Next Issue
Volume 12, April
Previous Issue
Volume 12, February
 
 

Soc. Sci., Volume 12, Issue 3 (March 2023) – 84 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The paper discusses the cultural roots of violence against women (VAW), focusing on the interplay between individual gender norms, moral justifications of VAW, and institutional gender norms. It provides an overview of 12 countries (Armenia, Cyprus, Czechia, Germany, Greece, Netherlands, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Turkey, Ukraine), considering individual gender role attitudes and justifications of wife beating, national legislation, and the position on the Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence Against Women and Domestic Violence to address this topic. The paper suggests that eradicating the cultural roots of VAW is more difficult in societies where, alongside traditional gender roles and a  patriarchal culture in legislation, moral views legitimize violence as a form of punishment for challenging prescribed gender roles. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
8 pages, 241 KiB  
Perspective
Embracing the Collective: Challenges and Opportunities in Teaching and Teacher Education in the Wake of COVID-19
by Noah Borrero
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(3), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12030194 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1297
Abstract
Ongoing impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic highlight structural inequities in our educational systems and force educators to ask prominent questions about the role of school as conditions continue to shift. This paper explores challenges and opportunities for moving forward in the fields of [...] Read more.
Ongoing impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic highlight structural inequities in our educational systems and force educators to ask prominent questions about the role of school as conditions continue to shift. This paper explores challenges and opportunities for moving forward in the fields of teaching and teacher education. Through presenting a framework of education for liberation, sociocultural learning theory, and fostering cultural assets, the value of live, in-person teaching is highlighted. Embracing this moment in history through honoring the lived experiences of students and striving for more collective approaches to teaching and learning are discussed as future possibilities in education. Full article
3 pages, 214 KiB  
Editorial
(Re)defining Entrepreneurship in a Post-Pandemic Context
by Álvaro Dias and Mafalda Patuleia
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(3), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12030193 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1059
Abstract
More than three years have passed since the first lockdown, and the world is not the same [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue (Re)defining Entrepreneurship in a Post-pandemic Context)
16 pages, 516 KiB  
Review
The Story of Futures Studies: An Interdisciplinary Field Rooted in Social Sciences
by Tamás Kristóf and Erzsébet Nováky
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(3), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12030192 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4148
Abstract
This article presents the almost century-long history of the development of futures studies in a comprehensive review. Futures studies, rooted in sociology and policy sciences, had become an academic discipline by the 1960s. One of the major global communities representing the discipline, the [...] Read more.
This article presents the almost century-long history of the development of futures studies in a comprehensive review. Futures studies, rooted in sociology and policy sciences, had become an academic discipline by the 1960s. One of the major global communities representing the discipline, the World Futures Studies Federation (WFSF), celebrates its 50th anniversary in 2023. In the 1970s, the focus was placed on discourses on global problems and preferred futures. Futures studies then developed a global institutional community and become a mature discipline by the 1980s and 1990s. Futurists by then had already mutually shared theoretical perspectives, objectives, ethics, and methods, and had produced empirical results. A wide range of comprehensive publications at that time synthesized the foundations and preceding results of futures studies. From the turn of the millennium, active discourse took place on the forthcoming role of futures studies. By that time, the theoretical, methodological, and practical knowledge foundations of the discipline had also appeared in internationally well-documented curricula. Since around 2010, the discipline has been characterized by the development of practical foresight projects. Based on notable trends and identified research gaps, this article formulates up-to-date expectations and research directions within which futures studies might develop in the future. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 326 KiB  
Article
Understanding the Diversity of People in Sex Work: Views from Leaders in Sex Worker Organizations
by Andrea Mellor and Cecilia Benoit
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(3), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12030191 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2655
Abstract
Criminal laws in Canada and many other countries are currently premised on the assumption of homogeneity, that is, people in sex work are cis women and girls who are being sexually exploited/sex trafficked. This perspective is also shared by antiprostitution groups and many [...] Read more.
Criminal laws in Canada and many other countries are currently premised on the assumption of homogeneity, that is, people in sex work are cis women and girls who are being sexually exploited/sex trafficked. This perspective is also shared by antiprostitution groups and many researchers investigating the “prostitution problem”. Perpetuating this position obscures their demographic multiplicity and variety of lived experiences. We interviewed 10 leaders from seven sex worker organizations (SWOs) across Canada who reported a diversity among their clientele that is rarely captured in the extant literature and absent from the current Canadian criminal code. Our findings reveal the important role that SWOs have to play in facilitating access to health and social services and providing spaces where people in sex work can gather in safe and supportive environments, without the fear of stigma, discrimination, or police harassment. We conclude that SWOs can operate as a structural intervention beyond decriminalization that can improve equitable access to health and social services for sex workers Despite SWOs’ efforts, sex workers’ mobilization is still limited by micro-, meso-, and macrolevel stigmatization that prevents and/or discourages some workers from accessing their programs and services. Full article
17 pages, 361 KiB  
Article
Indulgence, Self-Control, and Annuity Preferences: Annuity Choices by Members of the Slovak-Funded Private Pension Pillar
by Vladimír Baláž
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(3), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12030190 - 21 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1094
Abstract
This paper employs data from an original survey to analyse the annuity preferences of members of the Slovak-funded private pension pillar. The focus is on the impact of socioeconomic variables as well as various behavioural attitudes upon annuitisation decisions. The research first considers [...] Read more.
