Human Rights from an Islamic Perspective: A Critical Review of Arabic Peer-Reviewed Articles
1.1. Origins of the Debates on Human Rights and Islam
1.2. Research on Implementation of Human Rights in Muslim Countries
1.3. Research on Foundations of Human Rights in Religious Texts
1.4. Human Rights and Debates on Western Hegonomy
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Framing Theory as a Methodology for Analysis of Texts on Human Rights
2.2. Search Procedure and Criteria for Selection of Publications
2.3. Transliteration and Translation of Arabic Sources
3.1. Human Rights Definition and Its Foundations
- protection of religion (al-din)
- protection of life (al-nafs)
- protection of intellect (al-’aql)
- protection of lineage (al-’ird)
- protection of property (al-mal) (Alghazali 1992).
Those benefits that derive their originality from Divine Revelation and Islamic thought. Those benefits that derive their originality from Divine Revelation and Islamic thought since the advent of the Messenger (God’s blessings and peace be upon him) and the rising sun of Islam, apart from man-made laws, social norms, and international agreements. These rights are closely related to the human being, that creature whom God has honoured above all other creatures.
The general view of human rights and their Western sources did not come from a vacuum. Rather, they came from suffering, and most of them were Western philosophers and scholars who suffered from barbarism and falsifying the facts. Some of these philosophers studied Islamic jurisprudence and history.
Human rights in Islam are from the core of belief and Shari’a. They are not a favour by people toward each other. They are related to the legal costs and duties that result in reward or punishment.
The position of Islam toward individual intellectual freedom is not different from its position toward general intellectualism. Islam has never attempted to impose on the minds a specific scientific theory regarding any phenomenon.
3.2. Defining the Problem
Western domination and tyranny, coupled with media manipulation to assert control and intellectual dominance over numerous nations, particularly Arab and Islamic ones, has resulted in the erosion of the Islamic perspective on the matter and related issues. This has instilled in many Muslims the belief that the only path to securing their rights is through submission to the West, either voluntarily or unwillingly, and tolerating all forms of degradation and insult.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights cannot carry out its work in preserving human rights due to the failure of some countries to respond to and implement this declaration, as its application is subject to the criteria of various forces in this world, while under the Islamic state, man enjoys the freedom of belief and religion, and he has absolute freedom to choose any religion.
3.3. Identifying the Forces of the Problem
The culture, media, and politics of the world today are interested in the continuous talk about human rights, which has become a subject taught since childhood, in which the Western model is presented through international humanitarian law and the Charter of the United Nations. However, the Islamic civilized model has consciously and intentionally been neglected, with the aim of concealing or distorting the model of the Islamic state in its various eras as a state that protected human rights and secured them with respect to lives, beliefs, and property.
3.4. Judgments and Moral Evaluations
Proceeding from the great importance of human rights, especially after the deterioration of the human condition today, and the misuse of the issue on the part of the enemies of Islam, and given that many of the principles and laws of human rights stem from Western thought and its material values, truncated from moral and spiritual values.(our bold)
The Islamic view on human rights includes all kinds of intellectual rights, beliefs, the right to work, the right to education, the right to life, and other rights that are distinguished from contemporary human rights by originality, independence, and balance.(our bold)
3.5. Suggesting the Solutions
- The belief that human rights are divine, which makes them not subject to material force, and their interpretation does not depend on the human interests and the particular desires of individuals.
- Not linking rights to their national level but rather to their global level that transcends national borders.
- Commitment to human rights is a divine approach that is not subject to any changes or legal amendments and is not subject to human discussion, as they are fixed divine rules that are not subject to discussion, modification, or change.
- Commitment to human rights by describing this obligation as the performance of religious duties and in fulfilment of divine commands.
- Based on these arguments, the implication is that people should work to believe in Islamic Shari’a because it is not possible to apply this approach without a belief in the divine origin of Islamic Shari’a. In other words, the proposed solution is directed at believers in Islam, extolling them to adopt more fundamentalist interpretations of Islam in their own lives, as well as increasing their efforts to work for the spread of Islam and establish global forms of governance ruled by these principles.
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The inclusion of both an abstract and an English-language title is deemed to be a crucial criterion for publication in Arab scientific journals, as it demonstrates the journal’s commitment to academic standards. Furthermore, the availability of an English-language abstract allows for greater accessibility and ease of reference for international researchers.
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|Year||Search Results||Arabic Peer-Reviewed Articles on HR||After Applying Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria|
|1||Abdullah Abobakr Ahamed Al-Naigiri||The brief comparison between human rights in Islam and what came in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights issued by the United Nations in 1948||International Academic Journal for Islamic Studies||2020|
|2||Bader M Sh S Alrashidi, Mohd Fauzi Bin Hamat, and Ali Ali Gobaili Saged||Freedoms and human rights between Islam and Heavenly religions: A comparative descriptive study||International Islamic Sciences Journal||2021|
|3||Fadhah Saalem Ubaid Alenzi||Human rights in Islam in the time of the outbreak of the epidemic “The emerging corona virus,” COVID-19, as a mode||Mağallaẗ Al-Drāsāt Al-ʿarābiyyaẗ||2021|
|4||Farah Abbas Sherhan,||Human rights in the Umayyad and Abbasid eras||Journal of University of Babylon for Humanities||2021|
|5||Khamail Sami Al-Saray||Human rights between Sharia and law||Journal of Literature, Humanities, and Social Sciences||2020|
|6||Laila Al-Aqeel,||Human rights in the Noble Quran||International Islamic Science Journal||2020|
|7||Moataz Shehatah Alyanbawi||The Corona pandemic and its impact on human rights in Saudi law: an empirical study in comparison with international law and Islamic Sharia||Arab Journal for Security Studies||2020|
|8||Mohammad Assaf and Jum’a Hamdan||Human rights related to the Objectives of Islamic law||Al-Qasemi Journal of Islamic Studies||2021|
|9||Moustafa Abdelal Salem||The human rights in the heavenly legislation: A comparative study||Mağallaẗ Kulliyyaẗ Al-Banāt Al-Azhariyyaẗ Bi Alʿāšir min Ramaḍān||2021|
|10||Saleh Zaid Qusailah||Human rights in the Islamic perception and the human reality A comparative study||Mağallaẗ al-’ustāḏ al-bāḥiṯ li-l-dirāsāt al-qānūniyyaẗ wa al-siyāsiyyaẗ||2020|
|11||Salma Dawood Salman||Human rights in the curriculum of the People of the House (peace be upon them) “Imam Ali Bin Al-Hussein Al-Sajjad (peace be upon him) as a model” Comparative study||Arab Science Heritage Journal||2021|
|12||Yaseen Khudhaeer Mujbel||The theory of human rights between Islamic thought and international covenants||Middle East Research Journal||2021|
|(Al-Aqeel 2020)||Rights guaranteed by the Qur’an as mandatory rights||The Qur’an|
|(Alenzi 2021)||The set of rights of an individual or society established by Shari’a||The Qur’an and Hadith|
|(Al-Naigiri 2020)||Shari’a preceded all human rights legislation that includes equality and justice||The Qur’an, Hadith, and the Qur’an Interpreters and Salaf Scholars|
|(Alrashid et al. 2021)||They are innate rights from God, brought by the prophets, and include freedom of belief, work, and equality||The Qur’an, Hadith, and the Qur’an Interpreters|
|(Al-Saray 2020)||Divine rights imposed by God such as dignity, equality, and protection of religion, life, intellect, lineage, and property||The Qur’an, Hadith, and Islamic intellectuals|
|(Alyanbawi 2020)||The rights arising from the five Shari’a pillars: protection of religion, life, intellect, lineage, and property||The Qur’an and Hadith|
|(Assaf and Hamdan 2021)||Rights arising from the Maqasid Al-Shari’a [purposes of Shari’a] such as the right to life, the right to think, and the right to form a family||The Qur’an and Hadith|
|(Mujbel 2021)||The sum of all rights that come from divine revelation, such as the right to own property, to move around, and to help the poor||The Qur’an, Hadith, and the interpretations of the Sahabah and their followers, Al-Khulafa, and Ahl Al-Bayt|
|(Qusailah 2020)||Rights entailed Islamic foundations, such as human dignity and freedom, with a commitment to worshiping God, and commitment to moral values.||The Qur’an and Sunnah|
|(Salem 2021)||The rights enshrined in the primary Islamic sources, such as the right to life, liberty, justice, and equality||The Qur’an, Hadith, and Al-Sahaba heritage|
|(Salman 2021)||The rights emanating from Islamic teachings, especially the teachings of imams and Ahl Al-Bayt||The Qur’an, Imam Ali, Ahl Al-Bayt, and Imam Zain al-Abidin|
|(Sherhan 2021)||The rights guaranteed by Islam such as freedom, protection of dignity, justice, and the right to life||The Qur’an and the nine Sunnah books|
|Western human rights concepts lack a fixed base, clear goals, and universal standards||(Al-Naigiri 2020); (Al-Saray 2020); |
(Qusailah 2020); (Mujbel 2021)
|Weaponizing human rights by Western countries||(Al-Aqeel 2020)|
|Difficulties in enforcing the UDHR||(Alrashid et al. 2021); (Al-Saray 2020); (Salman 2021)|
|The disconnection of human rights from religion is a fundamental issue||(Alenzi 2021); (Sherhan 2021); (Al-Aqeel 2020); (Assaf and Hamdan 2021); (Al-Naigiri 2020); (Al-Aqeel 2020); (Salem 2021)|
|The issue with human rights is that Islamic principles are not being upheld in governance||(Assaf and Hamdan 2021); (Mujbel 2021); (Al-Saray 2020)|
|The Forces of the Problem||Article|
|The West||(Al-Aqeel 2020); (Al-Naigiri 2020);|
(Alrashid et al. 2021); (Al-Saray 2020);
(Assaf and Hamdan 2021); (Qusailah 2020); (Sherhan 2021)
|Muslims||(Al-Aqeel 2020); (Salem 2021); |
(Salman 2021); (Sherhan 2021)
|The Umayyads and the Abbasids||(Sherhan 2021)|
|Judgments, and Moral Evaluations||Article|
|Negative judgments are directed against the West||(Al-Aqeel 2020); (Al-Naigiri 2020); (Alrashid et al. 2021); (Al-Saray 2020); (Assaf and Hamdan 2021); (Sherhan 2021); (Qusailah 2020)|
|Positive judgments about the foundations of Islam||(Al-Naigiri 2020); (Al-Saray 2020); (Qusailah 2020); (Mujbel 2021); (Al-Aqeel 2020); (Alrashid et al. 2021); (Salman 2021); (Alenzi 2021); (Sherhan 2021); (Assaf and Hamdan 2021); (Salem 2021)|
|Suggesting the Solutions||Article|
|Commitment to human rights as a divine approach||(Al-Aqeel 2020); (Alenzi 2021); (Al-Naigiri 2020); (Alrashid et al. 2021); (Al-Saray 2020); |
(Assaf and Hamdan 2021); (Mujbel 2021);
(Qusailah 2020); (Salman 2021); (Sherhan 2021)
|Islamic religious concepts should be followed||(Al-Aqeel 2020); (Al-Naigiri 2020); |
(Alrashid et al. 2021); (Al-Saray 2020);
(Alyanbawi 2020); (Assaf and Hamdan 2021);
(Mujbel 2021); (Qusailah 2020); (Salem 2021);
(Salman 2021); (Sherhan 2021)
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Almahfali, M.; Avery, H. Human Rights from an Islamic Perspective: A Critical Review of Arabic Peer-Reviewed Articles. Soc. Sci. 2023, 12, 106. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12020106
Almahfali M, Avery H. Human Rights from an Islamic Perspective: A Critical Review of Arabic Peer-Reviewed Articles. Social Sciences. 2023; 12(2):106. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12020106Chicago/Turabian Style
Almahfali, Mohammed, and Helen Avery. 2023. "Human Rights from an Islamic Perspective: A Critical Review of Arabic Peer-Reviewed Articles" Social Sciences 12, no. 2: 106. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12020106