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Soc. Sci., Volume 12, Issue 1 (January 2023) – 49 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In this study, we investigate the problem of agenda-setting by news media in relation to the political discourse by politicians at the time of local elections. We first evaluate the agenda-setting theory's applicability against the policy agenda-building theory to determine the possible alternative directions for constructing a political agenda at the time of elections. Then, we attempt to identify—via the combination of network analysis and topic modeling—the presence of an evolutionary trajectory of the political discourse in Lower Austria at the time of the elections in 2020 by observing whether, as the time of an election approaches, the interaction between news organizations and politicians flattens and becomes more linear without the news or the politicians causing the agenda of the other to be set accordingly. View this paper
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16 pages, 782 KiB  
Review
Funding Open Educational Resources in Higher Education: A South African Public Policy Perspective
by Nduduzo C. Ndebele, Mfundo Mandla Masuku and Victor H. Mlambo
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12010049 - 16 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2948
Abstract
The direct crediting of book allowances to student accounts was, among other reasons, underpinned by the belief that students would be able to substitute prescribed study material with online content. The article attempts to understand if the local open educational resources (OER) funding [...] Read more.
The direct crediting of book allowances to student accounts was, among other reasons, underpinned by the belief that students would be able to substitute prescribed study material with online content. The article attempts to understand if the local open educational resources (OER) funding policy environment was prepared for this significant transformation. The paper applied a critical theory paradigm and a documentary research strategy to identify policy-level documents on OER funding in the South African higher education sector. Content analysis was then applied to review what they said about OER funding. These outcomes were then measured against the National Policy Development Framework 2020, which also dominated the study’s conceptual framework. The study’s significant findings were that the OER funding policy did not meet the policymaking principles of the framework, and this exposed Higher Education to a poorly funded OER environment. The study recommended hastening the finalization of OER policy and the flexible application of current policy terms to include OER as a fundable higher education cause. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Policy and Welfare)
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12 pages, 356 KiB  
Article
Gender Role Beliefs and Ontologization of Mothers: A Moderated Mediation Analysis
by Silvia Di Battista
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12010048 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2562
Abstract
This study combines insights from gender studies and studies on dehumanization to show how gender role beliefs influence attitudes and the attribution of ontologization traits to mothers. A convenience sample of 194 Italian participants read one of three vignettes describing a mother (a [...] Read more.
This study combines insights from gender studies and studies on dehumanization to show how gender role beliefs influence attitudes and the attribution of ontologization traits to mothers. A convenience sample of 194 Italian participants read one of three vignettes describing a mother (a heterosexual biological mother, a heterosexual stepmother, or a lesbian stepmother) and her five-year-old son during a moment of disagreement. Participants assessed the depicted mother’s competence and attributed ontologization traits (human and animal traits) to the same mother. Focal differences were found in the perception of competence that was attributed more to the heterosexual biological mother than to the other targets. A full ontologization process was not observed. However, differences were found in the attribution of animal traits, which were attributed more to the depicted heterosexual stepmother than to the other ones. Moderated mediation analyses also showed that participants endorsing moderate and high levels of traditional gender role beliefs rated the heterosexual stepmother as being less competent compared with the heterosexual biological mother by animalizing her. Gendered expectations concerning mothers’ role and parenting can create multiple barriers for women who are—or intend to be—mothers. Attitudinal change should be fostered so that all mothers’ identities and experiences are fully accepted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue “Non-Traditional” Parents in Contemporary Societies)
22 pages, 2497 KiB  
Review
Fintech Innovation in Social Service Provision: A Bibliometric Review
by Alan Munodei and Athenia Bongani Sibindi
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12010047 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2634
Abstract
The employment of fintech as a product and service distribution mechanism in various sectors has been widely adopted for the provision of seamless services. The adoption of fintech by both individuals and organisations avails more convenience in product and service provision. The combination [...] Read more.
The employment of fintech as a product and service distribution mechanism in various sectors has been widely adopted for the provision of seamless services. The adoption of fintech by both individuals and organisations avails more convenience in product and service provision. The combination of fintech and social protection service provision has been receiving increased attention, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic era. This paper sought to investigate and show the importance of fintech in social protection research. The study aims to show the evolutionary idea of fintech in social protection to elucidate how much research has been done and elucidate the emerging areas surrounding fintech in social protection. A review of the literature that links social protection provision and fintech was conducted to establish whether more research is needed in integrating fintech with social protection provision. This study employed a bibliometric review to explore linkages that exist between financial technology (fintech) and social protection provision to establish whether the area needs further research. Data were sourced from the SCOPUS database using the Boolean search approach with the use of keywords and filters. Search results were processed and analysed in both SCOPUS and VOSviewer for visual and network positioning. The findings of the study show that fintech and social protection have received increased attention, as shown by the number of publications since 2018. Details of the most influential authors, documents, countries, and sources were documented. The results indicate the following emerging research themes: (1) the adoption of fintech in social protection service provision; (2) blockchain technology research on social protection, (3) fintech in health care service provision combined with health insurance; and (4) fintech as a cushion against the impacts of climate change. Full article
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20 pages, 6723 KiB  
Article
Connected Driving in German-Speaking Social Media
by Eugenia Rykova, Christine Stieben, Olga Dostovalova and Horst Wieker
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12010046 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1941
Abstract
Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) have been steadily becoming part of our reality. For their successful integration, studying and understanding public opinions and acceptance is important. Social media platforms offer an extensive opportunity for opinion mining. While there have been studies on people’s attitudes [...] Read more.
Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) have been steadily becoming part of our reality. For their successful integration, studying and understanding public opinions and acceptance is important. Social media platforms offer an extensive opportunity for opinion mining. While there have been studies on people’s attitudes towards automated driving, another important ITS concept—connected driving—has received little to no attention. In the current study, data on how connected driving is represented and perceived were collected from German(-speaking) Reddit and Twitter. In relevant Reddit entries, the necessity of communication between vehicles was discussed almost exclusively in the context of automated driving. On Twitter, mostly shared news and information on the topic are presented, while the number of personal opinions is low. The most concerning subtopic seems to be cybersecurity, which reflects a general trend of data protection issues discussed in society. Full article
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21 pages, 4533 KiB  
Article
Sailing Uncharted Waters with Old Boats? COVID-19 and the Digitalization and Professionalization of Presidential Campaigns in Portugal
by José Santana-Pereira, Hugo Ferrinho Lopes and Susana Rogeiro Nina
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12010045 - 13 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2685
Abstract
This article investigates the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic fostered significant shifts in election campaigning. The argument is that COVID-19 might have had an impact on both digitalization and professionalization, which might have been regarded as necessary strategies to curb the difficulties [...] Read more.
This article investigates the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic fostered significant shifts in election campaigning. The argument is that COVID-19 might have had an impact on both digitalization and professionalization, which might have been regarded as necessary strategies to curb the difficulties brought about by the pandemic. We apply a most similar systems design with a threefold comparative scheme in order to capture and isolate such effects in the campaigns preceding the 2021 Portuguese presidential elections, using data from campaign spending, campaign activities, and social media activity and impact. Results show that the pandemic crisis has not, generally speaking, brought about a higher level of digitalization of electoral campaigns, in spite of online events having become more common. On the contrary, while there were signs of feebler patterns of normalization of online competition in 2021 vis-à-vis 2016, namely in terms of engagement, normalization was stronger after the lockdown than before. Lastly, relative investment in professionalization was similar in 2016 and 2021, and the difference between the budgeted and the actual investment in 2021 cannot be attributed to the worsening of the pandemic situation or to the lockdown. In sum, we depict a scenario of remarkable stability of the electoral campaigns put forward by presidential candidates in terms of digitalization and professionalization. Its possible causes and consequences are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Elections and Political Campaigns in Times of Uncertainty)
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16 pages, 2573 KiB  
Article
Drawing Ageing: Using Participant-Generated Drawing to Explore Older Australians Expectations and Experiences of Ageing in a Retirement Village
by Evonne Miller
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12010044 - 13 Jan 2023
Viewed by 3537
Abstract
This article discusses the use of an arts-based visual methodology, drawing, to explore older people’s experiences and expectations of ageing in a retirement village. Tactile, generative, and visual, drawing is a quick, inexpensive, and extremely participatory process, which, compared to traditional text-based data, [...] Read more.
This article discusses the use of an arts-based visual methodology, drawing, to explore older people’s experiences and expectations of ageing in a retirement village. Tactile, generative, and visual, drawing is a quick, inexpensive, and extremely participatory process, which, compared to traditional text-based data, provides rare and compelling insight into conscious and unconscious feelings, emotions, sentiments, and experiences. As part of a broader project exploring life in retirement villages, 12 older adults in their 70s and 80s were asked to sketch their experiences of ageing, as well as their expectations and experiences of retirement village life. Sketches were analysed using reflexive thematic analysis, which revealed that participants drew ageing as both a time for opportunity and enjoyment and decline, while retirement village life very much met their expectations in terms of being a place of fun, friendship, and leisure. While drawing as a method is rarely used in gerontological research, the outcomes of this project demonstrate how it enables the powerful production of evocative, interactive, and memorable imagery, and it should be a greater part of the methodological toolbox. Full article
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10 pages, 606 KiB  
Article
Determinants of the Self-Efficacy of Prospective Teachers in Using Drama Activities for Kindergarten: A Sample from the Arab Region
by Amjad Al-Khayat and Bayan Abdulhaq
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12010043 - 13 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1971
Abstract
Modern education increasingly focuses on interweaving drama as an integral part of pre-school education. Given that teachers’ self-efficacy in meeting expected tasks tends to stabilize over time and is grounded in their success and failure experiences as tertiary students, addressing self-efficacy among prospective [...] Read more.
Modern education increasingly focuses on interweaving drama as an integral part of pre-school education. Given that teachers’ self-efficacy in meeting expected tasks tends to stabilize over time and is grounded in their success and failure experiences as tertiary students, addressing self-efficacy among prospective teachers before starting their profession is strategic. This study assessed self-efficacy in using drama activities for kindergarten and its determinants among prospective teachers in Jordan. The study also discussed the potential risks associated with using drama activities within the Jordanian education system. The study utilized a cross-sectional design with a sample of undergraduate university students majoring in kindergarten education (N = 234). All universities that offer kindergarten education baccalaureate degrees in Jordan were targeted (N = 6). An online survey was used to collect data from students aged 18 to 21 regarding their academic characteristics, self-efficacy, attitudes toward the teaching profession, and communication skills. The results showed high levels of perceived self-efficacy in utilizing drama with children. The reports were high in all domains, including perceived self-efficacy in classroom planning, classroom management, and preparing and evaluating learning and teaching environments for drama activities. Almost 30% of the variability in prospective teachers’ self-efficacy could be explained by their attitudes toward the teaching profession, communication skills, as well as some academic characteristics. Kindergarten education curricula should foster students’ interest and attitudes toward teaching and help them improve, learn, and use communication skills effectively. Measuring and managing the risk of using drama activities in Jordanian schools and similar contexts is also warranted. Full article
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18 pages, 1006 KiB  
Article
Working from Home, Telework, Equality and the Right to Privacy: A Study in Kazakhstan
by Rassima Bayazitova, Assel Kaishatayeva and Anton Vasilyev
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12010042 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3938
Abstract
Remote work displays the flexibility of labor relations and expands the possibilities of conducting professional activities balanced with fulfilling personal needs. Simultaneously, when implementing the telework mode of labor relations, the problems of ensuring the equality and confidentiality of employees require special attention. [...] Read more.
Remote work displays the flexibility of labor relations and expands the possibilities of conducting professional activities balanced with fulfilling personal needs. Simultaneously, when implementing the telework mode of labor relations, the problems of ensuring the equality and confidentiality of employees require special attention. Given the current global and internal threats, the effective organization of teleworking is an issue to the fore, even in countries where it was not previously given the attention it deserves. This study aims to explore the labor legislation norms of the Republic of Kazakhstan as far as remote work is concerned from the viewpoint of effectiveness. This paper includes a sociological survey among Kazakhstani organizations to determine the conditions of employees working remotely and to use it for conclusions about the effectiveness of the legislation in preventing violations of workers’ rights. The study proposes mechanisms and rules aimed at the effective regulation of remote work to address the problems of confidentiality and the equal treatment of the employee, regardless of the mode of conducting his/her professional activities. This research advances knowledge in the field of legal and ethical aspects of the regulation of remote work, demonstrating the experience of developing countries with the study of the experience of Kazakhstan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Work, Employment and the Labor Market)
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9 pages, 263 KiB  
Article
Changes in Social Interventions after COVID-19: The Experience of Front-Line Social Workers
by Tatiana Casado, Maria Victoria Rosselló and Ana Cañas-Lerma
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12010041 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3223
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the way of delivering social services in primary care settings all over the world. In March 2020 the lockdowns in every European country forced the population to adjust their lives to the new scenario. Welfare states had to [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the way of delivering social services in primary care settings all over the world. In March 2020 the lockdowns in every European country forced the population to adjust their lives to the new scenario. Welfare states had to quickly respond to the urgent social and economic needs of the citizens. Therefore, social workers were compelled to modify their standard procedures to overcome the difficulties they faced during the first months after lockdown orders were issued due to COVID-19. The present research analyzes the interviews conducted with twelve Spanish social workers to find out their perceptions and concerns about the consequences of that period. Results showed great changes in the way of delivering social services (simplifying procedures and managing an increasing workload), but also demonstrated different strategies that these professionals implemented to prevent burnout or compassion fatigue (team spirit, efforts to develop interinstitutional coordination, support to civil society in non-profit initiatives). Implications in organizational aspects are discussed. Full article
21 pages, 2633 KiB  
Review
Analysis of Flooding Vulnerability in Informal Settlements Literature: Mapping and Research Agenda
by Emem O. Anwana and Oluwatobi Mary Owojori
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12010040 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 6335
Abstract
The United Nations (UN) emphasizes the necessity of reducing the social and material losses imposed by water disasters, with an emphasis on protecting the most vulnerable social groups to achieve sustainable development goals (SDGs). Several objectives outlined under the SDGs including Goals 1, [...] Read more.
The United Nations (UN) emphasizes the necessity of reducing the social and material losses imposed by water disasters, with an emphasis on protecting the most vulnerable social groups to achieve sustainable development goals (SDGs). Several objectives outlined under the SDGs including Goals 1, 11, and 13 concentrate on minimizing vulnerability to disasters and boosting resilience to extreme occurrences. Flooding is an increasingly challenging problem facing cities today, with consequences mostly felt in marginalized communities. Residents of informal settlements are particularly susceptible to the effects of flooding given that they are compelled to live in the most unsafe locations, such as floodplains. This study reviews the current status of flooding research from empirical perspectives globally and in South Africa through systematic literature and bibliometric analysis of 249 peer-reviewed articles on flooding, with a focus on informal settlements. We detect groups of keywords and major research themes. Our analysis shows that studies on flood modeling in informal settlements are inadequate. We synthesized the research to present a body of knowledge on floods in informal settlements. Future research prospects are identified in areas of upgrading housing and infrastructures, policies, integrating indigenous knowledge, and local participation. Full article
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18 pages, 1104 KiB  
Article
From Acts of Care to Practice-Based Resistance: Refugee-Sector Service Provision and Its Impact(s) on Integration
by Emmaleena Käkelä, Helen Baillot, Leyla Kerlaff and Marcia Vera-Espinoza
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12010039 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3085
Abstract
The UK refugee sector encompasses welfare provision, systems advocacy, capacity development and research. However, to date there has been little attention on refugees’ experiences of the support provided by these services or on the views of the practitioners who deliver them. This paper [...] Read more.
The UK refugee sector encompasses welfare provision, systems advocacy, capacity development and research. However, to date there has been little attention on refugees’ experiences of the support provided by these services or on the views of the practitioners who deliver them. This paper draws from interviews and workshops with thirty refugee beneficiaries of an integration service in Scotland and twenty practitioners to shed light on how refugees and practitioners perceive and provide meaning to the work of the refugee sector. We identify refugee sector organisations as crucial nodes in refugees’ social networks and explore the multiple roles they play in the integration process. Firstly, we confirm that refugee organisations act as connectors, linking refugees with wider networks of support. Secondly, we demonstrate that the work of the refugee sector involves acts of care that are of intrinsic value to refugees, over and above the achievement of tangible integration outcomes. Finally, we demonstrate that this care also involves acts that seek to overcome and subvert statutory system barriers. We propose to understand these acts as forms of “practice-based resistance” necessitated by a hostile policy environment. The findings expand on understandings of the refugee sector, its role in integration and the multi-faceted nature of integration processes. Full article
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14 pages, 294 KiB  
Article
Active Learning and Professional Development: A Case of Thai Chinese Teachers
by Katematu Duangmanee and Budi Waluyo
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12010038 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2595
Abstract
While Chinese has been taught as a school subject outside of China for decades, there is little research on how Chinese subjects are taught in secondary schools outside of China’s mainland with regard to the use of active learning and the impact of [...] Read more.
While Chinese has been taught as a school subject outside of China for decades, there is little research on how Chinese subjects are taught in secondary schools outside of China’s mainland with regard to the use of active learning and the impact of professional development events on teachers’ professional growth in classroom Chinese teaching. This article explored Thai Chinese teachers’ use of active learning methods at public and private secondary schools in the south of Thailand. It also examined the impact of a government-administered Chinese teaching seminar on their professional development. A sequential mixed-methods explanatory design was employed, involving focus group interviews and pre- and post-tests. The phenomenological approach with thematic analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data from the focus group interviews, while the Wilcoxon test was run to compare the pre- and post-test data. Findings revealed the application of active learning with discussion and role-playing activities involving audio-visual materials. The pedagogy of Thai Chinese secondary schools has shifted from knowledge transmission through lectures to knowledge generation and transformation via dynamic learning activities. After attending the seminar, teachers’ comprehension of active learning methods increased considerably (Z = 3.740, p < 0.001). However, teachers expressed concerns over the lack of innovative teaching techniques for teaching Chinese characters and the problems encountered by both students and teachers during the teaching and learning process. This study recommends that Hanban and the Thai Ministry of Education plan their seminars and workshops in a way that allows Thai Chinese instructors to continuously address their students’ and their own deficiencies while they are engaged in active learning activities, and it calls for additional research on the use of active CFL methods in secondary schools outside of China. Full article
13 pages, 528 KiB  
Article
Engineering Learning Outcomes: The Possible Balance between the Passion and the Profession
by Diana Dias
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12010037 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1870
Abstract
What is an engineering student expected to learn to become a competent engineer? Which is most desirable in higher education: hard skills or soft skills? Are there differences between master’s and bachelor’s learning outcomes, or between public or private schools? Previous works point [...] Read more.
What is an engineering student expected to learn to become a competent engineer? Which is most desirable in higher education: hard skills or soft skills? Are there differences between master’s and bachelor’s learning outcomes, or between public or private schools? Previous works point out the relevance of hard rather than soft skills in engineering higher education. The implementation of learning outcomes (LOs) in higher-education curricula has been a common challenge for European educational institutions. Despite the efforts undertaken since the Bologna Declaration, the effective implementation of the learning outcomes paradigm is still in process. This research intends to analyse the LOs proposed in the scope of graduate and postgraduate electrical or computer electrical or computer engineering programs submitted to the Agency for Assessment and Accreditation of Higher Education (A3ES) in Portugal since 2004. Conducting a qualitative analysis, data documents were coded according to the Nusche typology of LOs. The results suggest that cognitive skills are a core dimension in electrical or computer engineering LOs. References to non-cognitive LOs are not representative. Different institution sectors (private vs. public), systems (universities vs. polytechnics), and study cycles (first vs. second vs. integrated master) highlight distinct cognitive and non-cognitive categories in their definition of LOs. The results are discussed in terms of a changing or a recycling paradigm in higher-education practices. Full article
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13 pages, 464 KiB  
Review
Uncovering Youth’s Invisible Labor: Children’s Roles, Care Work, and Familial Obligations in Latino/a Immigrant Families
by Vanessa Delgado
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12010036 - 05 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3486
Abstract
This paper examines Latino/a children’s roles and obligations to their immigrant families. Bridging insights from the literature on the “new sociology of childhood,” immigrant incorporation, and care work, this essay argues that children perform important—but often invisible—labor in immigrant families. Dominant ideologies depict [...] Read more.
This paper examines Latino/a children’s roles and obligations to their immigrant families. Bridging insights from the literature on the “new sociology of childhood,” immigrant incorporation, and care work, this essay argues that children perform important—but often invisible—labor in immigrant families. Dominant ideologies depict childhood as an “innocent” time wherein young people are in need of guidance and are too underdeveloped to make meaningful contributions. However, this construction of childhood ignores the lived realities of the children of immigrants, who often serve as gatekeepers and connect their families to services and resources in their communities. This essay examines six dimensions of support that the children of immigrants provide to their families, namely, language and cultural help, financial contributions, bureaucratic assistance, emotional labor, legal support, and guidance with technology. This essay concludes with implications for scholars, students, and policymakers on the importance of recognizing this labor, along with future directions for research. Full article
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13 pages, 837 KiB  
Article
Development of Inclusive Education Learning Design in the Era of Society 5.0
by Hamsi Mansur, Agus Hadi Utama, Mohd Hanafi Mohd Yasin, Nina Permata Sari, Khairul Azhar Jamaludin and Fitra Pinandhita
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12010035 - 04 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3853
Abstract
Era of Society 5.0 has had a significant impact on the implementation of education for students in Indonesia, which presents opportunities and challenges for educators in each education unit. One of the education units that feels this impact is inclusive education. Inclusive education [...] Read more.
Era of Society 5.0 has had a significant impact on the implementation of education for students in Indonesia, which presents opportunities and challenges for educators in each education unit. One of the education units that feels this impact is inclusive education. Inclusive education learning designs in which there are special assistant teachers have a more dominant social constructivist tendency than those with regular education teachers. The development of the right inclusive education learning design will help children with special needs in achieving their optimal potential development according to their conditions and needs in the community. This study aims to propose inclusive education learning designs that are relevant to Era of Society 5.0 based on national education standards including standard processes, standards for educators, and standards for infrastructure. This study employs a descriptive qualitative study, and. the primary data collection instruments were in the form of observations and interviews, as well as documentation as a secondary data collection instrument. Participants were selected using a purposive sampling technique and they were from five inclusive schools in the province of South Kalimantan. The data analysis technique uses content analysis. The results of the study show that Era of Society 5.0 is in line with the development of inclusive education learning designs and is relevant to the Indonesian national education system which includes standard processes, standards for educators, and standards for infrastructure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Social Sciences and Intelligence Management)
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20 pages, 427 KiB  
Review
Intimate Partner Rape: A Review of Six Core Myths Surrounding Women’s Conduct and the Consequences of Intimate Partner Rape
by Caroline Lilley, Dominic Willmott, Dara Mojtahedi and Danielle Labhardt
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12010034 - 04 Jan 2023
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 5805
Abstract
The focus of this paper is to highlight and review the evidence surrounding common intimate partner rape (IPR) myths, their prevalence in society, and identify those who are most likely to endorse such beliefs. Six core IPR myths are discussed related to misconceptions [...] Read more.
The focus of this paper is to highlight and review the evidence surrounding common intimate partner rape (IPR) myths, their prevalence in society, and identify those who are most likely to endorse such beliefs. Six core IPR myths are discussed related to misconceptions surrounding (1) women’s decisions to remain in abusive relationships, (2) why women delay or never report IPR, (3) women’s perceived motivations when an IPR report is made, (4) a perceived lack of trauma that occurs as a consequence of this type of rape, (5) male sexual entitlement within intimate relationships, and (6) whether it is even possible to rape a marital partner. This article draws together a wealth of studies and research that evidence why such IPR myths are indeed factually inaccurate and examines how victims, justice professionals, police practitioners, and legal decision-makers endorsement of false beliefs pertaining to intimate partner rape serve to hinder various justice pathways. We discuss the consequences of rape mythology in so far as they create social barriers that prohibit the reporting of rape, impact the progression of an allegation through the criminal justice system and ultimately, obstruct rape victims’ access to justice. The review concludes by considering evidence regarding the possible benefits of education interventions in reducing the problematic influence of rape myths. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gendered Violence: Victim Perceptions and System Responses)
14 pages, 1864 KiB  
Article
Assessing Tenth-Grade Students’ Mathematical Literacy Skills in Solving PISA Problems
by Hanan Shaher Almarashdi and Adeeb M. Jarrah
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12010033 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3408
Abstract
We tested the mathematical literacy (ML) proficiency of 204 grade 10 “advanced track” students in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) using 34 questions from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 released items. Using a quantitative descriptive approach, we analyzed the performance [...] Read more.
We tested the mathematical literacy (ML) proficiency of 204 grade 10 “advanced track” students in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) using 34 questions from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 released items. Using a quantitative descriptive approach, we analyzed the performance of males (n = 106) and females (n = 98) on items spread across the four content subdomains (quantity, space and shape, change and relationship, and uncertainty), the processes of problem-solving (formulate, employ, reasoning, and interpret), and the four PISA contexts (personal, occupational, societal, and scientific) across six PISA proficiency levels. The test was formulated in three types of response format (multiple choice, closed- and open-ended). Results showed that overall student performance was in the very low category. Female students outperformed male students in all aspects of mathematical literacy. The highest percentage achieved in the modelling process was in the interpreting and then employ and formulate tasks. Students performed almost perfectly in problems that covered the uncertainty content area but fared poorly with problems dealing with change and relationship. Students performed better on personal mathematical problems than occupational, societal or scientific problems. These findings are important for UAE teachers regarding direct application to classroom practice and for researchers and officials to shape future research and recommendations for future new educational policies. Full article
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9 pages, 896 KiB  
Article
Intercultural Experiences Comparison between France and Singapore—Introducing the Proximal Zone of Intercultural Development (PZID)
by Rachid Oulahal
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12010032 - 31 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1758
Abstract
This article presents results from a comparative analysis of intercultural experiences between French and Singaporean participants. France and Singapore were chosen as research fields because of their singularities in terms of cultural difference management: a universalist cultural model for France and a pluralist [...] Read more.
This article presents results from a comparative analysis of intercultural experiences between French and Singaporean participants. France and Singapore were chosen as research fields because of their singularities in terms of cultural difference management: a universalist cultural model for France and a pluralist cultural model for Singapore. Based on an online questionnaire addressing the intercultural experiences, a quantitative analysis allows us to identify differences between the French and Singaporean participants. A particularity of the Singaporean context leads us to think about the proximal zone of intercultural development concept (PZID) that we will develop in this article. Full article
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16 pages, 342 KiB  
Article
Intersections of Women as Survivors: Disclosures of Violence and Global Research Standards in Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago
by Ruth Rodney, Sireesha Bobbili, Gabrielle Hosein and Emmanuelle Cummings
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12010031 - 31 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2169
Abstract
Global guidelines on VAWG research prioritize safety-first approaches to discuss experiences of violence with survivors. Guidelines recommend that survivors only be interviewed in confidential and private interviews. However, little is known about why and how women choose to disclose experiences of violence in [...] Read more.
Global guidelines on VAWG research prioritize safety-first approaches to discuss experiences of violence with survivors. Guidelines recommend that survivors only be interviewed in confidential and private interviews. However, little is known about why and how women choose to disclose experiences of violence in focus group settings. Utilizing survivor quotes and reflexive notes from the qualitative components of the first national prevalence surveys on VAWG in Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago, we reflect on women’s decisions to disclose experiences of violence in focus groups. Our results illustrate that women’s choice to speak out about previous experiences of violence and in some cases, irrespective of the guidelines provided for focus group discussions, aligns with the unapologetic nature of Caribbean feminist organizing in the region. Identifying as a survivor of gender-based violence holds different meanings for women based on when the relationship occurred and the sense of insight and empowerment they gained and therefore guides which information and where women feel comfortable disclosing. Researchers should ensure safety-first approaches are followed and also support women who choose to disclose experiences of violence outside of confidential interviews. Focus groups can be areas where women disclose violence and should be addressed through preparation rather than as an error in ethical research practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender-Related Violence: Social Sciences’ Research & Methods)
13 pages, 782 KiB  
Article
Gender Stereotypes Make Women Invisible: The Presence of Female Scientists in the Media
by Maider Eizmendi-Iraola and Simón Peña-Fernández
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12010030 - 31 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3125
Abstract
Interest in the situation of women scientists has increased in recent years. Scientific institutions and governmental authorities have launched initiatives to promote science as a vocation among women. Within this context, the effort made by the media in disseminating role models is of [...] Read more.
Interest in the situation of women scientists has increased in recent years. Scientific institutions and governmental authorities have launched initiatives to promote science as a vocation among women. Within this context, the effort made by the media in disseminating role models is of vital importance. The aim of this research is to analyse the presence of women scientists in the media, and to conduct an appraisal of the status granted to them and the image conveyed about them. To this end, we analysed the content published on the websites of the regional newspapers Berria, Gara, El Correo and Diario de Navarra between 2014 and 2019 citing women scientists and researchers (N = 2362). The results indicate that presence is greater in quantitative terms, as is the prominence given to them in headlines. However, the disciplines in which they practise and the stereotypes which are conveyed shape their image, which in the case of STEM areas emphasise their role as carers and their singularity in the scientific field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interventions to Reduce Stereotypes in STEM)
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17 pages, 345 KiB  
Article
Adults’ Perceptions on Adolescent Attitudes towards Pregnancy and Abortion in Maputo and Quelimane Cities, Mozambique: An Exploratory Qualitative Study
by Mónica Frederico, Carlos Arnaldo, Rehana Capurchande, Peter Decat and Kristien Michielsen
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12010029 - 31 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1920
Abstract
Background: In Mozambique, 76% of adolescents have been pregnant before the age of 20 years. Thus, this study explores adults’ perceptions on adolescent attitudes towards pregnancy and abortion in Maputo and Quelimane cities. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted in Maputo [...] Read more.
Background: In Mozambique, 76% of adolescents have been pregnant before the age of 20 years. Thus, this study explores adults’ perceptions on adolescent attitudes towards pregnancy and abortion in Maputo and Quelimane cities. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted in Maputo and Quelimane, with four focus group discussions. A cross-sectional household survey was used to select adult women participants. Data were analysed applying a thematic analysis approach. Results: Intrapersonal, interpersonal, cultural, and environmental factors influence pregnancy and abortion decision making among adolescents. Generational conflicts reduce the importance paid to traditional knowledge transfer, contraceptive beliefs, denial of paternity, lack of parental support, and procreation value were found to influence abortion decision making and early pregnancy among adolescents. Conclusions: There is a need to improve relationships between adults and adolescents to reduce girls’ vulnerability to early pregnancy, as well as empowering adolescents in order to negotiate safe sex, reducing unwanted pregnancy and induced abortion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health: Global Perspectives)
27 pages, 1960 KiB  
Article
Youth’s Poverty and Inequality of Opportunities: Empirical Evidence from Morocco
by Abderrahman Yassine and Fatima Bakass
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12010028 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2880
Abstract
Youth is an important and critical transition stage towards adulthood, during which time individuals are supposed to prepare in the best possible conditions for adulthood. Moroccan youth are facing unequal opportunities to develop because of the circumstances of their household background and childhood [...] Read more.
Youth is an important and critical transition stage towards adulthood, during which time individuals are supposed to prepare in the best possible conditions for adulthood. Moroccan youth are facing unequal opportunities to develop because of the circumstances of their household background and childhood deprivation. This paper measures the level of poverty and the equality of opportunities among Moroccan youth aged 18–29 years utilizing the Human Opportunity Index (HOI). It analyzes poverty from a multidimensional perspective. The findings demonstrate that younger youth are at substantially higher risk of poverty than older young. Poor youth have low educational attainments. The unemployment rate for the non-poor youth is lower than for the poor. Unemployment rates continue to be high for secondary and university graduates, particularly for the poor. Furthermore, the analysis reveals that education deprivation followed by healthcare deprivation is the most prevalent severe deprivation among youth. The results from both the logit regression and the descriptive analyses show that youths of illiterate parents are more likely to have poorer health, drop out of school themselves, and work rather than attend school. Youth in rural areas are least likely to have the opportunity to complete secondary and university education as well as to attend school/university than those in urban areas. Moreover, the decomposition of the total difference of HOI between urban and rural areas into access and equality of opportunities indicates that the differences are mainly due to the coverage effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Childhood and Youth Studies)
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18 pages, 1009 KiB  
Article
Climate Change and Extreme Weather Events in the Education of the Citizens of the Twenty-First Century: The Perception of Secondary Education Students
by Esther Sánchez-Almodóvar, Isabel María Gómez-Trigueros and Jorge Olcina-Cantos
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12010027 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2097
Abstract
Within the current context of climate emergency, the topic of climate change has become more prominent in secondary education in Spain. However, in general, conceptual confusions arise which should be clarified due to the social importance of climate issues. The objectives of this [...] Read more.
Within the current context of climate emergency, the topic of climate change has become more prominent in secondary education in Spain. However, in general, conceptual confusions arise which should be clarified due to the social importance of climate issues. The objectives of this study, focused on third and fourth year students of ESO (Obligatory Secondary Education) in state schools in a town in the province of Alicante (Region of Valencia, Spain), seek to reveal the perception of the students regarding climate change and extreme weather events, in accordance with the subject in which these contents are taught; and to analyse whether the students have acquired a basic knowledge of the topic at the end of their secondary education. In order to fulfil these objectives, a non-experimental, descriptive, cross-sectional and survey-based correlational study has been conducted. The sample was made up of 784 students, surveyed during the academic year 2021–2022. The results indicate that the principal subject in which climate change is taught is Geography and History. The students consider that climate change is a threat to human beings and believe that anthropogenic action is the principal cause. They also perceive an increase in extreme weather events, although it is necessary to qualify this aspect. Therefore, this study defends the need to address this topic in the third and fourth years of ESO, as it is one of the major challenges faced by society and one in which students should be educated within the framework of the 2030 Agenda and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Full article
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22 pages, 2168 KiB  
Case Report
Toward a ‘Migrant Trap’? Local Development, Urban Sustainability, Sociodemographic Inequalities, and the Economic Decline in a Mediterranean Metropolis
by Mariateresa Ciommi, Gianluca Egidi, Ioannis Vardopoulos, Francesco Maria Chelli and Luca Salvati
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12010026 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2398
Abstract
After years following the breakdown of the Great Recession in Europe, crisis-driven urban shrinkage can be adequately investigated considering changes over time in selected demographic indicators, with a specific focus on migration. Using official statistics and a literature review, the present study documents [...] Read more.
After years following the breakdown of the Great Recession in Europe, crisis-driven urban shrinkage can be adequately investigated considering changes over time in selected demographic indicators, with a specific focus on migration. Using official statistics and a literature review, the present study documents the inherent demographic decline in metropolitan Athens (Greece) as a response to economic stagnation after a long-lasting expansion. The empirical results of our study delineate metropolitan shrinkage in Southern Europe as a process associated with complex socioeconomic conditions leading to (possibly counterintuitive) demographic outcomes as far as migration trends are concerned. Recession has determined unsustainable economic conditions especially for non-native population segments, promoting both class and ethnic segregation. The negative migration balance in the 2010s led to an intense population decline hitting settlements made already demographically fragile because of low fertility and aging. Athens became a sort of ‘migrant trap’, being progressively unattractive for incoming migration flows—both internal and international—and losing an increasingly high number of non-native residents settling in the area, especially during the ‘gold’ decade of the 2004 Olympics. A sudden reduction in immigration rates reflected both economic (recession) and non-economic (population aging, fertility reduction, and childbearing postponement) factors, causing an incipient shrinkage after secular urban growth. The empirical results of our study add to the traditional literature on ‘industrial cities shrinkage’ in Europe and contribute to (re)formulate short- and medium-term development scenarios in large agglomerations, shedding further light on the role of migration in crisis-driven processes of urban decline in Mediterranean Europe. Full article
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13 pages, 597 KiB  
Article
Features of Social Behavior and the Awareness of Moscow Residents about COVID-19 at the Beginning of the Pandemic
by Andrey Reshetnikov, Nadezhda Prisyazhnaya, Florian Steger, Sergey Pavlov and Nadezhda Vyatkina
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12010025 - 29 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1298
Abstract
The coronavirus pandemic has raised serious questions about the need to properly inform residents of large cities about the rules of hygiene, behavior in self-isolation, and maintaining health. This study aimed to identify in more detail the sources of information and to assess [...] Read more.
The coronavirus pandemic has raised serious questions about the need to properly inform residents of large cities about the rules of hygiene, behavior in self-isolation, and maintaining health. This study aimed to identify in more detail the sources of information and to assess the levels of awareness and knowledge of the inhabitants of a typical metropolis about coronavirus infection to further search for ways to improve health information during pandemics. This research has a questionnaire survey design. Data from 478 adult Muscovites were collected on 20–25 March 2020 by the Institute of Social Sciences of Sechenov University. The aim of this study was to study the level of awareness in preventing the spread of infection and peculiarities in the perceptions of residents of the city of Moscow toward the large-scale social changes associated with the COVID-19 pandemic as well as their impact on the way of life, social relations, lifestyle, and ideas about the future of the population. This article presents the results of a medical and sociological survey of residents of Moscow implemented at the beginning of the spread of coronavirus infection in the country, which showed the awareness of residents of Moscow regarding the problem of the spread of coronavirus and the prevention of infection as well as a high level of anxiety and the pessimistic expectations of respondents regarding the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic for the state, society, and people. At the same time, the fears of the survey participants involved both immediate risks of the disease and a wide range of socioeconomic problems from near and distant perspectives. Full article
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19 pages, 343 KiB  
Article
Lived Experiences of Mothering and Teaching during the Pandemic: A Narrative Inquiry on College Faculty Mothers in the Philippines
by Alma Espartinez
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12010024 - 29 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 5153
Abstract
How do academic mothers navigate their embodied selves in a disembodied academic life? More particularly, how do mothers in Philippine Higher Education balance the demands of mothering and teaching during the pandemic? This qualitative study used a narrative inquiry approach involving in-depth interviews [...] Read more.
How do academic mothers navigate their embodied selves in a disembodied academic life? More particularly, how do mothers in Philippine Higher Education balance the demands of mothering and teaching during the pandemic? This qualitative study used a narrative inquiry approach involving in-depth interviews with academic mothers from various faculties and ranks at some Philippine Higher Education Institutions. This approach explored the complex and often contradictory discourses surrounding the tension between the polarizing models of the ideal caring mother and ideal academic, trying to excel in both roles during the pandemic. The research began with an overview by way of a literature review of the pre-pandemic mother academics. It then reflected on eight mother college professors who balanced their careers with childcare, some with adult care, as this pandemic amplified deeply ingrained traditional social norms that perpetuate social inequities. Finally, it concluded that the two domains—academy and family—remained inhospitable to professing mothers in the Philippines. This study proposed that care work should be valorized, work–family narratives normalized and mainstreamed, and public and educational policies that support mothering and teaching rethought. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Directions in Gender Research)
22 pages, 340 KiB  
Article
Eating in a Total Institution Considering History, Nutrition, and Gender Issues
by Davide Costa and Raffaele Serra
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12010023 - 29 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1320
Abstract
To the authors’ knowledge, this paper is the first to explore the dietary regime provided in a total institution. Specifically, the aim of this study is to highlight gender differences in the dietary regimes of mental health patients. Using archival and documentary evidence, [...] Read more.
To the authors’ knowledge, this paper is the first to explore the dietary regime provided in a total institution. Specifically, the aim of this study is to highlight gender differences in the dietary regimes of mental health patients. Using archival and documentary evidence, the study uses an unobtrusive research approach to explore the diets of mental health patients living in the Girifalco asylum, in southern Italy, during the second half of the 19th century. The evidence analyzed examines whether the dietary regimes that were rebuilt are perfectly in line with the principles of moral treatment. Concerning the study, limitations should be stated; although archival evidence suggests that the institutional meals provided in Girifalco asylum were nutritionally adequate (by gender), this is impossible to verify. In conclusion, the dietary regime provided at the Girifalco asylum was balanced both from a qualitative and quantitative point of view for healthy living in a total institution. Full article
17 pages, 305 KiB  
Article
The Need to Bridge the Gap between Research on Children’s Rights and Parenting Styles: Authoritative/Democratic Style as an Acultural Model for the Child’s Well-Being
by Galym Zhussipbek and Zhanar Nagayeva
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12010022 - 28 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3076
Abstract
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child contains specific provisions on parent–child relations and parenting, but these provisions can be described as elusive. Furthermore, the Convention does not explicitly specify a children’s rights-friendly parenting style. On the other hand, there [...] Read more.
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child contains specific provisions on parent–child relations and parenting, but these provisions can be described as elusive. Furthermore, the Convention does not explicitly specify a children’s rights-friendly parenting style. On the other hand, there is a disconnect between research on children’s rights and parenting styles. Based on the insights of the meta-theoretical critical realist approach, this paper argues that universal human flourishing is inconceivable without the development of a children’s rights-friendly parenting style. It is argued that the Convention’s provisions on parent–child relations can be adapted to the perceptions of average parents, especially living in paternalistic societies, by adapting the conceptualizations of parenting styles developed by Baumrind and Lakoff. Overall, research on children’s rights, supported by literature on children’s rights-friendly parenting, can show that children’s rights do not alienate parental rights and responsibilities. Instead, children’s rights give appropriate direction to parental authority and responsibility to realize the child’s well-being. Full article
14 pages, 2375 KiB  
Review
A Systematic Literature Review of Loneliness in Community Dwelling Older Adults
by Gabriela Di Perna, Katrina Radford, Gaery Barbery and Janna Anneke Fitzgerald
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12010021 - 28 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4688
Abstract
Research on loneliness is extensive. This paper presents a systematic review of intervention studies, outlining the antecedents to, and consequences of loneliness in community-dwelling older people. Using PRISMA methodology, a systematic literature review was conducted between January and August 2021 resulting in 49 [...] Read more.
Research on loneliness is extensive. This paper presents a systematic review of intervention studies, outlining the antecedents to, and consequences of loneliness in community-dwelling older people. Using PRISMA methodology, a systematic literature review was conducted between January and August 2021 resulting in 49 useable articles. Papers were included if they: (a) investigated older people (+50); (b) were living in community dwellings; (c) had been published in English; (d) had titles or abstracts available and, (e) were published between 2016 and 2021. This study found the antecedents and consequences of social, emotional and existential loneliness differ, however, the vast majority of research has not examined the unique types of loneliness and instead kept loneliness as a generic term, despite the acceptance that various types of loneliness exist. In addition, the findings of intervention studies identified through this review have yielded mixed results. Those interventions focused on improving personal and psycho-social resources for older people fared better outcomes than those focused on technological and social connections alone. This paper reports important implications for the future of research conducted on loneliness and interventions accordingly. Full article
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19 pages, 373 KiB  
Article
Gender, Class, and Ethnicity: Perspectives of White Portuguese and Black African Women on Labor Dynamics in the Cleaning Sector
by Maria Helena Santos, Núria Romão and Carla Cerqueira
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12010020 - 28 Dec 2022
Viewed by 2273
Abstract
This study focuses on cleaning services in Lisbon, Portugal, to understand the dynamics of operating in this feminine context, mostly employing women of African origin. From a qualitative and intersectional perspective, the study encompasses 17 semi-structured individual interviews with women working in these [...] Read more.
This study focuses on cleaning services in Lisbon, Portugal, to understand the dynamics of operating in this feminine context, mostly employing women of African origin. From a qualitative and intersectional perspective, the study encompasses 17 semi-structured individual interviews with women working in these services, nine of African origin (Black) and eight of Portuguese origin (White) between 29 and 66 years of age. The thematic analysis returned five themes portraying the specificities associated with women carrying out their activities in a context of low social status, particularly for Black women. Although we verified some of the negative consequences associated with tokenism, the intersections of gender, class, and race/ethnicity generated dynamics that also contradict this phenomenon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Directions in Gender Research)
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