This paper employs data from an original survey to analyse the annuity preferences of members of the Slovak-funded private pension pillar. The focus is on the impact of socioeconomic variables as well as various behavioural attitudes upon annuitisation decisions. The research first considers some well-known behavioural factors (framing, mental accounting) and then turns to some underresearched traits (indulgence, self-control) and behaviours (compulsive shopping, saving habits) and links them to annuity choices. Moreover, the research studies alternative allocations of a lump sum and relates them to annuitisation decisions. Indulgence emerged as a significant negative predictor of annuitisation. This result likely refers to preferences towards hedonic lifestyles in early retirement. Interestingly, low self-discipline was also significant but positively related to an intention towards annuity purchases. People who are aware of their low financial discipline may introduce internal self-protection mechanisms and resort to tried and tested financial products to avoid anticipated feelings of regret and desperation. Annuitisation, in this case, is a regret avoidance behaviour. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Economics)
24 pages, 734 KiB  
Article
The Social Solidarity Economy and the Hull-House Tradition of Social Work: Keys for Unlocking the Potential of Social Work for Sustainable Social Development
by Michael Emru Tadesse and Susanne Elsen
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(3), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12030189 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4153
Abstract
Social work (SW) is criticized for its (i) inconsistent ontology, epistemology, and methodology and (ii) co-dependency with the capitalist hegemony, which is the main cause of multiple crises that primarily affect the most vulnerable. Addressing these issues is of paramount importance if SW [...] Read more.
Social work (SW) is criticized for its (i) inconsistent ontology, epistemology, and methodology and (ii) co-dependency with the capitalist hegemony, which is the main cause of multiple crises that primarily affect the most vulnerable. Addressing these issues is of paramount importance if SW is to achieve its core mandate of promoting social change, social development, social cohesion, and the empowerment and liberation of people. The purpose of this paper is to assert that SW can address these issues by learning from the (i) Settlement House Movement (SHM), especially the Hull-House tradition of SW; and (ii) current endeavors of the Social Solidarity Economy (SSE). We were led to this assertion because we noticed in our research, in the area of SSE of vulnerable groups and SW, remarkable similarities and potentials of these two approaches to help transform SW. Our argument is based on data and insight gained from (i) a narrative literature review on the history of SW and the nature of SSE; and (ii) a systematic scoping review of the SSE of People of African Descent (PAD) in Europe. In this paper, we elaborate on our key arguments and provide examples and recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Policy and Welfare)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 325 KiB  
Article
Hygienic Boundaries: Roma Communities and the Racialisation of Public Health Discourses during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Andreea Cârstocea
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(3), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12030188 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1562
Abstract
Public health measures instituted during the COVID-19 pandemic included both social distancing measures (including lockdowns), as well as personal hygiene measures (i.e., washing hands, wearing masks), with the purpose of preventing the spread of the virus. Using primary data obtained from stakeholder interviews, [...] Read more.
Public health measures instituted during the COVID-19 pandemic included both social distancing measures (including lockdowns), as well as personal hygiene measures (i.e., washing hands, wearing masks), with the purpose of preventing the spread of the virus. Using primary data obtained from stakeholder interviews, surveys, and desktop research from seven non-EU countries in Eastern Europe, this article shows how a new discursive fault line with hygiene as its core emerged across these countries in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, symbolically (and sometimes physically) separating the Roma from the non-Roma. Lockdowns reduced the ability of the Roma people to earn a living, due to the often-informal nature of their employment; as a result, many faced difficulties in covering basic living costs. These difficulties were compounded by poor living conditions, which limited the extent to which Roma people were able to follow social distancing rules and the measures regulating personal hygiene. All these factors were used to depict Roma communities as both lacking in personal hygiene and as wilfully non-compliant with public health rules. Public discourses emphasised the gap between the (self-perceived) clean and rule-observing non-Roma, and Roma communities, constructed as lacking in discipline and personal hygiene. These discourses, centred on hygiene, reinforced social boundaries and justified abuse and exclusion. Full article
24 pages, 1415 KiB  
Article
Merkel Government’s Refugee Policy: Under Bounded Rationality
by Zhongqi Niu, Wenlong Song, Yantong Lu and Xingyu Bao
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(3), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12030187 - 20 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2554
Abstract
As the country hosting the most significant number of refugees in Europe, Germany’s Merkel government’s refugee policy has been repeatedly adjusted and plagued by inconsistencies and management failures. What factors have influenced the formation of the Merkel government’s refugee policy and its two [...] Read more.
As the country hosting the most significant number of refugees in Europe, Germany’s Merkel government’s refugee policy has been repeatedly adjusted and plagued by inconsistencies and management failures. What factors have influenced the formation of the Merkel government’s refugee policy and its two shifts? The traditional rational decision-making model does not effectively explain government decisions’ motivation in complex challenges. This article develops a framework for analyzing “bounded rational decision-making”. It identifies the three factors that influenced the Merkel government’s refugee policy: (a) strict border controls, (b) welcome culture, and (c) welcome culture under restrained policies. It explains the process and logic of their development. Based on the theory of “bounded rational decision making”, the article examines the “key events and problem identification”, “goal selection”, “national interests”, and “political psychology”. We found that in the early stages of the refugee crisis, (a) public opinions and pressure, (b) the pursuit of a positive national image, and (c) a shift in the leader’s psychology led Merkel to shift away from a pragmatic and rational course. These factors led to the first shift in German refugee policy from “hesitation” to a “welcoming culture”. At the end of 2015, however, the shortcomings of the irrational policy were quickly revealed, and the frequency of refugee-related social problems reversed German public opinion, forcing Merkel’s government to seek a balance between humanitarianism and national interests. As a result, refugee policy was adjusted for the second time, returning to a strict refugee examination system. The development of the Merkel government’s refugee policy exposed the shortcomings of the traditional crisis decision-making model. Moreover, it provided a new perspective for rethinking the governance of the refugee crisis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Contemporary Politics and Society)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 3319 KiB  
Article
Public Trust in the Time of Pandemic: An Analysis of Social Networks in the Discourse of Large-Scale Social Restrictions in Indonesia
by Caroline Paskarina
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(3), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12030186 - 18 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1521
Abstract
This article discusses public trust in the Indonesian government’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic, explicitly focusing on the discourse surrounding large-scale social restrictions (LSSR). In a time of uncertainty, the public requires timely and actual information, most of which is gathered through online [...] Read more.
This article discusses public trust in the Indonesian government’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic, explicitly focusing on the discourse surrounding large-scale social restrictions (LSSR). In a time of uncertainty, the public requires timely and actual information, most of which is gathered through online media, with Twitter being one such medium. This article applies social network analysis to examine how information about the restrictions is shared and discussed on social media platforms and how this discourse may impact public trust in government institutions in the first phase of pandemic handling. Although LSSR is the government’s policy, this study shows that the interpersonal network plays a more significant part in distributing information, indicating a legitimacy crisis of formal and authoritative sources of information. The negative sentiment voiced by critics did not show public rejection of the implementation of LSSR. On the contrary, what was implied by those critics was public doubt against the consistency and firmness of LSSR implementation—because of this, restoring public trust requires planned information management to communicate risks to those who are affected by LSSR implementation, as well as managing negative sentiments that arise as a response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contemporary Local Governance, Wellbeing and Sustainability)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 652 KiB  
Article
Childhood Adversity Moderates Change in Latent Patterns of Psychological Adjustment during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Results of a Survey of U.S. Adults
by Kelly E. O’Connor, Camie A. Tomlinson, Shelby E. McDonald, Samantha Brown, Jennifer W. Applebaum, Jennifer L. Murphy, Angela Matijczak, Barbara A. Zsembik and Stephen W. Porges
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(3), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12030185 - 17 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1683
Abstract
Emerging evidence suggests that the consequences of childhood adversity impact later psychopathology by increasing individuals’ risk of experiencing difficulties in adjusting to stressful situations later in life. The goals of this study were to: (a) identify sociodemographic factors associated with subgroups of psychological [...] Read more.
Emerging evidence suggests that the consequences of childhood adversity impact later psychopathology by increasing individuals’ risk of experiencing difficulties in adjusting to stressful situations later in life. The goals of this study were to: (a) identify sociodemographic factors associated with subgroups of psychological adjustment prior to and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic and (b) examine whether and to what extent types of childhood adversity predict transition probabilities. Participants were recruited via multiple social media platforms and listservs. Data were collected via an internet-based survey. Our analyses reflect 1942 adults (M = 39.68 years); 39.8% reported experiencing at least one form of childhood adversity. Latent profile analyses (LPAs) and latent transition analyses (LTAs) were conducted to determine patterns of psychological adjustment and the effects of childhood adversity on transition probabilities over time. We identified five subgroups of psychological adjustment characterized by symptom severity level. Participants who were younger in age and those who endorsed marginalized identities exhibited poorer psychological adjustment during the pandemic. Childhood exposure to family and community violence and having basic needs met as a child (e.g., food, shelter) significantly moderated the relation between latent profile membership over time. Clinical and research implications are discussed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

30 pages, 1142 KiB  
Article
Returns to Relationships: Social Capital and Household Welfare in India
by Jaya Jha and Edward J. Kelley
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(3), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12030184 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2320
Abstract
Sociological scholarship, economic theory, and empirical studies all indicate that interpersonal relationships are valuable productive assets and deserve to be formally incorporated into the study of human development. This paper employs the India Human Development Survey to examine, using OLS and logistic regressions, [...] Read more.
Sociological scholarship, economic theory, and empirical studies all indicate that interpersonal relationships are valuable productive assets and deserve to be formally incorporated into the study of human development. This paper employs the India Human Development Survey to examine, using OLS and logistic regressions, the impact of different dimensions of social capital on multiple proxies for household welfare. Social capital in the form of memberships in local community organizations and social network connections has a statistically and economically significant association with household consumption expenditures, physical asset ownership, and the probability of a household living in poverty. Households that are members of any formal community organization are expected to have higher monthly per capita consumption expenditures than households without any memberships. Estimates of a similar magnitude are observed when modeling a household’s stock of physical assets, a longer-term indicator of economic welfare. These indicators of social capital are also significantly associated with lower odds of a household living below the poverty line. Organizational memberships and social networks are also associated with considerably higher odds of a household assessing its own economic situation positively. Overall, social capital is a catalyst for increasing household welfare along multiple dimensions, and, therefore, a critical area of focus for economists, sociologists, development practitioners, and policymakers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Economics)
Show Figures

Figure A1

15 pages, 319 KiB  
Article
Falling off the Radar? Reaching Out to the Finnish Roma Community during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Marko Stenroos, Laura Musta and Natalia Skogberg
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(3), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12030183 - 17 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1695
Abstract
In this paper, we ask how the Finnish Roma community handled the challenging times of the COVID-19 pandemic, and how the information reached Roma communities. The previous studies indicate existing health inequalities between Finnish Roma and the general population. The point of departure [...] Read more.
In this paper, we ask how the Finnish Roma community handled the challenging times of the COVID-19 pandemic, and how the information reached Roma communities. The previous studies indicate existing health inequalities between Finnish Roma and the general population. The point of departure for the article is crisis communication between Finnish Roma and national authorities. The themes of racialization, mistrust and Roma relying on peers as a source of information and support became apparent. From this setting, this article sheds light on the way of speaking, usage of language, (Finnish) as a social construction of ethnic identity and expression of (non)belonging. At the same time, the usage of languge and codeswitching reveals social stratifications among the Finnish Roma population. Findings indicate that subtle forms of exclusion of Roma prevail in Finland and are materialized as a “left alone mentality”. Consequently, Roma persons working as civil servants or NGO workers would potentially constitute a crucial link between health authorities and the Roma population. This link, however, should be constantly maintained. The study is a qualitative study and based on thematic interviews among Roma actors. Full article
12 pages, 609 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Impacts of a Research Ethics Training Course on University Researchers
by Jasper Knight
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(3), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12030182 - 17 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2019
Abstract
Training in research ethics is an essential part of professional development for graduate students and academic and research staff at universities and other research institutions. Certificated training in research ethics has been offered at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, since [...] Read more.
Training in research ethics is an essential part of professional development for graduate students and academic and research staff at universities and other research institutions. Certificated training in research ethics has been offered at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, since 2019. This training comprises a 4 h content-based workshop followed by a written assignment with attendees who are mainly graduate students and academic staff of the University. This study presents the results of an anonymous online survey that evaluated the impacts of the ethics training on researcher professional activities, in particular where their research deals with human participants. Those invited to take part in the survey were the successful attendees who had attained a Certificate of Competence in Research Ethics. Results (n = 92) showed that the majority of respondents were satisfied with the nature, format and depth of content of the training, and reported that it has a positive impact on their development as researchers. Specifically, this included thinking through their project design, and developing critical thinking and problem solving skills related to their project. Overall, the results highlight the importance of research ethics training in researcher development, as well as engendering critical reflection on ethical issues in different research contexts. It also shows the importance of ethics training in a ‘live’ session where participants are able to ask questions, engage in debate, and undertake a written assessment that tests their application of ethics concepts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 7th World Conference on Qualitative Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

35 pages, 852 KiB  
Article
Multilevel Continua of Mothers, Fathers and Childless Women and Men’s Work–Life “Choices” and Their Constraints, Enablers and Consequences
by Beth Turnbull, Ann Taket and Melissa Graham
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(3), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12030181 - 16 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1360
Abstract
Gendered and classed working, parenting and other life contexts create multifaceted interactions between quantitative (including time and effort-intensive) and qualitative (including needs, interests, aspirations and identities) work and life contexts. This research aimed to understand mothers, fathers and childless women and men’s gendered [...] Read more.
Gendered and classed working, parenting and other life contexts create multifaceted interactions between quantitative (including time and effort-intensive) and qualitative (including needs, interests, aspirations and identities) work and life contexts. This research aimed to understand mothers, fathers and childless women and men’s gendered and classed strategies for managing multifaceted work and life interactions in their multilevel contexts. The research consisted of a qualitative case study of a large Australian organisation that ostensibly prioritised diversity and inclusion and offered flexible working arrangements to all employees. A grounded theory approach was used to analyse forty-seven employees’ responses to open-ended questions in a self-administered questionnaire, combined with iterative in-depth interviews with 10 employees. The findings suggested mothers, fathers, childless women and men’s nuanced strategies for managing multifaceted work–life interactions were explained by multilevel continua of “choices” between incompatible quantitative and qualitative work and life contexts, embedded in gendered and classed individual, family, community, organisational and societal constraints, enablers and consequences, which inhibited agency to make genuine work–life choices. These “choices” reflected and reinforced societally and organisationally hegemonic working, mothering, fathering and childlessness discourses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gender Studies)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1893 KiB  
Article
Hate and Incivilities in Hashtags against Women Candidates in Chile (2021–2022)
by Jarnishs Beltrán, Paula Walker and René Jara
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(3), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12030180 - 16 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1138
Abstract
This study is interested in the phenomenon of violence in social networks against women who hold political office in the framework of the Chilean constitutional process (2021–2022). To study this major socio-political phenomenon, we have used the tracking database “Women and Politics”, composed [...] Read more.
This study is interested in the phenomenon of violence in social networks against women who hold political office in the framework of the Chilean constitutional process (2021–2022). To study this major socio-political phenomenon, we have used the tracking database “Women and Politics”, composed of 2,912,732 Twitter posts mentioning women candidates and collected between July 2021 and September 2022. Based on this data, we analyzed the network of hashtags by electoral list at points in time: all 2021 messages, all 2022 messages and only hate messages published in 2022 (n = 563,223), codified by an automated detection method. The results of the study reveal that hashtags extracted from messages containing hate speech are better understood under the concept of incivilities. These were expressed in a two-phase electoral process: the presidential election and the constitutional plebiscite. The implications and limits of this study are discussed and considered in context in the conclusion. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2247 KiB  
Article
Relationship between the Use of Social Networks and Mistrust of Mass Media among Mexican Youth: A Mixed-Methods and NLP Study
by Daniel Javier de la Garza Montemayor and Xunaxhi Monserrat Pineda Rasgado
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(3), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12030179 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1475
Abstract
The relationship between trust and media consumption has been a subject continually studied in communication sciences. There are various studies that indicate that the greater the confidence in a certain medium, the greater the consumption. However, due to the consolidation of digital media [...] Read more.
The relationship between trust and media consumption has been a subject continually studied in communication sciences. There are various studies that indicate that the greater the confidence in a certain medium, the greater the consumption. However, due to the consolidation of digital media and specifically social networks as the main sources of information among the young, the question of whether trust in these media affects their consumption arises again. To examine this relationship, a study was carried out with a mixed methodology. On the one hand, a survey was carried out in which young Mexican university students were asked about the media that they trusted the most and those that they used the most. On the other hand, interviews were conducted with university professors regarding their observations of the behavior of students in relation to usage and trust in these media. In general, the results allow us to conclude that trust in the media is not a variable that impacts the consultation of a specific media outlet given that, despite mistrust, there may be a high rate of usage. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 445 KiB  
Article
Artificial Intelligence in Contemporary Societies: Legal Status and Definition, Implementation in Public Sector across Various Countries
by Atabek Atabekov
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(3), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12030178 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2440
Abstract
The article aims to provide a comparative analysis of determining the legal status of artificial intelligence, as well as strategic planning of its implementation in the public sector in the countries of the Romano-Germanic, Anglo-Saxon, socialist, religious, and traditional systems of law. The [...] Read more.
The article aims to provide a comparative analysis of determining the legal status of artificial intelligence, as well as strategic planning of its implementation in the public sector in the countries of the Romano-Germanic, Anglo-Saxon, socialist, religious, and traditional systems of law. The study replies to the research questions regarding statutory definition of AI, state authorities responsible for AI, national government strategy in the field of AI and targets set therein, and action plans of AI with reference to countries with the highest Global Talent Competitiveness Index in reference to the mentioned legal systems. The research is of qualitative and applied nature; theoretical analysis of academic sources provides the groundwork for ICT-facilitated thematic content analysis of legal and administrative documents of the mentioned countries. The findings reveal common and specific trends regarding the data under study, and allow the author to suggest a revision of AI definition and to specify legislative and doctrinal issues that seem to be relevant and promising in the further strategic development and implementation of AI in the public sphere across countries. Full article
13 pages, 486 KiB  
Article
Dimensions That Influence the Creation of Brand Value of a Music Event and Its Influence on Attendee Satisfaction
by Elena García-de-Soto-Camacho, Miguel Angel Garcia-Gordillo and Rosa María Vaca-Acosta
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(3), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12030177 - 15 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1580
Abstract
Background: Music festivals are part of the cultural industry, and have become an ever-growing phenomenon. It is essential for organisers to identify whether the marketing strategies implemented are positive and effective in generating a competitive advantage. The aim of this study is to [...] Read more.
Background: Music festivals are part of the cultural industry, and have become an ever-growing phenomenon. It is essential for organisers to identify whether the marketing strategies implemented are positive and effective in generating a competitive advantage. The aim of this study is to identify the elements that make up the brand equity of an emerging music festival, and to find out whether the overall brand equity determines the satisfaction and subsequent behaviours of festival-goers. Methods: Quantitative research was used by conducting an ad hoc structured survey during the development of a live music festival in May 2022. The questionnaire collects information about dimensions that make up the global brand value and how they influence satisfaction and behavioural intentions, consisting of a total of 33 indicators.; Results: Awareness, perceived quality, and loyalty are the most influential dimensions in shaping the brand of a festival. There is a correlation between the overall brand value and the satisfaction of the attendees, and that the latter influences the subsequent loyalty and recommendation of the event. Conclusions: The causal relationships between the dimensions of brand equity and overall brand equity are shown, where three of the four hypotheses are accepted. Similarly, the three hypotheses related to the influence of overall brand image and behavioural intentions are also accepted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Economics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 487 KiB  
Article
Online Harassment in Sri Lanka: A Thematic Analysis
by Kushanthi S. Harasgama and Samurdhi Jayamaha
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(3), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12030176 - 15 Mar 2023
Viewed by 8852
Abstract
Online harassment has become a growing menace worldwide for which every nation is trying to find a solution. Existing literature demonstrates that online harassment is widespread in diverse forms and so is its impact on the victims. Despite the lack of any comprehensive [...] Read more.
Online harassment has become a growing menace worldwide for which every nation is trying to find a solution. Existing literature demonstrates that online harassment is widespread in diverse forms and so is its impact on the victims. Despite the lack of any comprehensive studies in this area, there is sufficient evidence to demonstrate the prevalence of online harassment in Sri Lanka and the need to find effective solutions to it. In such circumstances, this study aims to understand the nature of online harassment in the Sri Lankan context using qualitative research methodology. To that end, the study uses thematic analysis for analysing the data collected through semi-structured interviews. The thematic analysis was employed for the study as it assists in classifying complex qualitative data into different and simplified themes for better understanding and interpretation of such data. Among other findings, the analysis revealed three global themes, namely the motives of the perpetrators, the impact on victims, and remedies. Under each global theme, the study revealed various organising and basic themes, also indicating that the motives of the perpetrators and the impact on the victims are closely connected. It further reveals that impacts could be extremely serious, ranging from helplessness to suicidal thoughts, humiliation to broken relationships, and even having adverse impacts on the careers of victims. The study also found that the available remedies are not systematic or strong enough to meet the expectations of the victims. Thus, we conclude that the threat from online harassment in Sri Lanka is similar to that in any other country, requiring immediate and well-planned legal and policy responses, as exposed by the key themes identified in the study. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 894 KiB  
Article
The Burnout and Professional Deformation of Latvian Healthcare Workers during the COVID-19 Pandemic at the Traumatology and Orthopaedics Hospital
by Evija Nagle, Olga Cerela-Boltunova, Solveiga Blumberga, Sandra Mihailova and Inguna Griskevica
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(3), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12030175 - 14 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1560
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic is a global health crisis, which has created an additional burden on the healthcare system and has caused enormous stress and emotional burnout among healthcare workers (HCWs). The purpose of the study is to investigate the phenomena of emotional burnout [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic is a global health crisis, which has created an additional burden on the healthcare system and has caused enormous stress and emotional burnout among healthcare workers (HCWs). The purpose of the study is to investigate the phenomena of emotional burnout and the professional deformation of HCWs. The emotional burnout phenomenon of the HCWs was studied using the Maslach Burnout Inventory–Human Services Survey. In addition, the Professional Deformation Survey, based on scientific literature and research works, was developed. The survey consisted of 4 subscales distinguishing: aggression, authoritarianism, demonstrativeness, and conservatism. The survey results showed a high level of emotional exhaustion, a medium level of depersonalization, and a low level of personal achievement reduction. The Professional Deformation Survey showed good reliability for the whole sample in all four subscales. Results of the professional deformation study revealed that 29% of respondents manifest aggression while performing their professional activities. Authoritarianism can be observed in 18% of respondents, demonstrativeness in—31%, and professional deformation manifested as conservatism in—22% of HCWs. Data obtained on burnout and the professional deformation of the HCWs proves that the healthcare system and health organizations have reason to be concerned about the mental well-being of HCWs and the quality of healthcare service provision. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Work, Employment and the Labor Market)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 2447 KiB  
Article
Urbanization in Algeria: Toward a More Balanced and Sustainable Urban Network?
by Feyrouz Ahlam Saidi, Kwanele Phinzi and Ernő Molnár
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(3), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12030174 - 14 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2273
Abstract
Before colonization, Algeria was primarily a rural country with a nomadic and semi-nomadic population. However, significant changes occurred during and after the colonial era as modernization efforts were implemented. This paper provides a regional overview of Algeria’s pre-and post-millennium urban development based on [...] Read more.
Before colonization, Algeria was primarily a rural country with a nomadic and semi-nomadic population. However, significant changes occurred during and after the colonial era as modernization efforts were implemented. This paper provides a regional overview of Algeria’s pre-and post-millennium urban development based on census population data expressing the quantitative side of urbanization. Our analysis focuses on three aspects: regional structural tendencies of urbanization, sources of urban growth, and the current state of Algeria’s urban network. We contextualize our findings by comparing them with the existing literature and the priorities outlined in the country’s National Spatial Development Plan 2025. Our research suggests that: (1) First-stage (concentration) and second-stage (suburbanization) urbanization features, as well as internally and externally determined development, characterize Algeria’s urban network. (2) A decreasing and regionally differentiated urban growth rate indicating a moderate shift towards non-coastal regions and the above-average dynamics of large cities and smaller towns can be observed. (3) The significance of natural growth as a source of urbanization is higher than the contributions of rural-urban migration and new “de jure” towns. However, these factors are differentiated among the regions, highlighting the secondary role of rural-urban migration in the internal peripheries and the importance of new “de jure” towns in the densely populated and urbanized northern regions. (4) Algeria’s urban network is divided into three sharply differentiated zones that have experienced only moderate changes. We regard this shift toward a spatially more balanced urban network as a factor supporting but not guaranteeing sustainable development. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 325 KiB  
Opinion
A Modest Proposal for Preventing the Votes of People with Short Life Expectancy from Being a Long-Term Burden to Their Country
by Ognjen Arandjelović
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(3), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12030173 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1050
Abstract
In response to the growing social discontent regarding what is perceived as generational injustice, due to younger generations of voters facing long-term negative consequences from issues disproportionately decided by the votes of older generations of voters, there have been suggestions to introduce an [...] Read more.
In response to the growing social discontent regarding what is perceived as generational injustice, due to younger generations of voters facing long-term negative consequences from issues disproportionately decided by the votes of older generations of voters, there have been suggestions to introduce an upper age voting threshold. These have been all but universally dismissed as offensive and contrary to basic democratic values. In the present article, I show that the idea is in fact entirely consonant with present-day democratic practices and far from without a precedent. Hence, I describe how the aforementioned generational injustice can be rectified using a simple vote-weighting scheme which is easy to implement and interpret. Lastly, I discuss the societal effects that this alteration of the voting system would have on the distribution of the origins of political power. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 2112 KiB  
Article
Symbolic Interactionism and Communication Patterns: Insights from Army Wives Union Organizations (Persit-KCK), Indonesia
by Ana Fitriana Poerana, Jenny Ratna Suminar, Purwanti Hadisiwi and Edwin Rizal
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(3), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12030172 - 13 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1641
Abstract
This study aims to determine the interaction and communication patterns of the Persit-KCK (Army Wives Association) organization that have an impact on harmony and cohesiveness among members of the Persit-KCK organization and that build a strong commitment to providing benefits to the wider [...] Read more.
This study aims to determine the interaction and communication patterns of the Persit-KCK (Army Wives Association) organization that have an impact on harmony and cohesiveness among members of the Persit-KCK organization and that build a strong commitment to providing benefits to the wider community in Indonesia. This commitment also increases the loyalty of every soldier of the Indonesian National Armed Forces (TNI-AD) and their responsibility for upholding state sovereignty, maintaining the territorial integrity of the country, and protecting the whole nation and all of Indonesia from bloodshed from threats and disturbances. The research method used by researchers is a qualitative research method. Researchers used qualitative research in this study to obtain more detailed and in-depth findings and to describe the reality that cannot be measured numerically; however, to obtain the best findings from qualitative data analysis, this research was assisted by Nvivo 12 Pro tools. The study assessed an organization for “soldiers’ wives” and “military wives” by focusing on activities carried out by the Persit-KCK organization (the Army Wives Union, “TNI”, in Indonesia). This activity reveals the use of symbols in a social communication that helps each Persit-KCK member to build an understanding of their duties and roles as soldiers’ wives (TNI-AD), and to contribute positively to the wider community. The study also reveals that institutional communication patterns of Persit-KCK prioritize integrative communication among members (activities that strengthen communication among TNI-AD wives) in all regions in Indonesia. Volunteer and non-profit activities of Persit-KCK have made it a driving actor for the growth of social capital during the COVID-19 pandemic in various regions in Indonesia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gender Studies)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 411 KiB  
Article
Sustainable Global Citizenship: A Critical Realist Approach
by Jesús Granados-Sánchez
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(3), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12030171 - 13 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2878
Abstract
The current crisis of unsustainability has renewed academic interest in sustainable global citizenship. Classical approaches to this type of citizenship have turned out to be quite abstract, utopian, and naive. This article is a theoretical reflection on sustainable global citizenship from a critical [...] Read more.
The current crisis of unsustainability has renewed academic interest in sustainable global citizenship. Classical approaches to this type of citizenship have turned out to be quite abstract, utopian, and naive. This article is a theoretical reflection on sustainable global citizenship from a critical realist perspective, with the aim of bringing realism and pragmatism to the personal and social transformations necessary to achieve sustainability. The contribution of this work consists of the proposal of a conceptual framework that is structured by the following five key dimensions of citizenship: governance, status, social-ecological systems, social conscience, and engagement. These dimensions have been interpreted and described from two core ideas of critical realism: the position-practice system and the seven-scalar laminated system. The main conclusions are that agency-structure dualism requires more comprehensive approaches that integrate self-awareness of all the components that intervene in the autonomous decision to act, and that include personal capabilities, the desire and motivation to get engaged, and the real possibility of participating determined by the social context and the personal situation. It is also necessary to increase the number of types of agencies, especially with the recognition of the group as a key entity. The resolution of the dichotomy on state-global scale relationships can be articulated by differentiating between government and governance, and the role of social innovation in the latter. Full article
15 pages, 287 KiB  
Article
Clinical Supervision across Australia, Türkiye, Syria, and Bangladesh: From WEIRD to WONDERFUL
by Salah Addin Lekkeh, Md. Omar Faruk, Sabiha Jahan, Ammar Beetar, Gülşah Kurt, Ruth Wells and Scarlett Wong
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(3), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12030170 - 13 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1653
Abstract
Background: Clinical supervision in providing mental health and psychosocial support services (MHPSSs) is an ethical imperative and a key to ensuring quality of care in terms of service users’ skills enhancement, well-being, and satisfaction. However, humanitarian contexts in low-resource countries usually lack sufficient [...] Read more.
Background: Clinical supervision in providing mental health and psychosocial support services (MHPSSs) is an ethical imperative and a key to ensuring quality of care in terms of service users’ skills enhancement, well-being, and satisfaction. However, humanitarian contexts in low-resource countries usually lack sufficient infrastructures to ensure staff have access to supervision. Against this backdrop, a pilot supervision program was introduced in Bangladesh and Syria to help MHPSS staff provide quality care. However, supervision provided by experts unfamiliar with these contexts decontextualizes the supervision process and hinders cultural relevance. The aim of this paper is to present a decolonial model of supervision called “WONDERFUL Supervision”. Methods: We provided fortnightly online supervision to a total of 32 MHPSS practitioners (seven in Bangladesh and twenty-five in Syria) working in humanitarian contexts in Bangladesh and Syria as well as their surrounding countries (such as Türkiye) between 2019 and 2021.The issues talked about were the skills needed for the practitioners to provide optimal levels of service, manage staff burnout, and present cases. Focus group discussions and reflective discussions included 19 participants, involving both practitioners and supervisors across sites. Results: Despite some notable effects, the supervision was obstructed due to being decontextualized, such as the supervisors not having adequate knowledge about the contexts and culture of beneficiaries, a perceived feeling of power imbalance, practitioners having limited access to resources (e.g., internet connection and technical support), and different time zones. This defect paves the way for a new mode of supervision, WONDERFUL, which takes into account contextual factors and other sociocultural aspects. Conclusions: WONDERFUL supervision has the potential to indigenize the concept of clinical supervision and thereby more sustainably and effectively ensure quality mental health care in resource-limited countries, especially in humanitarian contexts. Full article
18 pages, 358 KiB  
Article
Governing Asylum without ‘‘Being There”: Ghost Bureaucracy, Outsourcing, and the Unreachability of the State
by Caterina Borelli, Arnau Poy and Alèxia Rué
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(3), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12030169 - 11 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2688
Abstract
When, where, and how do asylum seekers encounter the state? Anyone seeking asylum in the Global North might meet state authorities of the country where they want to apply for international protection long before arriving at its borders. However, if the state often [...] Read more.
When, where, and how do asylum seekers encounter the state? Anyone seeking asylum in the Global North might meet state authorities of the country where they want to apply for international protection long before arriving at its borders. However, if the state often becomes “very present” by transcending its geopolitical margins in border control, once asylum seekers have managed to cross into national territory, the state frequently vanishes. Insufficient information, opaque proceedings, difficulties in reaching state agencies, which dramatically increased with the COVID pandemic, often translate into a denial of asylum seekers' rights and their exclusion from welfare programs. Moreover, following a widespread tendency to outsource public services, access to asylum and related welfare programmes are being increasingly mediated by a range of nonstate actors (such as NGOs, activist groups, companies, and individuals) acting as state agents. Drawing on the analysis of ethnographic results from Spain and Italy, this article proposes the concept of “ghost bureaucracy” to theorise the street-level bureaucrats from their absence and explore asylum seekers’ encounters with a seemingly powerful and omnipresent but unreachable state through closed offices, digital bureaucracy and third-party actors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Colonial Legacies in Asylum and Welfare in Europe)
13 pages, 542 KiB  
Article
Evaluations of the Authenticity of News Media Articles and Variables of Xenophobia in a German Sample: Measuring Out-Group Stereotypes Indirectly
by Thomas Plieger, Sarah Al-Haj Mustafa, Sebastian Schwandt, Jana Heer, Alina Weichert and Martin Reuter
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(3), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12030168 - 11 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1496
Abstract
Xenophobic and right-wing attitudes have become a major issue in Western societies. The present study investigated how such attitudes and stereotypes influence media perception in terms of identifying manipulated news articles. In a fake news paradigm, N = 326 participants provided self-report measures [...] Read more.
Xenophobic and right-wing attitudes have become a major issue in Western societies. The present study investigated how such attitudes and stereotypes influence media perception in terms of identifying manipulated news articles. In a fake news paradigm, N = 326 participants provided self-report measures of xenophobia and conservatism, and were presented with real news media articles describing crimes that were committed either by putative German (i.e., in-group) or putative immigrant (i.e., out-group) perpetrators. Half of the articles were manipulated, and the participants were asked to rate the articles with respect to the perceived veracity of the article and the reprehensibility of the described criminal offences. Xenophobia, but not conservatism, was associated with poorer news discernment and higher perceived veracity in the immigrant offender condition, but not in the native German offender condition. Reprehensibility was not differentially associated with xenophobia in the two origin-of-offender conditions. The fake news paradigm revealed an out-group bias with respect to the perceived veracity of media news, and this result offers an alternative to measure stereotypes about immigrants more subtly than by explicit self-report. Xenophobia seems to make people less sensitive to hints that could inform them about the falsehood of information. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 503 KiB  
Article
Geographies of Belonging: Migrant Youth and Relational, Community, and National Opportunities for Inclusion
by Sarah Bruhn and Roberto G. Gonzales
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(3), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12030167 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4311
Abstract
Migration research often focuses on exclusionary laws and social processes and how they impact children and the families they are embedded within. While important, this focus on harmful social structures can obscure forms of creative agency that are also inherent to young people’s [...] Read more.
Migration research often focuses on exclusionary laws and social processes and how they impact children and the families they are embedded within. While important, this focus on harmful social structures can obscure forms of creative agency that are also inherent to young people’s migration, even in the face of racialized immigration policies that erect barriers to integration. In this theoretical article, we contend that spaces of belonging, where connection, sustenance, and recognition are readily available, are equally essential to immigrant youth and families’ experiences of migration. We conceptualize how these spaces are constructed at the relational, community, and national level, demonstrating how place, including physical, legal, political, and cultural geographies, shape these multilayered opportunities for belonging. First, we demonstrate how place informs the relationships that young people form with each other, with their families, and with other adults, and how the care that can emerge from these relationships is a critical foundation for spaces of belonging. Second, we articulate the conditions that enable spaces of belonging at the community level by examining how the geographic features of neighborhoods and cities shape young people’s opportunities for agency and recognition beyond their immediate relationships. Finally, we address the national-level dynamics that foster spaces of belonging, while attending to the reality that migrant young people and their families often live transnational lives across nation-state borders. This paper offers new ways of understanding how place informs migrant youth and children’s sense of inclusion and agency, illuminating how spaces of belonging at the relational, community, and national level support their dignity and well-being. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 351 KiB  
Article
Rio 2016 Olympic Legacy for Residents of Favelas: Revisiting the Case of Vila Autódromo Five Years Later
by Claudio M. Rocha
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(3), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12030166 - 10 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2240
Abstract
The aim of this research was to explore and describe the long-term social impact the Rio 2016 Olympic gentrification had in Vila Autódromo from the perspective of former and current residents. Vila Autódromo is a small favela located next to the Rio 2016 [...] Read more.
The aim of this research was to explore and describe the long-term social impact the Rio 2016 Olympic gentrification had in Vila Autódromo from the perspective of former and current residents. Vila Autódromo is a small favela located next to the Rio 2016 Olympic Park. It was almost totally removed during the process of preparing the area to host the Games. In this research, I interviewed 13 residents who passed through the process of eviction threats and displacement. Five still live in Vila Autódromo, whilst eight moved to social apartments provided by the city hall. Interviews revealed that the legacy of Rio 2016 for Vila Autódromo residents can be understood from three broad themes: (1) disempowerment of the community, (2) resistance and resilience during the process, and (3) life after the Games. The residents see the city hall as the main culprit of their displacement, as they were denied their right to the city. However, they also mention the catalytic role of the Olympic Games during the process. They conclude that the legacy of Rio 2016 for them is a very sad story. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rethinking Sport and Social Issues)
14 pages, 352 KiB  
Article
Racism in Football in Portugal: Perceptions of Multiple Actors
by Sofia Neves, Joana Topa, Janete Borges and Estefânia Silva
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(3), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12030165 - 09 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2005
Abstract
The present paper aims to analyze and understand, from an intersectional point of view, the extent and the characteristics of racism in football in Portugal, based on the perspectives of football fans, coaches, amateur players, professional players, journalists, parents, and other elements directly [...] Read more.
The present paper aims to analyze and understand, from an intersectional point of view, the extent and the characteristics of racism in football in Portugal, based on the perspectives of football fans, coaches, amateur players, professional players, journalists, parents, and other elements directly or indirectly involved in the modality. Using an online questionnaire, this exploratory study involved 1681 participants, 456 self-identified as women, 1221 as men, and 4 as non-binary, aged between 13 and 61 years old (M = 33.02; DP = 12.64). The results show gender, skin color, ethnicity, sexual orientation/gender identity, and functional diversity are the main factors explaining discrimination in football, with differences between genders. Nearly 70% of women and 50% of men admitted the existence of racism in football in Portugal. In addition, associations between participants’ condition, age, perceptions, and experiences of racism were found, with amateur players and younger participants revealing a stronger position concerning the topic. This study can inform contemporary debates in critical research, particularly around football, discrimination, and cultural citizenship. Intersectional research across football studies is crucial to better understand the racialized aspects of football and develop better policies that can prevent and combat racism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Stratification and Inequality)
Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop