Researching Students’ Experiences of Sexual and Gender-Based Violence and Harassment: Reflections and Recommendations from Surveys of Three UK HEIs
Schools surveying their students do not have to rely on victim reporting to determine whether they need to respond to a widespread campus sexual violence problem or to develop response systems hurriedly in the shadow of a rapidly developing and potentially high publicity case. Instead, these institutions can employ such surveys to assess the extent and dynamics of the sexual violence problem among their students and use the survey results to inform their institutional responses to the specific manifestations of the problem on their campuses, well ahead of any high-profile or ultimately high-liability report of sexual violence.
1.1. US ‘Campus Climate’ Surveys
1.2. UK Policy and Data Collection Context
2. Overview and Aims of the Three Surveys
2.1. Surveying Sexual and Gender-Based Violence and Harassment
2.2. Issues in Survey Design and Implementation
2.3. Surveying Attitudes, Awareness, and Rape Myth Acceptance
2.4. Awareness of University Policies and Support
2.5. Publishing and Disseminating Findings
3. Discussion and Conclusions
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
In the UK context, the term ‘climate’ tends to be interpreted as climate change or physical environmental concerns; therefore, we prefer and use here ‘SGBVH in HEIs surveys’ (sexual and gender-based violence and harassment). This allows us to include not only sexual violence and harassment, but wider forms of gender-based violence, such as domestic abuse and stalking.
Title IX states “[n]o person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.” 20 U.S.C. § 1681(a).
This 2021 online survey yielded 49 valid responses from British Society of Criminology members who shared insights, perspectives, and experiences on sexual harassment and misconduct in higher education settings and academic conferences. The report can be accessed via the British Society of Criminology website.
An internal report using the full dataset was prepared for the university. It should be noted that the demographic characteristics of responding students were not fully representative of the wider university population at any of the three institutions, with, for example, more women than men responding at University C. This is similar to response patterns for similar surveys, for example, Cantor et al. (2019).
This was the West Virginia Campus Climate Survey, kindly provided by Professor Walter DeKeseredy for use as a template instrument.
Also found by University C in their free text questions ‘how do you label this experience?’, which elicited responses demonstrating that participants made sense of their experiences in a variety of ways different to the labels used by researchers.
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Bull, A.; Duggan, M.; Livesey, L. Researching Students’ Experiences of Sexual and Gender-Based Violence and Harassment: Reflections and Recommendations from Surveys of Three UK HEIs. Soc. Sci. 2022, 11, 373. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11080373
Bull A, Duggan M, Livesey L. Researching Students’ Experiences of Sexual and Gender-Based Violence and Harassment: Reflections and Recommendations from Surveys of Three UK HEIs. Social Sciences. 2022; 11(8):373. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11080373Chicago/Turabian Style
Bull, Anna, Marian Duggan, and Louise Livesey. 2022. "Researching Students’ Experiences of Sexual and Gender-Based Violence and Harassment: Reflections and Recommendations from Surveys of Three UK HEIs" Social Sciences 11, no. 8: 373. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11080373