accompanied by bacterial infections in several cases. In particular, wild boar infected with variant IV from Spree-Neiße (SN) district showed lower viral genome loads and total viral antigen scores, but simultaneously tended to reveal more chronic lesions. Our findings indicate a protracted course of the disease at least after infection with variant IV, but need confirmation under standardized experimental conditions. There is a strong need to monitor differences in the virulence among variants to identify potential attenuation that might complicate diagnosis. In addition, veterinarians, hunters and farmers need to be made aware of less acute courses of ASF to consider this as an important differential to chronic classical swine fever. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emergence and Control of African Swine Fever)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1455 KiB  
Article
Differential Impact of Specific Amino Acid Residues on the Characteristics of Avian Influenza Viruses in Mammalian Systems
by Dayly Mashaal, Sara H. Mahmoud, Christin Müller, Noura M. Abo Shama, Amal Abo Kamer, Ahmed A. Abdelaziz, Mohamed A. Ali, Stephan Pleschka and Ahmed Mostafa
Pathogens 2022, 11(11), 1385; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11111385 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1763
Abstract
Avian influenza virus (AIV) H9N2 was declared to be endemic in birds of the Middle East, in particular in Egypt, with multiple cases of human infections. Despite concerns about the pandemic threat posed by H9N2 AIV, due to the fact that its receptor [...] Read more.
Avian influenza virus (AIV) H9N2 was declared to be endemic in birds of the Middle East, in particular in Egypt, with multiple cases of human infections. Despite concerns about the pandemic threat posed by H9N2 AIV, due to the fact that its receptor specificity is similar to that of human influenza viruses, its morbidity and mortality rates in humans are so far negligible. However, the acquisition of specific adaptive amino acid (aa) mutations in the viral polymerase can enhance cross-species transmission of the virus itself or of reassortants, which gained these changes. The polymerase basic protein 2 (PB2) is one of the key determinants for AIV adaptation towards mammals. Although mammalian pathogenicity-related mutations (MPMs) in PB2 genes were identified in different AIVs, the specific effect of single or multiple mutations on viral fitness has not been compared so far. Here, we studied the effect of the aa K at position 591, which was frequently reported in the PB2 of Egyptian H9N2 isolates, on the proliferation efficiency and polymerase activity of an H5N1 (clade 2.2.1.2) AIV already carrying the mammalian adaptive mutation 627K. Using reverse genetics, we generated a set of recombinant parental strains and H5N1 variants carrying the avian-like 591Q/627E or mammalian-like adaptive mutations 591K/627K (H5N1EGY, H9N2EGY, H5N1PB2-H9N2EGY, H5N1H9N2_PB2_K591Q, H5N1PB2_K627E, H5N1PB2_K627E/591K, H5N1PB2_627K/591K). Regardless of the avian-like 627E or the mammalian-adaptive 627K, both variants carrying the 591K (H5N1PB2_K627E/591K, H5N1PB2_627K/591K) and the reassortant H5N1PB2-H9N2EGY replicated to significantly higher levels in mammalian continuous MDCK and Calu-3 cell lines and primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells than the parental H5N1EGY virus (carrying solely the 627K adaptive mutation). Expectedly, the H5N1 variants carrying avian-like PB2 mutations (H5N1H9N2_PB2_K591Q, H5N1PB2_K627E) replicated to significantly lower levels than the parental H5N1EGY virus in the predefined primary and continuous mammalian cell line systems. Consistently, the activity of H5N1 subtype AIV polymerase complexes comprising PB2 segments with singular 591K or combined with 627K was significantly enhanced when compared to parental H5N1EGY and H9N2EGY. This study emphasizes the significant impact of 591K containing PB2 segments in the background of H5N1 polymerase on viral fitness in addition to the well-known MPM 627K in vitro. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 767 KiB  
Article
Whole Blood versus Plasma Samples—How Does the Type of Specimen Collected for Testing Affect the Monitoring of Cytomegalovirus Viremia?
by Mateusz Rzepka, Dagmara Depka, Eugenia Gospodarek-Komkowska and Tomasz Bogiel
Pathogens 2022, 11(11), 1384; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11111384 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2243
Abstract
Viral infections, or their reactivations, are one of the most important groups of transplantation complications that can occur among recipients of both hematopoietic cells and solid organ transplants. They are the most commonly caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV). Currently, the use of whole blood [...] Read more.
Viral infections, or their reactivations, are one of the most important groups of transplantation complications that can occur among recipients of both hematopoietic cells and solid organ transplants. They are the most commonly caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV). Currently, the use of whole blood or plasma samples is recommended for CMV viral load monitoring. The aim of the study was to assess and compare the level of CMV DNA, depending on the type of clinical material—whole blood or plasma fraction derived from the same patient. The studies were carried out on 156 whole blood samples in which the presence of CMV genetic material was confirmed and the corresponding plasma samples from the same rounds of sampling. CMV DNA was not present in 59 (37.8%) of plasma samples compared to whole blood-positive counterparts. Of the samples positive in both types of clinical specimen, 77 (79.4%) had higher viral DNA levels in the whole blood samples. There were statistically significant differences in the detected CMV DNA load in the whole blood compared to plasma fraction counterparts (p < 0.001). The detected CMV DNA value is usually higher in whole blood compared to plasma samples of the same patient. Due to the variability in CMV viral load depending on the clinical material used for a particular patient, one type of specimen should be always used consequently for CMV viremia monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis of Human Cytomegalovirus Infection)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

14 pages, 941 KiB  
Review
Microbial Adherence to Contact Lenses and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a Model Organism for Microbial Keratitis
by Allison Campolo, Reed Pifer, Paul Shannon and Monica Crary
Pathogens 2022, 11(11), 1383; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11111383 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3071
Abstract
Microbial keratitis (MK), the infection of the cornea, is a devastating disease and the fifth leading cause of blindness and visual impairment around the world. The overwhelming majority of MK cases are linked to contact lens wear combined with factors which promote infection [...] Read more.
Microbial keratitis (MK), the infection of the cornea, is a devastating disease and the fifth leading cause of blindness and visual impairment around the world. The overwhelming majority of MK cases are linked to contact lens wear combined with factors which promote infection such as corneal abrasion, an immunocompromised state, improper contact lens use, or failing to routinely disinfect lenses after wear. Contact lens-related MK involves the adherence of microorganisms to the contact lens. Therefore, this review discusses the information currently available regarding the disease pathophysiology, the common types of microorganisms causing MK, physical and organic mechanisms of adhesion, material properties which are involved in adhesion, and current antimicrobial strategies. This review also concludes that Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a model organism for the investigation of contact lens microbial adherence due to its prevalence in MK cases, its extremely robust adhesion, antimicrobial-resistant properties, and the severity of the disease it causes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ocular Surface Infections)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 1690 KiB  
Article
Potential Pathogenicity of Aeromonas spp. Recovered in River Water, Soil, and Vegetation from a Natural Recreational Area
by Roberto M. Guerra, Francisco Damián Maleno, Maria José Figueras, Isabel Pujol-Bajador and Ana Fernández-Bravo
Pathogens 2022, 11(11), 1382; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11111382 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2191
Abstract
The genus Aeromonas is widely distributed in aquatic environments and is recognized as a potential human pathogen. Some Aeromonas species are able to cause a wide spectrum of diseases, mainly gastroenteritis, skin and soft-tissue infections, bacteremia, and sepsis. Currently, untreated river water is [...] Read more.
The genus Aeromonas is widely distributed in aquatic environments and is recognized as a potential human pathogen. Some Aeromonas species are able to cause a wide spectrum of diseases, mainly gastroenteritis, skin and soft-tissue infections, bacteremia, and sepsis. Currently, untreated river water is used for irrigation and recreational purposes. In this study, the Aeromonas spp. present in a river recreational environment was investigated by quantifying its presence in water, soil, and vegetation using three techniques: qPCR, plate counting in selective ADA medium, and Most Probable Number, in parallel. The presence of clones in the three types of samples was elucidated through genotyping with the ERIC-PCR technique, whereas the identification of the isolated Aeromonas was carried out by sequencing the rpoD gene. Finally, the pathogenic potential of some of the strains was explored by studying the presence and expression of virulence genes characteristic of the genus, their antimicrobial susceptibility profile, as well as the quantification of their cell damage and intracellular survival in an in vitro macrophages infection model. The results showed the presence of Aeromonas in all samples with the three quantification methods, with Aeromonas popoffii being the most prevalent species. The presence of strains with the same genotype (ERIC-PCR) was also confirmed in different samples. Some of the strains showed a high level of cell damage and intracellular bacterial survival, as well as the presence of various virulence factors. Furthermore, these strains showed resistance to some of the antibiotics tested and used therapeutically in both humans and animals. These results indicate that the presence of Aeromonas in this environment may represent a biosanitary risk that could be a public health problem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water-Borne Pathogens)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 525 KiB  
Article
Inhibitory Effect of Select Nitrocompounds and Chlorate against Yersinia ruckeri and Yersinia aleksiciae In Vitro
by Elizabeth A. Latham, Robin C. Anderson, Lauren R. Wottlin, Toni L. Poole, Tawni L. Crippen, Wayne D. Schlosser, Roger B. Harvey and Michael E. Hume
Pathogens 2022, 11(11), 1381; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11111381 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1168
Abstract
Yersinia ruckeri is an important fish pathogen causing enteric redmouth disease. Antibiotics have traditionally been used to control this pathogen, but concerns of antibiotic resistance have created a need for alternative interventions. Presently, chlorate and certain nitrocompounds were tested against Y. ruckeri as [...] Read more.
Yersinia ruckeri is an important fish pathogen causing enteric redmouth disease. Antibiotics have traditionally been used to control this pathogen, but concerns of antibiotic resistance have created a need for alternative interventions. Presently, chlorate and certain nitrocompounds were tested against Y. ruckeri as well as a related species within the genus, Y. aleksiciae, to assess the effects of these inhibitors. The results reveal that 9 mM chlorate had no inhibitory effect against Y. ruckeri, but inhibited growth rates and maximum optical densities of Y. aleksciciae by 20–25% from those of untreated controls (0.46 h−1 and 0.29 maximum optical density, respectively). The results further reveal that 2-nitropropanol and 2-nitroethanol (9 mM) eliminated the growth of both Y. ruckeri and Y. aleksiciae during anaerobic or aerobic culture. Nitroethane, ethyl nitroacetate and ethyl-2-nitropropionate (9 mM) were less inhibitory when tested similarly. Results from a mixed culture of Y. ruckeri with fish tank microbes and of Y. aleksiciae with porcine fecal microbes reveal that the anti-Yersinia activity of the tested nitrocompounds was bactericidal, with 2-nitropropanol and 2-nitroethanol being more potent than the other tested nitrocompounds. The anti-Yersinia activity observed with these tested compounds warrants further study to elucidate the mechanisms of action and strategies for their practical application. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

29 pages, 500 KiB  
Review
Human Papillomaviruses-Related Cancers: An Update on the Presence and Prevention Strategies in the Middle East and North African Regions
by Queenie Fernandes, Soumaya Allouch, Ishita Gupta, Ibrahim Elmakaty, Khaled E. Elzawawi, Ahmed Amarah, Hamda Al-Thawadi, Halema Al-Farsi, Semir Vranic and Ala-Eddin Al Moustafa
Pathogens 2022, 11(11), 1380; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11111380 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2885
Abstract
The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a non-enveloped double-stranded DNA virus capable of infecting skin and mucosa epithelial cells. Commonly, HPV infection is associated with sexually transmitted diseases and is considered the leading cause of cervical cancer and other carcinomas of the anogenital tract. [...] Read more.
The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a non-enveloped double-stranded DNA virus capable of infecting skin and mucosa epithelial cells. Commonly, HPV infection is associated with sexually transmitted diseases and is considered the leading cause of cervical cancer and other carcinomas of the anogenital tract. However, several studies reported their involvement in cancers of non-sexual regions, including colorectal, head and neck, and breast cancers. There are several studies from the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) regions on the potential association between high-risk HPVs and cancer; nevertheless, there are limited studies that address the significance of HPV vaccination as a potential guard against these cancers. In the current review, we present a comprehensive description of the current HPV-associated cancers prevalence rates in the MENA region, demonstrating their steady increase with time, especially in African regions. Moreover, we discuss the potential impact of vaccination against HPV infections and its outcome on human health in this region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncoviruses and Their Potential Role in Breast Cancer)
13 pages, 7689 KiB  
Article
Molecular Characteristics and Genetic Evolution of Echovirus 33 in Mainland of China
by Wenhui Wang, Huan Fan, Shuaifeng Zhou, Shikang Li, Alitengsaier NIGEDELI, Yong Zhang, Qiang Sun, Yun He, Qin Guo, Xiaoyi Wang, Huanhuan Lu, Jinbo Xiao, Hehe Zhao, Zhenzhi Han, Tianjiao Ji, Le Zhang and Dongmei Yan
Pathogens 2022, 11(11), 1379; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11111379 - 18 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1570
Abstract
Echovirus, a member of the Enterovirus B (EV-B) family, has led to numerous outbreaks and pandemics, causing a broad spectrum of diseases. Based on the national hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) surveillance system, seven strains of echovirus 33 (E33) were [...] Read more.
Echovirus, a member of the Enterovirus B (EV-B) family, has led to numerous outbreaks and pandemics, causing a broad spectrum of diseases. Based on the national hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) surveillance system, seven strains of echovirus 33 (E33) were isolated from Mainland of China between 2010 and 2018. The whole genomes of these strains were isolated and sequenced, and phylogenetic trees were constructed based on the gene sequences in different regions of the EV-B prototype strains. It was found that E33 may be recombined in the P2 and P3 regions. Five genotypes (A–E) were defined based on the entire VP1 region of E33, of which the C gene subtype was the dominant gene subtype at present. Recombinant analysis showed that genotype C strains likely recombined with EV-B80, EV-B85, E13, and CVA9 in the P2 and P3 regions, while genotype E had the possibility of recombination with CVB3, E3, E6, and E4. Results of Bayesian analysis indicated that E33 may have appeared around 1955 (95% confidence interval: 1945–1959), with a high evolutionary rate of 1.11 × 10−2 substitution/site/year (95% highest posterior density (HPD): 8.17 × 10−3 to 1.4 × 10−2 substitution/site/year). According to spatial transmission route analysis, two significant transmission routes were identified: from Australia to India and from Oman to Thailand, which the E33 strain in Mainland of China likely introduced from Mexico and India. In conclusion, our study fills the gaps in the evolutionary analysis of E33 and can provide important data for enterovirus surveillance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Research on Enterovirus Infection)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1140 KiB  
Article
Diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 during the Pandemic by Multiplex RT-rPCR hCoV Test: Future Perspectives
by Alessio Danilo Inchingolo, Ciro Isacco Gargiulo, Giuseppina Malcangi, Anna Maria Ciocia, Assunta Patano, Daniela Azzollini, Fabio Piras, Giuseppe Barile, Vito Settanni, Antonio Mancini, Grazia Garofoli, Giulia Palmieri, Chiara Di Pede, Biagio Rapone, Angelo Michele Inchingolo, Megan Jones, Alberto Corriero, Nicola Brienza, Antonio Parisi, Angelica Bianco, Loredana Capozzi, Laura Del Sambro, Domenico Simone, Ioana Roxana Bordea, Gianluca Martino Tartaglia, Antonio Scarano, Felice Lorusso, Luigi Macchia, Giovanni Migliore, Van Hung Pham, Gianna Dipalma and Francesco Inchingoloadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Pathogens 2022, 11(11), 1378; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11111378 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1944
Abstract
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has rapidly become a significant threat to public health. However, among the Coronaviridae family members, there are other viruses that can also cause infections in humans. Among these, severe acute [...] Read more.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has rapidly become a significant threat to public health. However, among the Coronaviridae family members, there are other viruses that can also cause infections in humans. Among these, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) have posed significant threats to human health in the past. Other human pathogenic coronaviruses have been identified, and they are known to cause respiratory diseases with manifestations ranging from mild to severe. In this study, we evaluated the performance of a multiplex RT-rPCR specific to seven human pathogenic coronaviruses in mainly detecting SARS-CoV-2 directly from nasopharyngeal swabs obtained from suspected COVID-19 infected patients, while simultaneously detecting different human pathogenic coronaviruses in case these were also present. We tested 1195 clinical samples suspected of COVID-19 infection. The assay identified that 69% of the samples tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (1195), which was confirmed using another SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR kit available in our laboratory. None of these clinical samples were positive for SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV or HCoV. This means that during the endemic phase of COVID-19, infection with other human pathogenic coronaviruses, even the common cold coronavirus (HCoV), is very uncommon. Our study also confirmed that the multiplex RT-rPCR is a sensitive assay for detecting SARS-CoV-2 regardless of differences among the variants. This multiplex RT-rPCR is also time- and cost-saving and very easy to apply in the diagnostic laboratory due to its simple procedure and its stability in storage after preparation. These features make the assay a valuable approach in screening procedures for the rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 and other human pathogenic coronaviruses that could affect public health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection SARS-CoV-2 Infection and COVID-19 Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 603 KiB  
Review
Tick-Borne Rickettsioses in the Iberian Peninsula
by Leonardo Moerbeck, Ana Domingos and Sandra Antunes
Pathogens 2022, 11(11), 1377; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11111377 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4054
Abstract
Tick-borne rickettsioses (TBR) are caused by obligate, intracellular bacteria of the spotted-fever group (SFG) of the genus Rickettsia (Order Rickettsiales), transmitted by hard ticks. TBR are one of the oldest known vector-borne zoonoses and pose a threat to both human and animal [...] Read more.
Tick-borne rickettsioses (TBR) are caused by obligate, intracellular bacteria of the spotted-fever group (SFG) of the genus Rickettsia (Order Rickettsiales), transmitted by hard ticks. TBR are one of the oldest known vector-borne zoonoses and pose a threat to both human and animal health, as over the years, new SFG Rickettsia spp. have been reported worldwide with the potential to be human pathogens. In Portugal and Spain, the countries that constitute the Iberian Peninsula, reported TB rickettsiae causing human disease include Rickettsia conorii conorii, Rickettsia conorii israelensis, Rickettsia slovaca, Rickettsia raoultii, Candidatus Rickettsia rioja, Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae, and Rickettsia monacensis. An allochthonous case of TBR caused by Rickettsia massiliae, described in Spain, points to the need to monitor disease epidemiology, to predict risks of exposure and spread of disease, and taking into account globalization and climate changes. This review aims to provide up-to-date information on the status of TBR in the Iberian Peninsula, as well as to show the importance of a national and international collaborative epidemiology surveillance network, towards monitoring Rickettsia spp. circulation in both Portugal and Spain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases―Pathogens, Parasites and People)
Show Figures

Figure 1

26 pages, 3084 KiB  
Review
An Overview of Anthropogenic Actions as Drivers for Emerging and Re-Emerging Zoonotic Diseases
by Sina Salajegheh Tazerji, Roberto Nardini, Muhammad Safdar, Awad A. Shehata and Phelipe Magalhães Duarte
Pathogens 2022, 11(11), 1376; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11111376 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 7498
Abstract
Population growth and industrialization have led to a race for greater food and supply productivity. As a result, the occupation and population of forest areas, contact with wildlife and their respective parasites and vectors, the trafficking and consumption of wildlife, the pollution of [...] Read more.
Population growth and industrialization have led to a race for greater food and supply productivity. As a result, the occupation and population of forest areas, contact with wildlife and their respective parasites and vectors, the trafficking and consumption of wildlife, the pollution of water sources, and the accumulation of waste occur more frequently. Concurrently, the agricultural and livestock production for human consumption has accelerated, often in a disorderly way, leading to the deforestation of areas that are essential for the planet’s climatic and ecological balance. The effects of human actions on other ecosystems such as the marine ecosystem cause equally serious damage, such as the pollution of this habitat, and the reduction of the supply of fish and other animals, causing the coastal population to move to the continent. The sum of these factors leads to an increase in the demands such as housing, basic sanitation, and medical assistance, making these populations underserved and vulnerable to the effects of global warming and to the emergence of emerging and re-emerging diseases. In this article, we discuss the anthropic actions such as climate changes, urbanization, deforestation, the trafficking and eating of wild animals, as well as unsustainable agricultural intensification which are drivers for emerging and re-emerging of zoonotic pathogens such as viral (Ebola virus, hantaviruses, Hendravirus, Nipah virus, rabies, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus disease-2), bacterial (leptospirosis, Lyme borreliosis, and tuberculosis), parasitic (leishmaniasis) and fungal pathogens, which pose a substantial threat to the global community. Finally, we shed light on the urgent demand for the implementation of the One Health concept as a collaborative global approach to raise awareness and educate people about the science behind and the battle against zoonotic pathogens to mitigate the threat for both humans and animals. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 3303 KiB  
Article
In Vivo Inhibitory Assessment of Potential Antifungal Agents on Nosema ceranae Proliferation in Honey Bees
by Rassol Bahreini, Medhat Nasr, Cassandra Docherty, Olivia de Herdt, David Feindel and Samantha Muirhead
Pathogens 2022, 11(11), 1375; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11111375 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2246
Abstract
Nosema ceranae Fries, 1996, causes contagious fungal nosemosis disease in managed honey bees, Apis mellifera L. It is associated around the world with winter losses and colony collapse disorder. We used a laboratory in vivo screening assay to test curcumin, fenbendazole, nitrofurazone and ornidazole against [...] Read more.
Nosema ceranae Fries, 1996, causes contagious fungal nosemosis disease in managed honey bees, Apis mellifera L. It is associated around the world with winter losses and colony collapse disorder. We used a laboratory in vivo screening assay to test curcumin, fenbendazole, nitrofurazone and ornidazole against N. ceranae in honey bees to identify novel compounds with anti-nosemosis activity compared to the commercially available medication Fumagilin-B®. Over a 20-day period, Nosema-inoculated bees in Plexiglas cages were orally treated with subsequent dilutions of candidate compounds, or Fumagilin-B® at the recommended dose, with three replicates per treatment. Outcomes indicated that fenbendazole suppressed Nosema spore proliferation, resulting in lower spore abundance in live bees (0.36 ± 1.18 million spores per bee) and dead bees (0.03 ± 0.25 million spores per bee), in comparison to Fumagilin-B®-treated live bees (3.21 ± 2.19 million spores per bee) and dead bees (3.5 ± 0.6 million spores per bee). Our findings suggest that Fumagilin-B® at the recommended dose suppressed Nosema. However, it was also likely responsible for killing Nosema-infected bees (24% mortality). Bees treated with fenbendazole experienced a greater survival probability (71%), followed by ornidazole (69%), compared to Nosema-infected non-treated control bees (20%). This research revealed that among screened compounds, fenbendazole, along with ornidazole, has potential effective antifungal activities against N. ceranae in a controlled laboratory environment. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 776 KiB  
Article
Occurrence of Mycoplasma parvum in German Pigs of Different Age Groups Using a Novel Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assay
by Julia Ade, Katharina Hoelzle, Julia Stadler, Mathias Ritzmann and Ludwig E. Hoelzle
Pathogens 2022, 11(11), 1374; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11111374 - 18 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1476
Abstract
Mycoplasma (M.) parvum is a hemotrophic bacterium circulating in the blood of pigs but is not considered a primary pathogen. Only a handful of studies dealing with this agent have been published since its first description in 1951, and many issues, including epidemiology [...] Read more.
Mycoplasma (M.) parvum is a hemotrophic bacterium circulating in the blood of pigs but is not considered a primary pathogen. Only a handful of studies dealing with this agent have been published since its first description in 1951, and many issues, including epidemiology and the impact of subclinical infections, are yet to be elucidated. This study aimed to establish a M. parvum specific real-time PCR for its detection and quantification in porcine blood and the application of this assay to obtain insights into the occurrence of M. parvum in German pigs. Furthermore, 16S rDNA amplicons of M. parvum positive blood samples were phylogenetically analyzed using MEGA 11 software. The established qPCR targeting the M. parvum glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase encoding gene (gap) showed a lower detection limit of 10 gene copies per reaction and no cross-reactivity within the specificity test. A total of 36.0% (n = 72) of the sampled fattening pigs, 25.0% (n = 15) of the sows, and 4.37% (n = 8) of the boars tested M. parvum positive. The dendrogram showed the typical allocation of the M. parvum isolates into the “haemominutum group” subgroup within the hemotrophic Mycoplasma species. Both the novel established qPCR and the obtained epidemiological data can serve as an important basis for future studies dealing with M. parvum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Pathogens)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1530 KiB  
Article
Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Allergen Immunotherapy-Treated Mice Suppressed IL-5 Production from Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells
by Masaya Matsuda, Seito Shimizu, Kazuyuki Kitatani and Takeshi Nabe
Pathogens 2022, 11(11), 1373; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11111373 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1512
Abstract
Allergen immunotherapy (AIT), such as subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT), is a treatment targeting the causes of allergic diseases. The roles of extracellular vesicles (EVs), bilayer lipid membrane blebs released from all types of cells, in AIT have not been clarified. To examine the roles [...] Read more.
Allergen immunotherapy (AIT), such as subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT), is a treatment targeting the causes of allergic diseases. The roles of extracellular vesicles (EVs), bilayer lipid membrane blebs released from all types of cells, in AIT have not been clarified. To examine the roles of EVs in SCIT, it was analyzed whether (1) EVs are phenotypically changed by treatment with SCIT, and (2) EVs derived from SCIT treatment suppress the function of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), which are major cells contributing to type 2 allergic inflammation. As a result, (1) expression of CD9, a canonical EV marker, was highly up-regulated by SCIT in a murine model of asthma; and (2) IL-5 production from ILC2s in vitro was significantly decreased by the addition of serum EVs derived from SCIT-treated but not non-SCIT-treated mice. In conclusion, it was indicated that EVs were transformed by SCIT, changing to a suppressive phenotype of type 2 allergic inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Allergy and Immunotherapy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 6217 KiB  
Article
Seroprevalence of Equine Influenza and Its Associated Risk Factors in Northwest Nigeria
by Olaolu T. Olufemi, Emmanuel R. Edeh, Mustapha S. Isyaku, Mustapha Haliru, Shafiu Samaila, Philip W. Mshelia, Olajide A. Owolodun, J. Richard Newton and Janet M. Daly
Pathogens 2022, 11(11), 1372; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11111372 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1897
Abstract
Equine influenza (EI) is a fast-spreading respiratory disease of equids caused by equine influenza A virus (EIV), often resulting in high morbidity and a huge economic impact on the equine industry globally. In this cross-sectional study to determine the seroprevalence of EI and [...] Read more.
Equine influenza (EI) is a fast-spreading respiratory disease of equids caused by equine influenza A virus (EIV), often resulting in high morbidity and a huge economic impact on the equine industry globally. In this cross-sectional study to determine the seroprevalence of EI and its associated risk factors, sera from 830 horses bled on a single occasion in Northwest Nigeria between October 2019 and January 2020 were screened for antibodies to A/equine/Richmond/1/2007 (H3N8) using the single radial haemolysis (SRH) assay. Antibodies were detected in 71.3% (592/830, 95% CI: 68–74%) of horses (SRH area ≥ 0.5 mm2). Although there were statistically significant univariable associations between seropositivity and age, sex, breed, purpose and coat colour, only age remained significant when included with each of the other variables in bivariable analyses. There was a clear trend for increasing odds of seropositivity with increasing age: OR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.05–2.40 (p = 0.03) for 5–14-year-olds and OR 8.13, 95% CI: 2.75–24.1 (p < 0.001) for ≥15-year-olds compared to horses <5 years old. The mean SRH value was 78.2 mm2 (median = 88 mm2, interquartile range = 0–121 mm2) with only 9% of the horses having an SRH value > 150 mm2, considered sufficient to protect against clinical disease and virus shedding. Comparative screening of a subset of the horses (n = 118) with a 2019 H3N8 virus (A/equine/Worcestershire/2019) revealed a significantly greater seropositivity (p = 0.0001) than A/equine/Richmond/1/2007 consistent with exposure of the population during a widespread outbreak of EI in the region in 2019. In conclusion, there was an insufficient level of protection against EI in the region and introduction of a vaccination programme with vaccines containing recently circulating virus is recommended to mitigate against further outbreaks of EI in Nigeria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Respiratory Viruses of Equids)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 3106 KiB  
Article
Antiviral Properties of Pennisetum purpureum Extract against Coronaviruses and Enteroviruses
by Yi-Ning Chen, Wenny Mei-Wen Kao, Shu-Chi Lee, Jaw-Min Wu, Yi-Sheng Ho and Ming-Kun Hsieh
Pathogens 2022, 11(11), 1371; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11111371 - 17 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1442
Abstract
Many severe epidemics are caused by enteroviruses (EVs) and coronaviruses (CoVs), including feline coronavirus (FCoV) in cats, epidemic diarrhea disease virus (PEDV) in pigs, infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in chickens, and EV71 in human. Vaccines and antiviral drugs are used to prevent and [...] Read more.
Many severe epidemics are caused by enteroviruses (EVs) and coronaviruses (CoVs), including feline coronavirus (FCoV) in cats, epidemic diarrhea disease virus (PEDV) in pigs, infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in chickens, and EV71 in human. Vaccines and antiviral drugs are used to prevent and treat the infection of EVs and CoVs, but the effectiveness is affected due to rapidly changing RNA viruses. Many plant extracts have been proven to have antiviral properties despite the continuous mutations of viruses. Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) has high phenolic content and has been used as healthy food materials, livestock feed, biofuels, and more. This study tested the antiviral properties of P. purpureum extract against FCoV, PEDV, IBV, and EV71 by in vitro cytotoxicity assay, TCID50 virus infection assay, and chicken embryo infection assay. The findings showed that P. purpureum extract has the potential of being disinfectant to limit the spread of CoVs and EVs because the extract can inhibit the infection of EV71, FCoV, and PEDV in cells, and significantly reduce the severity of symptoms caused by IBV in chicken embryos. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 805 KiB  
Article
Prevalence, Infectious Characteristics and Genetic Diversity of Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Two Raw-Meat Processing Establishments in Northern Greece
by Dimitrios Komodromos, Charalampos Kotzamanidis, Virginia Giantzi, Styliani Pappa, Anna Papa, Antonios Zdragas, Apostolos Angelidis and Daniel Sergelidis
Pathogens 2022, 11(11), 1370; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11111370 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2027
Abstract
In the present study, we investigated the isolation frequency, the genetic diversity, and the infectious characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) from the incoming meat and the meat products, the environment, and the workers’ nasal cavities, in two meat-processing establishments [...] Read more.
In the present study, we investigated the isolation frequency, the genetic diversity, and the infectious characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) from the incoming meat and the meat products, the environment, and the workers’ nasal cavities, in two meat-processing establishments in northern Greece. The isolated S. aureus strains were examined for their resistance to antimicrobials, carriage of the mecA and mecC genes, carriage of genes encoding for the production of nine staphylococcal enterotoxins, carriage of the Panton–Valentine Leukocidin and Toxic Shock Syndrome genes, and the ability to form biofilm. The genetic diversity of the isolates was evaluated using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and spa typing. S. aureus was isolated from 13.8% of the 160 samples examined, while only one sample (0.6%) was contaminated by MRSA carrying the mecA gene. The evaluation of the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates revealed low antimicrobial resistance. The higher resistance frequencies were observed for penicillin (68.2%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (36.4%) and tetracycline (18.2%), while 31.8% of the isolates were sensitive to all antimicrobials examined. Multidrug resistance was observed in two isolates. None of the isolates carried the mecC or lukF-PV genes, and two isolates (9.1%) harbored the tst gene. Eight isolates (36.4%) carried the seb gene, one carried the sed gene, two (9.1%) carried both the sed and sei genes, and one isolate (4.5%) carried the seb, sed and sei genes. Twenty-one (95.5%) of the isolates showed moderate biofilm production ability, while only one (4.5%) was characterized as a strong biofilm producer. Genotyping of the isolates by PFGE indicates that S. aureus from different meat-processing establishments represent separate genetic populations. Ten different spa types were identified, while no common spa type isolates were detected within the two plants. Overall, our findings emphasize the need for the strict application of good hygienic practices at the plant level to control the spread of S. aureus and MRSA to the community through the end products. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 940 KiB  
Systematic Review
Schistosomiasis and Recurrent Arthritis: A Systematic Review of the Literature
by Coline Mortier, Maïssane Mehadji, Sophie Amrane, Anne-Laurence Demoux and Coralie L’Ollivier
Pathogens 2022, 11(11), 1369; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11111369 - 17 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1515
Abstract
Background. Schistosomiasis is an endemic parasitic infection found in many tropical countries and is highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. It can follow different and atypical clinical patterns. In these unusual cases, diagnosis may be difficult, as symptoms are unspecific. Arthropathy can appear in [...] Read more.
Background. Schistosomiasis is an endemic parasitic infection found in many tropical countries and is highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. It can follow different and atypical clinical patterns. In these unusual cases, diagnosis may be difficult, as symptoms are unspecific. Arthropathy can appear in parasitic infections, but making a connection between arthritis and parasitic aetiology is difficult. This review aims to summarise all cases that have reported schistosomiasis associated with arthropathy, and the different ways authors have diagnosed this disease. Method. We present a systematic literature review of schistosomiasis associated with joint impairments, with a focus on the difficulty of differentiating between reactive arthritis and its parasitic presence in situ. Results. Joint impairments mimicking polyarthropathy are not rare in parasitic infections. Diagnosis is difficult. On the one hand, some patients have arthritis with parasite eggs found in situ, particularly in synovial biopsy. These situations are less common and antiparasitic treatment is straightforward. On the other hand, arthritis can be associated with parasitic infections in the form of reactive arthritis due to an immunological reaction. In such cases, pathogenicity due to circulating immune complex should be suspected. Anti-inflammatory treatments such as corticosteroids or immunosuppressive therapies are ineffective in cases of schistosomal arthropathy. A joint fluid puncture appears to be necessary and parasitic examination as well as in situ immunological techniques appear to be important in order to confirm the diagnosis of schistosomal arthropathy. Conclusions. The frequency of articular schistosomiasis is probably underestimated and should be sought when patients have unexplained polyarthropathy, as it can be an alternative diagnosis when patients have concomitant parasitic infections. These situations are common, whereas the association between unexplained inflammatory arthritis and a concomitant parasitic infection is rarely made. Unspecific rheumatism can lead to probabilistic treatments with many side effects, and looking for a parasitic aetiology could lead to repeated antiparasitic treatments and may avoid other immunosuppressive or corticosteroid therapies. With increasing travel and global migration, physicians need to be more aware of nonspecific symptoms that may reveal an atypical presentation of a tropical disease that can be treated easily, thus avoiding inappropriate immunosuppressive treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Parasitic Pathogens)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 3634 KiB  
Article
Isolation of a New Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus (IPNV) Variant from Genetically Resistant Farmed Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) during 2021–2022
by Marcos Godoy, Molly J. T. Kibenge, Marco Montes de Oca, Juan Pablo Pontigo, Yoandy Coca, Diego Caro, Karina Kusch, Rudy Suarez, Ian Burbulis and Frederick S. B. Kibenge
Pathogens 2022, 11(11), 1368; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11111368 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3340
Abstract
Infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN), caused by IPNV, affects several species of farmed fish, particularly Atlantic salmon, and is responsible for significant economic losses in salmon aquaculture globally. Despite the introduction of genetically resistant farmed Atlantic salmon and vaccination strategies in the Chilean salmon [...] Read more.
Infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN), caused by IPNV, affects several species of farmed fish, particularly Atlantic salmon, and is responsible for significant economic losses in salmon aquaculture globally. Despite the introduction of genetically resistant farmed Atlantic salmon and vaccination strategies in the Chilean salmon industry since 2019, the number of IPN outbreaks has been increasing in farmed Atlantic salmon in the freshwater phase. This study examined gross and histopathological lesions of IPNV-affected fish, as well as the IPNV nucleotide sequence encoding the VP2 protein in clinical cases. The mortality reached 0.4% per day, and the cumulative mortality was from 0.4 to 3.5%. IPNV was isolated in the CHSE-214 cell line and was confirmed by RT-PCR, and VP2 sequence analysis. The analyzed viruses belong to IPNV genotype 5 and have 11 mutations in their VP2 protein. This is the first report of IPN outbreaks in farmed Atlantic salmon genetically resistant to IPNV in Chile. Similar outbreaks were previously reported in Scotland and Norway during 2018 and 2019, respectively. This study highlights the importance of maintaining a comprehensive surveillance program in conjunction with the use of farmed Atlantic salmon genetically resistant to IPNV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virulence Mechanisms, Detection and Control of Aquatic Animal Viruses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 8563 KiB  
Article
Antagonistic Activity of Potentially Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria against Honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) Pathogens
by Aleksandra Leska, Adriana Nowak, Justyna Szulc, Ilona Motyl and Karolina Henryka Czarnecka-Chrebelska
Pathogens 2022, 11(11), 1367; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11111367 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4966
Abstract
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are an essential part of the microbiota of the digestive tract of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.). Antagonistic activity of 103 LAB strains (isolates from different environments) against 21 honeybee pathogens/opportunistic pathogens (with agar slab method) was screened. The [...] Read more.
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are an essential part of the microbiota of the digestive tract of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.). Antagonistic activity of 103 LAB strains (isolates from different environments) against 21 honeybee pathogens/opportunistic pathogens (with agar slab method) was screened. The growth of Paenibacillus genus was inhibited to the most extent. The highest antagonistic activity was demonstrated by Lacticaseibacillus casei 12AN, while the lowest by Apilactobacillus kunkeei DSM 12361, a species naturally inhabiting the honeybee gut. LAB isolated from the honeybee environment demonstrated stronger antagonism against pathogens than collection strains. The antagonistic activity of cell-free supernatants (CFSs) from 24 LAB strains against 7 honeybee pathogens was additionally assessed at physiological pH with the microtitration method. The same was determined for selected CFSs at neutralized pH. CFSs with physiological pH showed significantly stronger antibacterial activity than CFSs with neutralized pH. The results confirmed that the mechanism of antimicrobial activity of LAB is acidification of the environment. The obtained results may, in the future, contribute to a better understanding of the antagonistic properties of LAB and the construction of a probiotic preparation to increase the viability of honeybee colonies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diseases of Insect Pollinators)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

20 pages, 3927 KiB  
Article
Molecular Epidemiological Evidence Implicates Cattle as a Primary Reservoir of Campylobacter jejuni Infecting People via Contaminated Chickens
by Januana S. Teixeira, Valerie F. Boras, Benjamin M. Hetman, Eduardo N. Taboada and G. Douglas Inglis
Pathogens 2022, 11(11), 1366; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11111366 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1981
Abstract
The study aimed to determine the relative contribution of cattle to the burden of illness in a model agroecosystem with high rates of human campylobacteriosis (≥ 115 cases/100 K), and high densities of cattle, including large numbers of cattle housed in confined feeding [...] Read more.
The study aimed to determine the relative contribution of cattle to the burden of illness in a model agroecosystem with high rates of human campylobacteriosis (≥ 115 cases/100 K), and high densities of cattle, including large numbers of cattle housed in confined feeding operations (i.e., in southwestern Alberta, Canada). To accomplish this, a large-scale molecular epidemiological analysis of Campylobacter jejuni circulating within the study location was completed. In excess of 8000 isolates of C. jejuni from people (n = 2548 isolates), chickens (n = 1849 isolates), cattle (n = 2921 isolates), and water (n = 771 isolates) were subtyped. In contrast to previous studies, the source attribution estimates of clinical cases attributable to cattle vastly exceeded those attributed to chicken (i.e., three- to six-fold). Moreover, cattle were often colonized by C. jejuni (51%) and shed the bacterium in their feces. A large proportion of study isolates were found in subtypes primarily associated with cattle (46%), including subtypes infecting people and those associated with chickens (19%). The implication of cattle as a primary amplifying reservoir of C. jejuni subtypes in circulation in the study location is supported by the strong cattle association with subtypes that were found in chickens and in people, a lack of evidence indicating the foodborne transmission of C. jejuni from beef and dairy, and the large number of cattle and the substantial quantities of untreated manure containing C. jejuni cells. Importantly, the evidence implicated cattle as a source of C. jejuni infecting people through a transmission pathway from cattle to people via the consumption of chicken. This has implications for reducing the burden of campylobacteriosis in the study location and elsewhere. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Pathogens)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 6971 KiB  
Review
Prevalence of Human Intestinal Entamoeba spp. in the Americas: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, 1990–2022
by Andrea Servián, Elisa Helman, María del Rosario Iglesias, Jesús Alonso Panti-May, María Lorena Zonta and Graciela Teresa Navone
Pathogens 2022, 11(11), 1365; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11111365 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2388
Abstract
Among the seven species of Entamoeba known to infect humans, E. histolytica is widely recognized as a pathogen. It is reported that Entamoeba infections are common in the developing world, but rare in developed countries. The best way to diagnose these protozoan parasites [...] Read more.
Among the seven species of Entamoeba known to infect humans, E. histolytica is widely recognized as a pathogen. It is reported that Entamoeba infections are common in the developing world, but rare in developed countries. The best way to diagnose these protozoan parasites is to detect antigens or DNA in the stool. This study aimed to review the prevalence, distribution, and diagnosis methods of Entamoeba spp. infecting humans in the Americas between 1990 and 2022. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed, including 227 studies on Entamoeba infections from 30 out of 35 American countries. The pooled prevalence of each species of Entamoeba was calculated using the random-effects model. The assignment of Entamoeba species was mainly performed by microscopy. The most widely distributed and prevalent species was E. coli (21.0%). Of the studies, 49% could not differentiate the species of the Entamoeba complex. The pathogenic species E. histolytica was distributed among 22 out of 30 American countries studied, with a pooled prevalence of 9%. Molecular data on Entamoeba species are still scarce. This is the first study that reviewed and summarized data on the prevalence of this protozoan genera among American countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intestinal Parasites Infection)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 482 KiB  
Article
Correlation between Clinical and Immunological Variables and Humoral Response to SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination in Adult Patients with Antibody Deficiency Disorders
by Carmen Bracke, Cristina Miranda, Sandra González, Irma Casas, Pere Joan Cardona, Rosa Maria Benitez, Nieves Sopena, Esteban Alberto Reynaga, Marta Massanella, Bonaventura Clotet, Jorge Carrillo, Lourdes Mateu and Maria Luisa Pedro-Botet
Pathogens 2022, 11(11), 1364; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11111364 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1535
Abstract
Background. Prophylactic vaccination has proven to be the most effective strategy to fight the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods. This was a prospective observational cohort study involving 30 predominantly antibody deficiency disorders (ADD)-afflicted adult patients on immunoglobulin replacement therapy vaccinated with three doses of the [...] Read more.
Background. Prophylactic vaccination has proven to be the most effective strategy to fight the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods. This was a prospective observational cohort study involving 30 predominantly antibody deficiency disorders (ADD)-afflicted adult patients on immunoglobulin replacement therapy vaccinated with three doses of the mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine, and 10 healthy controls. Anti-RBD IgG antibodies were determined in plasma samples collected just before the first dose of mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine and on weeks 4, 8, 24, and 28 following the first vaccination. Patients were categorized based on the levels of anti-RBD antibodies determined on w8 as non-, low-, and responders. Chi-square and Kruskal–Wallis tests were used to see if any variables correlated with humoral response levels. Any adverse effects of the mRNA-based vaccine were also noted. Results. The COVID-19 vaccine was safe and well-tolerated. The humoral response elicited at w8 after vaccination depended on the type of ADD, the type of immunoglobulin deficiency, the presence of granulomatous lymphocytic interstitial lung disease, recent use of immunosuppressive drugs, and the switched memory B cells counts. The third vaccine dose boosted humoral response in previous responders to second dose but seldom in non-responders. Conclusions: The humoral response of patients with predominant ADD depends mostly on the type of immunodeficiency and on the frequency of B and T cell populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 Research from an Interdisciplinary and Holistic View)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 2834 KiB  
Article
An Investigation of Burkholderia pseudomallei Seroprevalence in Market Pigs Slaughtered at Selected Pig Abattoirs in Uganda
by John E. Ekakoro, Arnold Lubega, Edrine B. Kayaga, Dickson Ndoboli, Andrew P. Bluhm, Eddie M. Wampande, Jason K. Blackburn, Karyn A. Havas and Michael H. Norris
Pathogens 2022, 11(11), 1363; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11111363 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1737
Abstract
Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes melioidosis, a disease of humans and animals. It is primarily transmitted through direct contact with contaminated soil and surface water. The epidemiology of this pathogen in Africa, including Uganda, is largely unknown. The objectives of [...] Read more.
Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes melioidosis, a disease of humans and animals. It is primarily transmitted through direct contact with contaminated soil and surface water. The epidemiology of this pathogen in Africa, including Uganda, is largely unknown. The objectives of this study were to estimate the seroprevalence of B. pseudomallei in pigs slaughtered in central Uganda and to identify potential hotspots for this pathogen in the country. A total of 1035 pig sera were analyzed for serological responses to B. pseudomallei with type A and type B LPS using OPS type A and OPS type B ELISAs. Of the 1035 samples, 75 (7.25%, 95% CI: 5.8–9%) were seropositive to the OPS-A ELISA using a two standard deviations (SD) cutoff and 19 (1.84%, 95% CI: 1.2–2.9%) at 3 SD. For the OPS-B ELISA, 93/1035 (8.99%, 95% CI: 7.4–10.9%) were seropositive at the 2 SD cutoff, and 28/1035 (2.71%, 95% CI: 1.9–3.9%) at the 3 SD cutoff. Pigs slaughtered in central Uganda were exposed to B. pseudomallei, and there is a higher seroprevalence in the rainy months. Public health awareness campaigns about melioidosis may be needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1630 KiB  
Article
Molecular Mimicry Analyses Unveiled the Human Herpes Simplex and Poxvirus Epitopes as Possible Candidates to Incite Autoimmunity
by Sara Begum, Sara Aiman, Shujaat Ahmad, Abdus Samad, Mazen Almehmadi, Mamdouh Allahyani, Abdulelah Aljuaid, Sahib Gul Afridi and Asifullah Khan
Pathogens 2022, 11(11), 1362; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11111362 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2173
Abstract
Clinical epidemiological studies have reported that viral infections cause autoimmune pathology in humans. Host-pathogen protein sequences and structure-based molecular mimicry cause autoreactive T cells to cross-activate. The aim of the current study was to implement immunoinformatics approaches to infer sequence- and structure-based molecular [...] Read more.
Clinical epidemiological studies have reported that viral infections cause autoimmune pathology in humans. Host-pathogen protein sequences and structure-based molecular mimicry cause autoreactive T cells to cross-activate. The aim of the current study was to implement immunoinformatics approaches to infer sequence- and structure-based molecular mimicry between viral and human proteomic datasets. The protein sequences of all the so far known human-infecting viruses were obtained from the VIPR database, and complete human proteome data were retrieved from the NCBI repository. Based on a predefined, stringent threshold of comparative sequence analyses, 24 viral proteins were identified with significant sequence similarity to human proteins. PathDIP identified the enrichment of these homologous proteins in nine metabolic pathways with a p-value < 0.0001. Several viral and human mimic epitopes from these homologous proteins were predicted as strong binders of human HLA alleles, with IC50 < 50 nM. Downstream molecular docking analyses identified that lead virus-human homologous epitopes feasibly interact with HLA and TLR4 types of immune receptors. The vast majority of these top-hit homolog epitopic peptides belong to the herpes simplex and poxvirus families. These lead epitope biological sequences and 3D structural-based molecular mimicry may be promising for interpreting herpes simplex virus and poxvirus infection-mediated autoimmune disorders in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanism of Viral Infection)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop