Next Issue
Volume 10, December
Previous Issue
Volume 10, October
 
 

Soc. Sci., Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2021) – 42 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Blockchain technology is an innovation that has recently been heralded as a possible remedy to some of the world's resource and waste problems. There is, however, a current absence of a systematic overview of recent experiences with blockchain initiatives disrupting waste practices, which limits the visibility of experimental efforts and the learning that can be shared across waste researcher and practitioner communities. This paper addresses this gap by mapping the landscape of current blockchain initiatives in the global waste sector. We identify four areas of blockchain use within waste management practices (payment, recycling and reuse rewards, monitoring and tracking of waste, and smart contracts) and summarize recurring themes across these areas about the ways that experiences from blockchain-based initiatives can inform the development of future governance of circular economies.View this paper.
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
14 pages, 593 KiB  
Article
Gender and Financialization of the Criminal Justice System
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(11), 446; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10110446 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5685
Abstract
(1) The increase in women’s mass incarceration over the past forty years raises questions about how justice-involved women experience the financial aspects of the criminal justice system. (2) We conducted in-depth interviews with twenty justice-involved women and seven criminal law and reentry professionals, [...] Read more.
(1) The increase in women’s mass incarceration over the past forty years raises questions about how justice-involved women experience the financial aspects of the criminal justice system. (2) We conducted in-depth interviews with twenty justice-involved women and seven criminal law and reentry professionals, and conducted courtroom observations in southeastern Pennsylvania. (3) The results from this exploratory research reveal that women’s roles as caregivers, their greater health needs, and higher likelihood of being poor creates barriers to paying fines and fees and exacerbates challenges in reentry. (4) These challenges contribute to a cycle of prolonged justice involvement and financial instability. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 1973 KiB  
Review
Dating Violence: A Bibliometric Review of the Literature in Web of Science and Scopus
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(11), 445; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10110445 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2806
Abstract
This study has the general purpose of improving the understanding and description of the field of violence in young couple relationships by means of a bibliometric analysis. A descriptive and transversal-retrospective methodology is used, the objective of which is to describe in a [...] Read more.
This study has the general purpose of improving the understanding and description of the field of violence in young couple relationships by means of a bibliometric analysis. A descriptive and transversal-retrospective methodology is used, the objective of which is to describe in a quantitative way the information obtained from the production of 842 references registered in the Scopus and Web of Science databases. The results show that during 2017 and 2018, the majority of publications were concentrated, highlighting that the United States is the country with the highest amount of scientific production on violence in intimate relationships. It is important to highlight that more and more countries are investigating this subject, highlighting an increase in production from 2015 onwards. The violence that occurs in the relationships of young couples is a global social and health problem that requires research to be able to deepen its knowledge and in the prevention of this social scourge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Violence, Victimization and Prevention)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 240 KiB  
Article
Graduating University as a Woman with Down Syndrome: Reflecting on My Education
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(11), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10110444 - 20 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4944
Abstract
This paper reflects on the experience of being a woman with Down Syndrome who completed an undergraduate degree at an Australian university. This autoethnography is based on a year-long research project completed as part of my studies. I did a literature review about [...] Read more.
This paper reflects on the experience of being a woman with Down Syndrome who completed an undergraduate degree at an Australian university. This autoethnography is based on a year-long research project completed as part of my studies. I did a literature review about the experiences of other students with an intellectual disability at university. Then, I wrote about my own university experience. I found that the parts of my own educational journey were linked to each other like stepping-stones. Four main things came from my research: the importance of the journey before going to university; the isolation experienced by students in this situation; how stereotypes might affect students; and teaching methods that can be used to support students during their time at university. This experience changed me as a person. I gained skills and confidence whilst being at university, as well as the ability to see where I am going in life. This experience made me feel more part of society. While there were many wonderful parts, it was not an easy journey. People with an intellectual disability have a right to have an education. What makes the biggest difference is the way we are treated by other people. It would be good for students with an intellectual disability to be accepted and treated with respect. People may have a different way of learning, and it would be good if this was recognised. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inclusive Research: Is the Road More or Less Well Travelled?)
16 pages, 639 KiB  
Article
Landlord Perceptions on Homelessness in Northern Utah
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(11), 443; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10110443 - 20 Nov 2021
Viewed by 3057
Abstract
Homeless programs often rely on landlord engagement for successful implementation. However, there is very little research that examines landlord perspectives related to homelessness. Better understanding landlords’ opinions and attitudes regarding those experiencing homelessness can inform program development and policy in the efforts to [...] Read more.
Homeless programs often rely on landlord engagement for successful implementation. However, there is very little research that examines landlord perspectives related to homelessness. Better understanding landlords’ opinions and attitudes regarding those experiencing homelessness can inform program development and policy in the efforts to prevent and mitigate homelessness in the U.S. A 49-question survey was created and administered by social work faculty and students to landlords and property managers throughout the Bear River Region of northern Utah (N = 134). The survey contained a variety of questions that assessed landlord attitudes and knowledge toward those experiencing homelessness as well as their comfortability in renting to these individuals. Results revealed that landlords would like to help solve homelessness in their community, but they do not know where to start. Additionally, results showed that landlords’ willingness to rent to individuals experiencing homelessness is dependent on contextual factors, such as having more information regarding the individual, their income, past rental history, and other factors. Finally, results showed that landlords had biases toward specific groups of individuals experiencing homelessness (e.g., landlords felt more comfortable renting to those with physical disabilities than those with substance misuse histories). Results are discussed in context of program, policy, and research implications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection The Crisis of Homelessness)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 262 KiB  
Article
Willingness to Take the COVID-19 Vaccine as Reported Nine Months after the Pandemic Outbreak: A Cross-National Study
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(11), 442; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10110442 - 20 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2517
Abstract
Although vaccination has been identified as an effective measure of reducing the spread of COVID-19, hesitancy to obtain a vaccine for COVID-19 has been shared. The aim of this cross-national study was to examine (i) the willingness in the general population to take [...] Read more.
Although vaccination has been identified as an effective measure of reducing the spread of COVID-19, hesitancy to obtain a vaccine for COVID-19 has been shared. The aim of this cross-national study was to examine (i) the willingness in the general population to take the COVID-19 vaccine nine months after the pandemic outbreak and (ii) the willingness to take the vaccine in relation to sociodemographic variables, whether one has experienced COVID-19 infection, concerns about health and family, and trust in the authorities’ information about the pandemic. A cross-sectional survey design was used to collect data online in Norway, the UK, the USA, and Australia. Chi-Square tests or Fisher’s Exact test were used to analyze the data. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess direct associations between the independent variables and the outcome. Within the total sample (n = 3474), living in a city, having a college education, being concerned about your own health and the health of next of kin, and trusting information provided by authorities increased the likelihood of reporting willingness to take the COVID-19 vaccine. Across all countries, participants who reported trust in the authorities’ information about COVID-19 demonstrated a significantly higher plausibility of taking the COVID-19 vaccine. Full article
20 pages, 396 KiB  
Article
Asian Americans’ Perception of Intergroup Commonality with Blacks and Latinos: The Roles of Group Consciousness, Ethnic Identity, and Intergroup Contact
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(11), 441; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10110441 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3544
Abstract
This study explores the factors that influence Asian Americans’ perception of interracial commonality with Blacks and Latinos. Using the 2018 Civic Engagement and Political Participation of Asian Americans Survey, this research tests a model of competing theoretical explanations for Asian Americans’ intergroup commonality: [...] Read more.
This study explores the factors that influence Asian Americans’ perception of interracial commonality with Blacks and Latinos. Using the 2018 Civic Engagement and Political Participation of Asian Americans Survey, this research tests a model of competing theoretical explanations for Asian Americans’ intergroup commonality: group consciousness, group identity, views of discrimination, and intergroup contact. Results from ordered logistic regression analyses suggest that group consciousness, ethnic identity, and intergroup contact via friendship are robust predictors of Asian Americans’ feelings of closeness to Blacks and Latinos. However, Asian Americans’ perceptions of discrimination are unlikely to result in higher levels of the perceived commonality with outgroups. This study provides a valuable addition to the existing literature on interminority relations by identifying opportunities for Asian Americans to join cross-racial alliances. The conclusion of the article points to the important role that community-based organizations can play in bringing specific Asian American ethnic groups into such coalitions and promoting direct interactions between Asian Americans and other racial groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Contemporary Politics and Society)
25 pages, 2552 KiB  
Article
Costs and Consequences of Traffic Fines and Fees: A Case Study of Open Warrants in Las Vegas, Nevada
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(11), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10110440 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2608
Abstract
Traffic stops and tickets often have far-reaching consequences for poor and marginalized communities, yet resulting fines and fees increasingly fund local court systems. This paper critically explores who bears the brunt of traffic fines and fees in Nevada, historically one of the fastest [...] Read more.
Traffic stops and tickets often have far-reaching consequences for poor and marginalized communities, yet resulting fines and fees increasingly fund local court systems. This paper critically explores who bears the brunt of traffic fines and fees in Nevada, historically one of the fastest growing and increasingly diverse states in the nation, and one of thirteen US states to prosecute minor traffic violations as criminal misdemeanors rather than civil infractions. Drawing on legislative histories, we find that state legislators in Nevada increased fines and fees to raise revenues. Using descriptive statistics to analyze the 2012–2020 open arrest warrants extracted from the Las Vegas Municipal Court, we find that 58.6% of all open warrants are from failure to pay tickets owing to administrative-related offenses—vehicle registration and maintenance, no license or plates, or no insurance. Those issued warrants for failure to pay are disproportionately for people who are Black and from the poorest areas in the region. Ultimately, the Nevada system of monetary traffic sanctions criminalizes poverty and reinforces racial disparities. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 355 KiB  
Article
Connecting Crises: Young People in Nepal Reflecting on Life Course Transitions and Trajectories during Times of Uncertainty
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(11), 439; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10110439 - 18 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2729
Abstract
During certain crises, displacement of populations seeking safe refuge elsewhere can occur without the certainty of a return, if at all. Children and young people in such contexts often face the additional challenge of restrictions or disregard towards engaging their agency in migration [...] Read more.
During certain crises, displacement of populations seeking safe refuge elsewhere can occur without the certainty of a return, if at all. Children and young people in such contexts often face the additional challenge of restrictions or disregard towards engaging their agency in migration decision-making processes. Through 60 in-depth interviews with 30 trans-Himalayan participants (ages of 16–23) and multi-sited ethnography throughout Nepal, this paper investigates multiple experiences of crises experienced by young people and the effects on their life course trajectories. From focusing on the Civil War in 1996–2006, the 2015 earthquake, and most recently the COVID-19 pandemic, this paper proposes that initial displacements from the Civil War, when connected with other crises later on in a participant’s life course, better prepared them to deal with crises and enabled them to create a landscape of resilience. Furthermore, a landscape of resilience that connects past and present life course experiences during crises prepared some participants for helping their larger communities alleviate certain crises-related tension. Overall, this paper extends analysis on an under-researched group of young migrants by connecting crises that shaped their (im)mobility and life trajectories, rather than approaching crises as singular, isolated experiences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crisis, (Im)mobilities and Young Life Trajectories)
15 pages, 493 KiB  
Article
Fertility Practitioners’ Coping Strategies When Faced with Intra-Role Conflict from Screening Aspiring Single Mothers by Choice
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(11), 438; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10110438 - 18 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2081
Abstract
Women without a partner can become single mothers by choice through the use of fertility treatments. In Belgium, the decision to accept a candidate single mother by choice rests with the fertility clinic’s multidisciplinary team of fertility practitioners. As a result, the fertility [...] Read more.
Women without a partner can become single mothers by choice through the use of fertility treatments. In Belgium, the decision to accept a candidate single mother by choice rests with the fertility clinic’s multidisciplinary team of fertility practitioners. As a result, the fertility practitioners fulfil a gatekeeping role. However, this can cause an intra-role conflict as the responsibility to select the best fitting candidates is at odds with the responsibility to help patients. In this explorative study, we examine how fertility practitioners cope with the strain resulting from intra-role conflict in the decision-making process regarding single motherhood by choice in Belgium. The findings showed that practitioners appear to mainly resort to problem-focused coping, by constructing a grassroots criteria list and by shifting their role from screening agent to counsellor. These results are based on ten open in-depth interviews with fertility practitioners employed in the multidisciplinary teams of fertility centers, using a reflexive interview lead. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Family Studies)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 301 KiB  
Article
The (Semi) State’s Fragility: Hamas, Clannism, and Legitimacy
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(11), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10110437 - 18 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3100
Abstract
This article shall ask how Hamas, as a non-state actor, negotiated legitimacy with the clans in a fragmented and factionalized tribal society in the Gaza Strip from 2007–2011. An important factor that shapes the extent of power of rebels and non-state actors in [...] Read more.
This article shall ask how Hamas, as a non-state actor, negotiated legitimacy with the clans in a fragmented and factionalized tribal society in the Gaza Strip from 2007–2011. An important factor that shapes the extent of power of rebels and non-state actors in limited statehood areas (LSA) pertains to the negotiation of power these rebels develop with clans in certain areas or times. Rebel governance is a complex and multidimensional concept shaped by the pre-existing particularity of the rebel, its identity, level of factionalism, the former structure of administration, and the extant political institutions. This paper will discuss Hamas as a contemporary case of rebel governance in war and post-war times, which has resulted in a special case of fragile governance. Based on ethnographic research on Hamas and insights from political theories of identity and governance, this paper suggest that tribal factionalism led to violence and played a major role in shaping the governance structure and mechanisms through political affiliation, informal judicial mechanisms, and as a part of the social network which resists government authority. This paper shall propose that Hamas used two paths of negotiations with clans: a coercive power (violent), and by mobilizing individuals of these clans and families as part of the informal judicial system (U’rf). This research aims to contribute to the understanding of rebel governance in general, and Hamas in particular, showing how struggle over legitimacy is shaped and negotiated, and why Hamas could be considered a special case in the study of rebel governance. Full article
17 pages, 286 KiB  
Article
Pension and Active Ageing: Lessons Learned from Civil Servants in Indonesia
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(11), 436; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10110436 - 15 Nov 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3194
Abstract
Many developing countries are currently facing an ageing population without sufficient preparation for old-age financial adequacy, an important component in active ageing. One question is whether a pension system can create old-age financial adequacy. At the same time, many countries are shifting their [...] Read more.
Many developing countries are currently facing an ageing population without sufficient preparation for old-age financial adequacy, an important component in active ageing. One question is whether a pension system can create old-age financial adequacy. At the same time, many countries are shifting their pension systems from a defined benefit to a defined contribution pension system to improve the welfare of older people while maintaining state budget sustainability. Indonesia is not an exception. This paper learns from civil servants in Indonesia, where the retirement payout from the existing pay-as-you-go, defined benefit system is meagre. The system is to be transformed into a defined contribution one. Using a simulation method, this paper examines whether the proposed system will provide a better retirement payout, which is higher than the minimum wage and will allow retirees to maintain their pre-retirement income. This paper concludes that the proposed system alone is not sufficient to create old-age financial adequacy and, therefore, is less able to contribute to active ageing. To improve the retirement payout, among other things, the retirement age should be raised and made optional, and the accumulated savings should be re-invested during the retirement period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Asian Perspectives on Active Aging: Meaning, Purpose and Hope)
13 pages, 304 KiB  
Article
The Porous Border Woven with Prejudices and Economic Interests. Polish Border Admission Practices in the Time of COVID-19
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(11), 435; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10110435 - 13 Nov 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3317
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has severely restricted global movement, thus affecting migration processes and immigrants themselves. The paper focuses on the evaluation of bordering procedures and practices introduced by the Polish government in the time of the pandemic. The aim is to highlight the [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has severely restricted global movement, thus affecting migration processes and immigrants themselves. The paper focuses on the evaluation of bordering procedures and practices introduced by the Polish government in the time of the pandemic. The aim is to highlight the duality in the admission processes at Polish borders between labour and forced migrants, which have been driven, as I argue, by economic interests and the xenophobic attitudes of the government. The paper is based on interviews with experts assisting migrants during the pandemic in Poland, whose direct contact with thousands of clients has allowed them to acquire broad knowledge of how the new legal provisions have affected different groups of immigrants. The data confirms that the Polish border is very porous. It has been almost completely closed to asylum seekers, especially those fleeing from Muslim countries, for whom the only option is to cross the border illegally. Only one exception was made for Belarusians, who were cordially welcomed at the border while escaping persecution in their home country in the wake of their protests against Lukashenko’s regime. Economic migrants, on the other hand, exist on the other side of the spectrum. For immigrant workers, borders have remained open throughout the whole pandemic. Moreover, some further measures facilitating their arrival were introduced, such as de facto lifting of quarantine for seasonal farm workers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crimmigration in the Age of COVID-19)
24 pages, 1192 KiB  
Article
Blockchain Technology for Governance of Plastic Waste Management: Where Are We?
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(11), 434; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10110434 - 11 Nov 2021
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 5597
Abstract
Blockchain technology is emerging as a plausible disruptor of waste management practices that influence the governance of plastics. The interest among the waste management community in the potential and fundamental changes to complex resource management associated with blockchain adoption parallels recent research in [...] Read more.
Blockchain technology is emerging as a plausible disruptor of waste management practices that influence the governance of plastics. The interest among the waste management community in the potential and fundamental changes to complex resource management associated with blockchain adoption parallels recent research in other sectors, such as finance, health, public administration, etc. During any comparable period characterized by a step-change in positive coverage of an early-stage technology, it can be challenging for actors to access a grounded, evidence-based oversight of the current state of practice and make informed decisions about whether or how to adopt blockchain technology. The current absence of such a systematic overview of recent experiences with blockchain initiatives disrupting waste practices not only limits the visibility of these experimental efforts, but also limits the learning that can be shared across waste plastics researcher and practitioner communities. This paper contributes with a current overview of blockchain technology adoption in the waste management sector, giving particular attention to implications for the governance of plastics. Our study draws on both primary interview data and secondary documentation data to map the landscape of current blockchain initiatives in the global waste sector. We identify four areas of blockchain use that are beginning to change waste management practices (payment, recycling and reuse rewards, monitoring and tracking of waste, and smart contracts). We conclude by outlining five areas of significant blockchain uses, implications, and influences of relevance to the development of circular plastic waste governance in both research and practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection The Governance of Plastics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 292 KiB  
Article
Who Pays? Measuring Differences in the Process of Repayment of Legal Financial Obligations
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(11), 433; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10110433 - 10 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2003
Abstract
This study identifies the correlates of legal financial obligation (LFO) debt repayment among persons sentenced to probation and transferred to a specialized collections unit. Using bivariate tests and logistic regression, results indicate that starting balance amounts, monthly payment amounts, and enforcement actions (capias [...] Read more.
This study identifies the correlates of legal financial obligation (LFO) debt repayment among persons sentenced to probation and transferred to a specialized collections unit. Using bivariate tests and logistic regression, results indicate that starting balance amounts, monthly payment amounts, and enforcement actions (capias warrant) are the strongest influences on the likelihood of full debt repayment. These results indicate that some persons will struggle to repay their LFO balances if amounts assessed are in excess of their means, even in an institutional context adopting an individualized, flexible, and non-punitive approach to collections. Policy implications suggest a need for reform at the point of LFO assessment to avoid imposing obligations that are unreasonable to individuals’ ability to repay. Full article
22 pages, 339 KiB  
Article
Dogs as Therapeutic Partners, Not Therapeutic Tools: Ethical Considerations for AAT in the Correctional Setting
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(11), 432; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10110432 - 10 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3859
Abstract
Although the benefits of animal assisted therapy for people are well established, the ethical considerations for the welfare and safety of the non-human animals involved are not. Without an accrediting body responsible for creating and overseeing national standards, therapy animal organizations are forced [...] Read more.
Although the benefits of animal assisted therapy for people are well established, the ethical considerations for the welfare and safety of the non-human animals involved are not. Without an accrediting body responsible for creating and overseeing national standards, therapy animal organizations are forced to create their own guidelines, creating inconsistencies within the field. Based on interviews conducted with therapy teams who have worked with Parenting, Prison & Pups (PPP), a parenting program provided to incarcerated jailed women that is integrated with the use of animal-assisted therapy (AAT), this article explores the extent of ethics training offered for AAT teams and will examine how agencies and handlers promote and ensure the safety of canine partners, especially in a correctional setting. The research suggests that specific protocols put forth by individual AAT organizations, which can provide for a national model, can afford for the safety and comfortability of canine partners, especially in a corrections environment, but implies that in order to maintain consistency and increase therapy team professionalism, national standards are a necessity. Guidelines are specifically essential for mental health professionals, who lack guidelines from their own accrediting bodies’ code of ethics, and may incorporate non-human therapy partners into their work settings, without proper supervision. Full article
15 pages, 460 KiB  
Article
More of the Same? Comparing the Personalities of Ex-Spouse and New Partner after Divorce
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(11), 431; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10110431 - 09 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 8214
Abstract
The similarity of the Big Five personality traits of ex-spouses and new partners was examined post-divorce. The notion that divorcees replicate their partner choice (fixed-type hypothesis) was tested against the hypotheses that they learn to select a new partner with more marriage-stabilizing personality [...] Read more.
The similarity of the Big Five personality traits of ex-spouses and new partners was examined post-divorce. The notion that divorcees replicate their partner choice (fixed-type hypothesis) was tested against the hypotheses that they learn to select a new partner with more marriage-stabilizing personality traits than their former spouse (learning hypothesis), or are constrained by marriage market forces to repartner with someone who has less stabilizing personality traits (marriage market hypothesis). Data was derived from a Flemish study that sampled divorcees from the national register. The sample consisted of 700 triads of divorcees, their ex-spouses, and their new partners. The analysis results rejected the fixed-type hypothesis and instead supported both the learning hypothesis and the marriage market hypothesis, with higher order repartnering supporting the latter. Women also seemed to validate both hypotheses, as their partner comparison showed decreases in both stabilizing traits (conscientiousness and agreeableness) and destabilizing traits (neuroticism and extraversion). Overall, the results seem to suggest that divorcees do not repartner with someone of the same personality as their ex-spouse, and they are in some cases constrained by marriage market forces to repartner with less stabilizing personalities, while in other cases they are able to improve their partner selection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Divorce and Life Course)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 682 KiB  
Article
Barriers to Adopting New Technologies within Rural Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs)
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(11), 430; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10110430 - 09 Nov 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3496
Abstract
The adoption of technologies by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) that operate in several business sectors in rural areas is a crucial issue because they often need financial and technical incentives and support from public and local authorities. The question of whether and [...] Read more.
The adoption of technologies by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) that operate in several business sectors in rural areas is a crucial issue because they often need financial and technical incentives and support from public and local authorities. The question of whether and how innovation can be replicated and applied in a wider context is strictly connected to the understanding of those factors and mechanisms capable of determining the success or failure of the introduction of innovation itself. In this paper, the attention is focused on the impact of new technologies in order to increase SMEs’ competitiveness and productivity among the firms. For this purpose, only recent resources, research and studies that have been implemented during the last twenty years are taken into account. Firstly, based on these studies, the main disruptive technologies were selected. Secondly, the evidence is drawn from stakeholder data discussions of the Interreg Europe project “Regional policies for innovation driven competitiveness and growth of rural SMEs—INNOGROW”, covering eight European countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Slovenia and the United Kingdom). Descriptive statistics were applied to describe the case identities. The cases’ needs, enablers and barriers in different groups were analyzed using a chi-square test and Mann–Whitney U Test. The results of this study are important for both researchers as well as small business practitioners (including government agencies and owners/managers) in order to provided policy recommendations, concerning how to establish favourable conditions and offer incentives to SMEs to integrate innovative solutions into their business models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Economics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 314 KiB  
Article
Australian Health Professionals’ Attitudes toward Voluntary Assisted Dying: A Cross-Sectional Survey
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(11), 429; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10110429 - 07 Nov 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3975
Abstract
Voluntary assisted dying (VAD) is when a terminally ill person with decision-making capacity consensually ends their life with assistance from an authorised professional. Many countries have legalised VAD, and health professionals’ roles within VAD frameworks are varied. Health professionals must be well informed [...] Read more.
Voluntary assisted dying (VAD) is when a terminally ill person with decision-making capacity consensually ends their life with assistance from an authorised professional. Many countries have legalised VAD, and health professionals’ roles within VAD frameworks are varied. Health professionals must be well informed of their legal obligations to ensure they practice within the legal boundaries, and those professionals with objections toward VAD should ensure that their eligible patients have equitable access. Given the current landscape of VAD, it is important to understand different health professionals’ attitudes toward VAD and what may underpin these attitudes. We explored (a) Australian health professionals’ attitudes toward VAD; (b) the psychological components that underpin those attitudes; (c) health professionals’ level of knowledge about VAD; (d) health professionals’ most common beliefs, emotions, and experiences related to VAD. A cross-sectional correlational survey design was used. A total of 182 Australian health professionals participated in the online survey based on a tripartite model of attitudes. We conducted a binomial logistic regression through a Generalised Linear Mixed Model and found polarised attitudes toward VAD between health professionals. Attitudes were accounted for by beliefs, emotions, education, and strength of religious beliefs. Knowledge of VAD was low, but not associated with overall attitude in our model. We highlight the importance of reflexive practice to help health professionals identify their values and feelings related to VAD, and to understand how these may affect their clinical practice. Low knowledge of VAD suggests that legislative and procedural training should be mandatory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Policy and Welfare)
14 pages, 443 KiB  
Article
Gender and Place of Settlement as Predictors of Perceived Social Support, PTSD, and Insomnia among Internally Displaced Adolescents in North-East Nigeria
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(11), 428; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10110428 - 07 Nov 2021
Viewed by 2654
Abstract
Previous research has shown that gender affects social support and post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD). The present study explores the main and interaction effects of gender and place of settlement on social support, PTSD symptoms, and insomnia in internally displaced adolescents (IDAs) in North-east [...] Read more.
Previous research has shown that gender affects social support and post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD). The present study explores the main and interaction effects of gender and place of settlement on social support, PTSD symptoms, and insomnia in internally displaced adolescents (IDAs) in North-east of Nigeria. A stratified sampling method was used to select 109 participants from IDAs living in the camp, while 27 additional IDAs were purposively recruited from those living in the host community. Participants completed measures of Harvard Trauma Questionnaire Part-II, Insomnia Severity Index, and Crisis Support. No significant effects of gender on perceived social support, PTSDs, and insomnia were observed. Place of settlement had a significant effect on social support, with IDAs living in the camp having a higher mean score, while place of settlement had no significant effects on PTSD and insomnia. A significant interaction effect of gender and place of settlements on insomnia was found, with males living in the community having a higher mean score than their female counterparts, as well as both males and females in the camp. In conclusion, there is a need to understand male IDAs who reside in non-camp settings better, including the nature of their challenges, the outcomes they desire, and the limitations they experienced. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

29 pages, 3932 KiB  
Article
Design of Personal Trajectories for Employees’ Professional Development in the Knowledge Society under Industry 5.0
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(11), 427; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10110427 - 06 Nov 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4109
Abstract
The main feature of Industry 5.0 is “personalization”, linked not only to provide customers with personalized products, but also, in our opinion, to ensure personalization in labor relations with employees, since it increases human value through human–machine collaboration. The human capital quality determines [...] Read more.
The main feature of Industry 5.0 is “personalization”, linked not only to provide customers with personalized products, but also, in our opinion, to ensure personalization in labor relations with employees, since it increases human value through human–machine collaboration. The human capital quality determines a significant contribution not only to the labor productivity growth, but also to extend a social communication, loyalty and employees’ trust. The study proposes the new methodological approach for corporate human capital assessment and management (CHCM) over new conditions of digital transformation. The CHCM uses methods of system analysis and synthesis, expert assessments, descriptive statistical analysis and survey. The novelty of CHCM is that, firstly, it reflects all the essential features and properties of human capital under emergence of new professions; secondly, it combines and comprehensively uses both quantitative and qualitative methods for human capital assessment, reflecting the subjective and objective aspects of human capital measurement; thirdly, it allows to create warranted management decisions about individual trajectories of professional development of employees, ensuring the continuous growth of individual, corporate and social wealth. It is proved experimentally that the implementation of individual trajectories for employees’ professional development provides 2–3 years’ perspective on companies’ performance growth. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 538 KiB  
Article
Using an Artificial Intelligence Based Chatbot to Provide Parent Training: Results from a Feasibility Study
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(11), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10110426 - 05 Nov 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3956
Abstract
Online parenting training programs have shown to be effective. However, no studies on parent training programs delivered through chatbots have been reported yet. Aim. This study aims to assess the feasibility of delivering parenting skills through a chatbot. Methods. A sample of 33 [...] Read more.
Online parenting training programs have shown to be effective. However, no studies on parent training programs delivered through chatbots have been reported yet. Aim. This study aims to assess the feasibility of delivering parenting skills through a chatbot. Methods. A sample of 33 parents completed a pilot feasibility study. Engagement, knowledge, net-promoters score and qualitative responses were analyzed. Results. A total of 78.8% of the sample completed the intervention. On average, participants remembered 3.7 skills out of the 5 presented and reported that they would recommend the chatbot to other parents (net promoter score was 7.44; SD = 2.31 out of 10). Overall, parents sent a mean of 54.24 (SD = 13.5) messages to the chatbot, and the mean number of words per message was 3. Main themes parents discussed with the chatbot included issues regarding their child’s habits, handling disruptive behaviors, interpersonal development, and emotional difficulties. Parents generally commented on the usefulness of the intervention and suggested improvements to the chatbot’s communication style. Conclusions. Overall, users completed the intervention, engaged with the bot, and would recommend the intervention to others. This suggests parenting skills could be delivered via chatbots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technological Approaches for the Treatment of Mental Health in Youth)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 314 KiB  
Article
Domestic Structures, Misalignment, and Defining the Climate Displacement Problem
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(11), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10110425 - 04 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1964
Abstract
This paper contrasts how climate reports describe displacement with how analyses of moving after disaster have described whether people move. The paper argues that domestic structures govern displacement, and are likely to continue to. Domestically, people have different legal statuses and access to [...] Read more.
This paper contrasts how climate reports describe displacement with how analyses of moving after disaster have described whether people move. The paper argues that domestic structures govern displacement, and are likely to continue to. Domestically, people have different legal statuses and access to resources, which shape the ability to move. Authoritative governance documents on climate change, including the United States National Climate Assessment, argue that climate change will lead to increasing numbers of displaced people. On the other hand, demographers and economists who study where people move to after disaster have argued that climate reports overstate the risk of mass displacement, based in what has happened after past disasters. Domestic governance processes influence resettlement, and they can change. Studies of whether people move after disaster do not take into account how changes in insurance rates or other rules shaping where people live could reshape resettlement. On the other hand, analyses of governing potential climate displacement draw on international agreements and documents. has often centered on islands advocates argue will disappear, not the changing habitability of places that also depends on the resources people have. The image of disappearing islands misdirects from the risks of climate displacement in wealthier countries, where some people have extensive resources and others do not. This paper argues that the risk of displacement requires turning to follow the domestic governance processes that shape people’s decisions now. This approach fits with calls to work from people’s claims up to governance processes, rather than from processes downward. Full article
16 pages, 1197 KiB  
Review
Urban Marginalization and the Declining Capacity for Disaster Risks in Contemporary China
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(11), 424; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10110424 - 04 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3636
Abstract
Many disaster studies in the social sciences have so far pointed out that contemporary urbanization catalyzes the transformation of actual and potential risks into disasters. Compared with the greater attention paid to the losses of disasters, there is inadequate recognition of the roles [...] Read more.
Many disaster studies in the social sciences have so far pointed out that contemporary urbanization catalyzes the transformation of actual and potential risks into disasters. Compared with the greater attention paid to the losses of disasters, there is inadequate recognition of the roles of deep-seated social factors in addressing environmental changes and risks. In addition, very few discussions about social vulnerabilities have paid attention to China, even though they focus on developing countries. In the past four decades, China’s rapid urbanization, urban expansions, and large-scale rural-urban migration have led to increasing difficulties in urban management, generating a large number of marginalized populations and spaces that are often called urban villages. The current marginalization problems are connected with economic poverty, sustained exclusion, and social inequality under state-managed urbanization. This study aims to provide a valuable discussion on the relationship between rapid urbanization and urban marginalization to identify the underlying causes of social vulnerability from the perspectives of institution, space, and urban governance, reviewing the experiences of China’s urbanization. This study concludes that urbanization-induced marginalization has adverse impacts on structural resistance to external pressures such as natural disasters. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 1469 KiB  
Article
Students’ Social Representations of Forced Migration as a Relevant Social Problem and Its Curricular Inclusion at the End of Primary School
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(11), 423; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10110423 - 04 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2073
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to assess students’ social representations of forced migration as a relevant social problem in the last year of primary education and the opportunity for its curricular inclusion. The study was carried out by means of a questionnaire, [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to assess students’ social representations of forced migration as a relevant social problem in the last year of primary education and the opportunity for its curricular inclusion. The study was carried out by means of a questionnaire, filled in by 6th-year primary education groups (11–12 years old) (n = 70), in a state-supported private school in the city of A Coruña (Galicia, Spain). The questionnaire was supported by three pictures of forced migrations from the media. In this case, the children had to interpret the pictures through a series of questions that sought to investigate their representations, the causes they identify in this social problem, their opinions, and possible solutions. Finally, the opportunity for the inclusion of social problems as curriculum content was addressed. The study shows that the students are in favor of migrants, that they use concepts from the social sciences in their arguments—albeit simple ones, and that they are in favor of the curricular inclusion of social problems, in which they develop representations through different sources of information. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 340 KiB  
Article
Resurgence, Populism, and Politics ‘From Below’
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(11), 422; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10110422 - 04 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2284
Abstract
Populist politics are an increasingly prominent feature of contemporary politics around the world. In settler colonies, Indigenous resurgence is also an increasingly important feature of political contestation. Both discourses involve questions of peoplehood, pluralism, and collective agency. The goal of this paper is [...] Read more.
Populist politics are an increasingly prominent feature of contemporary politics around the world. In settler colonies, Indigenous resurgence is also an increasingly important feature of political contestation. Both discourses involve questions of peoplehood, pluralism, and collective agency. The goal of this paper is to explore these phenomena side by side, and ask what they reveal about the present political conjuncture. I argue that both political projects involve a constructive element, as actors build spaces of political contestation beyond the state. In this way, each movement involves an often overlooked contest between politics ‘from above’ and ‘from below’. Ultimately, I conclude that the above/below distinction reveals important cleavages that are obscured by the traditional left/right distinction that structures much political analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Resurgence of Populism: Tackling the Crisis of Liberal Democracy)
18 pages, 359 KiB  
Article
Bordered Trajectories: The Impact of Institutional Bordering Practices on Young Refugees’ (Re-)Engagement with Post-15 Education in Greece
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(11), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10110421 - 04 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2958
Abstract
Greece has been a site of various crises in recent years: firstly, the financial crash of 2008; secondly, the ongoing ‘refugee crisis’, which peaked in 2015; and thirdly, the current COVID-19 pandemic. This paper addresses the first of these crises, and particularly how [...] Read more.
Greece has been a site of various crises in recent years: firstly, the financial crash of 2008; secondly, the ongoing ‘refugee crisis’, which peaked in 2015; and thirdly, the current COVID-19 pandemic. This paper addresses the first of these crises, and particularly how state responses to increased migration flows shape young refugees’ (aged 15–25) (re-)engagement with post-15 learning opportunities upon arrival in the country. It is based on semi-structured interviews with young refugees living in Thessaloniki, conducted as part of an ethnographic doctoral project on educational decision-making. The findings reveal that three key institutional bordering practices in Greece—namely the bordering of space (via encampment), time (via enforced waiting), and public services (via administrative barriers)—played central roles in young refugees’ (re-)engagement with post-15 education; often causing their dreams to be diverted or downgraded. However, with determination and the support of willing gatekeepers, refugee youth found ways to (re)construct adapted learning trajectories despite, and in response to, these arrival challenges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crisis, (Im)mobilities and Young Life Trajectories)
14 pages, 1759 KiB  
Article
The Facebook Groups and Pages of Malagasy Migrants in France: Hubs of Peer-to-Peer and Spontaneous Solidarity
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(11), 420; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10110420 - 04 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2405
Abstract
How do social platforms such as Facebook help migrant communities cope with the adversities faced during the migration journey? This is the question that drove this study, which explores the on- and offline experiences of Malagasy migrants in France during their migration journeys. [...] Read more.
How do social platforms such as Facebook help migrant communities cope with the adversities faced during the migration journey? This is the question that drove this study, which explores the on- and offline experiences of Malagasy migrants in France during their migration journeys. We use complementary mixed methods, including an online survey (2021, n = 340) and participant observation of in-group and public interactions on 28 Facebook groups and pages of this community. We found that peer-to-peer solidarity as a collective response to the adversities faced during migration is present and very active within the Malagasy community in France. The exchanges among the members of this community concerning matters such as administrative issues and the transport of parcels between France and Madagascar are intense and continuous. Beyond this, solidarity chains are temporarily activated in response to specific needs, and particularly in collectively challenging times such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Our research also found that in their groups and pages, the Malagasy in France engage less frequently in other vital issues, such as finding work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section International Migration)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 395 KiB  
Article
Exploring Extrinsic and Intrinsic Work Values of British Ethnic Minorities: The Roles of Demographic Background, Job Characteristics and Immigrant Generation
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(11), 419; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10110419 - 03 Nov 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2442
Abstract
Despite the increasingly diverse ethnic composition of the British labor force, there is no research investigating whether ethnic minorities have different work values from the White British demographic (White British). Using nationally representative data (2012–2013), this article fills this gap by comparing extrinsic [...] Read more.
Despite the increasingly diverse ethnic composition of the British labor force, there is no research investigating whether ethnic minorities have different work values from the White British demographic (White British). Using nationally representative data (2012–2013), this article fills this gap by comparing extrinsic and intrinsic work values between White British and five ethnic minorities, while distinguishing between first and second generations. The results show that both first- and second- generation minorities have stronger extrinsic work values than White British, but the ethnic differences are more pronounced for the second generations. Compared to White British, while first-generation minorities have weaker intrinsic work values, the second generations have stronger intrinsic work values. Differences in extrinsic work values are partly explained by differences in age, education and income, while differences in intrinsic work values are largely explained by age, education and job autonomy. These results hold significant implications for understanding the career choices of ethnic minorities and labor market outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Work, Employment and the Labor Market)
14 pages, 532 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Peer Pressure and Sexual Adventurism among Adolescents in Ghana: The Moderating Role of Child-Rearing Practices
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(11), 418; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10110418 - 02 Nov 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3763
Abstract
The rationale of this study was to examine the influence of peer pressure on sexual adventurism among adolescents in Ghana, and as well to explore the role of child-rearing practices in this relationship. The study covered adolescents in junior high schools in Ghana [...] Read more.
The rationale of this study was to examine the influence of peer pressure on sexual adventurism among adolescents in Ghana, and as well to explore the role of child-rearing practices in this relationship. The study covered adolescents in junior high schools in Ghana within the age range of 12 to 19 years. A sample of 525 adolescents was surveyed to participate in the research using the multistage sampling approach. The main instrument for data collection was a questionnaire. Data gathered were analysed using means and standard deviation, multivariate linear regression, and three-way interaction-moderation analysis. Child-rearing practices and peer pressure significantly and independently predicted sexual adventurism. Parental discipline acted as a significant moderator in the relationship between peer pressure and sexual adventurism. Again, only in the presence of discipline could monitoring and warmth moderate the relationship between peer pressure and sexual adventurism. Based on the findings, parents are encouraged to incorporate reasonable disciplinary measures in shaping their children’s behaviours against sexually deviant activities. Besides, guidance and counselling coordinators should plan and organize programs that centre on reducing the prevalence of peer pressure and sexual adventurism. Conclusions drawn from the study include bringing out a better understanding of the role that discipline and peer pressure play in influencing adolescents’ sexual adventurism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Childhood and Youth Studies)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 1326 KiB  
Brief Report
Monetary Fiscal Contributions to Households and Pension Fund Withdrawals during the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Approximation of Their Impact on Construction Labor Supply in Chile
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(11), 417; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10110417 - 02 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2555
Abstract
We show statistical evidence that pension fund withdrawals and the Emergency Family Income (EFI) increased the likelihood that a laid off construction worker would reject a proposal for a formal employment contract. This favors the hypothesis that pension fund withdrawals and government subsidies [...] Read more.
We show statistical evidence that pension fund withdrawals and the Emergency Family Income (EFI) increased the likelihood that a laid off construction worker would reject a proposal for a formal employment contract. This favors the hypothesis that pension fund withdrawals and government subsidies related to the health crisis have, to some extent, contributed to the shortage of formal labor in the construction sector. Based on estimations of the logit model, we found that rejection probability increased with work experience (approximated by the worker’s age). For example, the probability of not accepting a formal contract for a highly experienced worker, who withdrew funds from their mandatory private Pension Fund Administrator and received the EFI, increased by 28%. The figure is approximately 2.5 times the rejection probability of a worker with the same experience but without having received this additional income. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop