Greenery-Covered Tall Buildings: A Review
1.1. The Increasing Demand for Nature
1.2. Biophilic Design
1.3. Vertical Landscaping and Planting
- Raise Awareness and Introduction: By offering an overall introduction to greenery-covered tall buildings, the paper aims to raise awareness among architects, developers, scholars, and the general public about this novel building typology. This introduction is a starting point for understanding the principles, benefits, and potential of integrating greenery into tall buildings.
- Mapping Innovative Projects: The paper explores and highlights innovative ideas and design concepts by mapping novel projects that integrate greenery. The paper showcases successful implementations that can serve as transformative architectural solutions. By reviewing these projects, the readers can differentiate them from “afterthought” greenery additions.
- Review Social, Environmental, and Economic Benefits: The paper aims to comprehensively review the many benefits of integrating greenery into tall buildings. This examination delves into how such projects positively impact the well-being of urban residents, contribute to sustainability, and enhance the urban environment.
- Addressing Challenges: The paper intends to discuss the challenges of integrating trees and plants into tall buildings. These challenges include construction costs, maintenance considerations, and compliance with building and fire codes. Understanding these obstacles is essential for developing successful and sustainable greenery-covered tall buildings.
- Extensive Greenery Coverage: The building should showcase a significant amount of greenery covering a substantial portion of its envelope, such as vegetated balconies, terraces, or vertical gardens. In the case of tall buildings, the roof area is proportionately much smaller than the entire building’s envelope. As such, if a tall building has implemented only a green roof, it does not fit the “greenery-covered tall building” typology and is not selected for examination.
- Integration of Greenery in Design Scheme: The greenery should be an integral part of the building’s design scheme, reflecting a deliberate effort towards sustainability rather than a superficial addition after the building’s design was finalized. The greeneries should not just sprinkle a few trees and shrubs on the building or an afterthought scheme. It is essential to go beyond superficial additions and ensure that greenery is thoughtfully incorporated from the early stages of the design process. This deliberate effort towards sustainability ensures that the green elements are aesthetically pleasing but also functional and beneficial.
- Completed Construction and Inhabitation: The project must be completed, construction finished, and the building should be inhabited. Numerous proposed and visionary projects show massive integration of greeneries into buildings. However, these projects stay on the drawing board. Completed projects offer more practical insight than visionary ones.
- Minimum Height Requirement: The building should be 10+ stories tall, ensuring that the study focuses on tall buildings embodying the challenges and benefits of greenery in high-rise structures. Please see Appendix A to discern the rationale.
- Vegetated Balconies: Tall buildings with vegetative balconies feature greenery or plantings on their outdoor balconies, providing residents with a connection to nature and enhancing the building’s aesthetics.
- Terraces and Rooftop Gardens: Buildings with vegetated terraces incorporate green spaces or gardens on elevated platforms, creating outdoor spaces for relaxation and recreation while promoting biodiversity.
- Façade-Supported Green Walls: They use elements (e.g., wires, cables, netting, lattice, or mesh) to support climbing plants, allowing them to spread and grow along the building’s façade.
- Vegetated Exoskeleton: The exoskeleton is an external support structure that may also be designed to accommodate greenery and vegetation, contributing to the building’s sustainability and aesthetics.
- Façade-Integrated Green Walls: Façade-integrated green walls are a type of living wall system where the plants, substrate, and structural support are directly attached to the building wall. They may involve modular panels or containers pre-planted with various plant species and mounted on the wall.
- Vertical Planters: Buildings with vertical planters incorporate specially designed containers or structures to house plants and vegetation, often installed on the building’s exterior.
- Vegetated Balconies. Vegetated balconies represent one of the most popular concepts in greenery-covered tall buildings. They offer a practical and accessible way to integrate greenery into the building’s design while providing numerous benefits for occupants and the environment. Vegetated balconies offer a direct connection to nature for building occupants. Residents can have their private green spaces, allowing them to enjoy the benefits of nature, such as improved well-being and stress reduction, without having to leave their homes. Table 2 illustrates that almost half of the 31 listed projects use vegetative balconies. Among these projects, Bosco Verticale in Milan, designed by Stefano Boeri, stands out as a pioneering example that has garnered worldwide interest and acclaim. The innovative use of vegetative balconies in Bosco Verticale has sparked a new wave of interest in integrating greenery into building typologies, making it a crucial case study for this research. The project has received worldwide recognition and is considered an exemplary greenery-covered tall building. It is a must-study case.
- Terraces and Rooftop Gardens. Spacious vegetative terraces and rooftop gardens are distinctive features of greenery-covered tall buildings. The ACROS Fukuoka Prefectural International Hall, completed in 1995 in Fukuoka, Japan, stands as one of the earliest and most remarkable examples of greenery-covered tall buildings. The building’s unique design incorporates a stepped garden façade, creating a series of terraces that rise from ground level to the rooftop. These terraces are filled with lush vegetation, creating a visually stunning and environmentally friendly addition to the urban landscape. This building’s innovative design has garnered appreciation and admiration over the years, proving its longevity and relevance in sustainable architecture. The building’s design is a testament to the seamless integration of architecture and nature, dedicating significant areas to accommodate substantial greenery. Therefore, it is selected as a representative case study.
- Façade-Supported Green Walls. One Central Park is a remarkable example of a greenery-covered tall building, exemplifying the successful integration of vegetation and innovative design. The project has received considerable praise for its innovative approach to urban greenery and sustainability, mainly due to the design team of famous architect Jean Nouvel and landscape architect Patrick Blanc. The green walls of One Central Park feature a diverse selection of plant species that add color and texture to the urban landscape. These vertical gardens enhance the building’s aesthetic appeal and contribute to several sustainable features.
- Vegetated Exoskeleton. The concept of a “vegetative exoskeleton” is indeed an innovative and original design approach, expanding on the idea of lattice structures by enveloping the entire building with greenery, as in the case of Oasia Downtown. The building’s distinctive design and sustainable and biophilic features have earned it architectural recognition and acclaim. Oasia Downtown, designed by WOHA Architects, exemplifies sustainable architecture that seamlessly integrates nature into its urban setting. The vegetative exoskeleton enhances the building’s visual appeal and is an effective environmental solution. The green façade acts as a natural sunshade, providing passive cooling for the building’s interior and reducing energy consumption. The building’s numerous accolades reflect its success as a model for sustainable and biophilic architecture.
- Façade-Integrated Green Walls. The concept of façade-integrated green walls is another innovative and distinctive feature of greenery-covered high-rises, showcasing the seamless integration of vegetation into the building’s walls. Several notable buildings, such as the School of the Arts Singapore (SOTA) in Singapore, Santalaia in Bogotá, Colombia, and Check Point in Tel Aviv, Israel, have embraced this design approach, creating visually striking and environmentally friendly structures.
- Vertical Planters. Vertical planters are an innovative concept in greenery-covered tall buildings, and “1000 Trees” in Shanghai, China, stands as a unique example of their application. The building’s design revolves around the idea of incorporating vertical planters, showcasing how vegetation can be creatively integrated into the building’s façade. The vertical planters act as a prominent visual element, giving the building its distinctive and environmentally friendly appearance. Overall, “1000 Trees” in Shanghai is a compelling example of vertical planters in greenery-covered tall buildings, and exploring its design can provide valuable knowledge for furthering the understanding of this innovative building typology. Table 3 lists the seven selected case studies with their associated distinctive, innovative vegetative features.
4. Case Studies
4.1. Bosco Verticale, Milan, Italy
- The 2014 International Highrise Award;
- The 2015 Best Tall Building Worldwide by the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH);
- The 2015 CTBUH Urban Habitat Award (in addition to winning the Best Tall Building Worldwide Award, Bosco Verticale also received the CTBUH Urban Habitat Award in 2015);
- The 2018 Emporis Skyscraper Award.
4.2. ACROS Fukuoka Prefectural International Hall, Fukuoka, Japan
- The 1995 Nikkei New Office Building Award;
- The 1996 Architectural Institute of Japan (AIJ) Annual Architectural Design Commendation;
- The 1997 Fukuoka City Architecture Award;
- The 2012 Asian Townscape Award.
4.3. One Central Park, Sydney, Australia
- 2014 Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) Best Tall Building Award—Asia & Australasia;
- 2014 International Highrise Award;
- 2014 Australian Institute of Architects (AIA) National Architecture Awards—Jørn Utzon Award for International Architecture;
- 2014 Asia Pacific Property Awards—Best Residential High-Rise Development;
- 2014 World Architecture Festival (WAF)—World Building of the Year.
4.4. Le Nouvel KLCC, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
- The 2018 International Highrise Award;
- The 2018 FIABCI Malaysia Property Award.
4.5. Oasia Downtown, Singapore
- The 2016 Skyrise Greenery Awards;
- The 2016 CTBUH Urban Habitat Award;
- The 2018 FIABCI Singapore Property Award.
4.6. CDL’s Tree House, Singapore
- The green wall is the scheme’s most significant and visible part, covering the four sides of the 24-story tower (Figure 7). The green wall comprises modular panels containing various plants, such as ferns, orchids, bromeliads, and vines. The panels are irrigated by a rainwater-harvesting system and monitored by sensors to ensure optimal growth conditions. The green wall reduces the surface temperature of the building by up to 3 °C and lowers the energy consumption for cooling by up to 15% .
- The sky gardens are landscaped terraces on every four tower floors, providing residents access to green spaces and views. The sky gardens feature different themes and plant species, such as tropical, edible, medicinal, and aromatic gardens. The sky gardens also serve as communal areas for social interaction and recreation.
- The roof garden is the highest level of the scheme, covering the entire roof area of the tower. The roof garden consists of a lawn, a pavilion, a playground, and a jogging track. The roof garden offers panoramic views of the surrounding landscape, cityscape, outdoor activities, and relaxation opportunities. The roof garden also reduces the heat island effect and stormwater runoff .
- The 2014 Building and Construction Authority (BCA) Green Mark Platinum Award;
- The 2014 Singapore Institute of Architects (SIA) Architectural Design Awards—Honorable Mention;
- The 2015 BCA Green Mark Platinum Award;
- The 2015 FIABCI Prix d’Excellence Awards—Silver Winner.
4.7. “1000 Trees”, Shanghai, China
- The 2021 CTBUH Award of Excellence for Best Tall Building 100–199 m;
- The 2020 Blueprint Award for Best Non-Public Project: Commercial;
- The 2019 MIPIM Asia Award for Best Futura Mega Project;
- The 2018 LEAF Award for Best Future Building Under Construction.
5.1.1. Improved Air Quality
- Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Reduction: Greenery-covered tall buildings play a vital role in absorbing carbon dioxide, a significant greenhouse gas responsible for global warming and climate change. Through photosynthesis, plants absorb CO2 and convert it into oxygen and glucose. This process helps reduce CO2 levels in the atmosphere and releases oxygen into the air, enhancing air quality [1,2].
- Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Capture: Fine particulate matter, often called PM2.5, consists of tiny particles suspended in the air. When inhaled, these particles can adversely affect human health, causing respiratory problems and other health issues. The leaves and surfaces of greenery-covered buildings act as surfaces where PM2.5 particles can settle, effectively reducing their concentration in the air [6,9].
- Healthier Urban Environments: By capturing and sequestering CO2 and PM2.5, green façades contribute to cleaner and healthier air in the surrounding urban environment. This is particularly important in densely populated cities where air pollution levels can become hazardous due to increased human activities and pollution sources .
- Indoor Air Quality Improvement: Greenery-covered buildings also positively impact indoor air quality. The natural filtration process extends indoors, helping to reduce indoor air pollutants and creating healthier living and working environments for building occupants .
5.1.2. Urban Heat Island Mitigation
- Natural Shade and Cooling: Green façades, rooftops, and terraces of tall buildings provide natural shade, preventing direct sunlight from heating up building surfaces. The vegetation is a protective layer that blocks significant solar radiation from reaching the building’s exterior. This natural shading reduces the heat the building absorbs, lowering its surface temperature [1,2,26].
- Evapotranspiration: Plants undergo transpiration, releasing water vapor into the air. This process helps cool the surroundings as water evaporates heat from the environment. As a result, the temperature in and around greenery-covered tall buildings can be notably lower than in non-vegetated areas .
- Evaporative Cooling: The combination of transpiration and evaporation leads to a cooling effect known as evaporative cooling. The moisture released by plants absorbs heat from the environment, effectively reducing ambient temperatures. This cooling effect is especially beneficial during hot and sunny days when urban heat is more intense .
- Microclimate Creation: As a result, incorporating greenery into tall buildings allows architects and urban planners to create microclimates within urban spaces. These microclimates offer more excellent and more comfortable conditions for occupants and pedestrians, contrasting with the otherwise elevated temperatures in urban areas .
5.1.3. Biodiversity Support
- Habitat Creation: Including vegetation on building façades, rooftops, and terraces creates new habitats that can host a variety of plant and animal species .
- Insect-Friendly Environment: Greenery-covered tall buildings attract insects like bees, butterflies, and other pollinators. These insects play a crucial role in pollinating plants, contributing to the reproduction of various plant species and the overall health of ecosystems .
- Food Source: Vegetation provides a potential food source for urban wildlife, including birds and small mammals. Fruits, seeds, and insects attracted to the greenery offer nourishment for diverse species .
- Native Plant Species: Native plant species for green façades and rooftops support local ecosystems by providing food and shelter for native insects, birds, and pollinators. Native plants are well adapted to the local climate and often require less maintenance .
- Corridor for Movement: Greenery-covered tall buildings can serve as stepping stones or corridors for wildlife movement in urban areas. These corridors help connect fragmented habitats, allowing animals to move more freely and access essential resources .
- Educational Opportunities: Greenery-covered tall buildings provide educational opportunities for residents and visitors to learn about local plant and animal species. This increased awareness fosters a sense of responsibility for urban biodiversity conservation .
5.1.4. Enhanced Well-Being
- Improved Air Quality (see Section 5.1.1): As discussed earlier, the vegetation on greenery-covered tall buildings acts as a natural filter, absorbing pollutants such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Cleaner air leads to better respiratory health and well-being for building occupants and the surrounding community [1,2,86].
- Physical Activity: Accessible green spaces encourage physical activity, such as walking or relaxation. Rooftop gardens and green terraces provide opportunities for exercise and relaxation, promoting a healthier lifestyle .
- Engaging Sensory Experiences: Residents and visitors can engage with the greenery through sensory experiences such as smelling the fragrance of flowers, feeling the texture of leaves, and observing wildlife. These experiences add depth and engagement to the urban setting .
5.1.5. Energy Efficiency
- Natural Insulation: The vegetation on building façades, rooftops, and terraces acts as a natural insulator, providing an additional layer of thermal protection. This insulation helps regulate indoor temperatures, reducing the need for excessive heating during colder months and cooling during hotter periods .
- Reduced Heat Gain: Greenery-covered surfaces absorb solar radiation, reducing the heat entering the building. This mitigation of heat gain lessens the need for air conditioning and artificial cooling systems, leading to energy savings .
- Shading Effect: The strategic placement of greenery provides shading to building surfaces, including windows and walls. This shade prevents direct sunlight from reaching indoor spaces, minimizing overheating and the demand for cooling systems .
- Evaporative Cooling: Plants release water vapor into the air through transpiration, creating a cooling effect. This natural evaporative cooling can help reduce indoor temperatures and reliance on energy-intensive air conditioning systems .
- Improved HVAC Efficiency: The moderating effect of greenery on temperature and humidity levels can lead to more efficient operation of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. These systems do not have to work as hard to maintain desired indoor conditions .
- Reduced Carbon Emissions: As energy consumption decreases due to energy-efficient design features, the associated carbon emissions from energy generation also decrease. This contributes to overall sustainability and a smaller carbon footprint .
- Renewable Energy Integration: In line with green design, greenery-covered tall buildings can integrate solar panels, wind turbines, or other technologies. These systems harness natural resources to generate power, reducing reliance on conventional energy sources .
5.1.6. Protection of Building Structure
- Protection from UV Radiation: The leaves and branches of plants provide a natural shield against the Sun’s harsh ultraviolet (UV) radiation. UV rays can cause material degradation, surface fading, and building material deterioration. The vegetation absorbs and filters UV radiation, extending the lifespan of building elements .
- Regulating Temperature. Greenery-covered façades and roofs can help regulate temperature fluctuations on the exterior surfaces of a building. This can reduce tension and strain on the building envelope, thereby preventing potential problems caused by thermal expansion and contraction .
- Prevention of Weathering: Green façades, particularly those with climbing plants, shield the building façade from direct exposure to weather elements such as heavy rain, wind, and sunlight. This protection prevents premature weathering and deterioration of building surfaces .
- Reduced Wind Impact: Tall buildings are often exposed to strong winds that exert considerable force on their façades and structures. The presence of vegetation can act as a buffer, absorbing wind energy and reducing the impact on residents sitting on balconies and terraces, for example .
- Enhanced Resilience: The combination of natural elements and built structures creates a more resilient building that can withstand various environmental challenges, such as extreme weather events and climate change impacts .
5.1.7. Noise Reduction
- Sound Absorption: Structures of plants, especially leaves, stems, and branches, have inherent sound-absorbing qualities. Sound waves are partially absorbed rather than reflected when they hit these surfaces. This absorption process helps decrease noise intensity, making the environment quieter .
- Diffusion: Vegetation on greenery-covered tall buildings can help scatter and disperse sound waves in multiple directions. This diffusion process prevents sound waves from concentrating in one direction and reduces the direct impact of noise on building occupants .
- Background Noise: Greenery introduces a layer of background noise, which can mask or cover up unwanted noises from the surroundings. The rustling of leaves, the chirping of birds, and the gentle flow of water in features like fountains create a more serene acoustic environment .
- Frequency Attenuation: Different vegetation types affect different sound frequencies. Dense vegetation with a mix of plant types can attenuate a wide range of frequencies, helping to reduce noise pollution from various sources .
- Strategic Design: Proper urban planning and landscape design can optimize the placement of greenery-covered tall buildings to strategically shield noise-sensitive areas from noise sources, such as busy roads or industrial zones .
5.1.8. Rainwater Management
- Stormwater Retention: The vegetation on greenery-covered tall buildings captures and retains rainwater on various surfaces, such as leaves, stems, and soil. This retention helps reduce the immediate volume of stormwater runoff that would otherwise flow into storm drains and potentially cause flooding .
- Rainwater Absorption: Plants can absorb rainwater through their roots and release it into the atmosphere through transpiration. This natural cycle helps regulate the amount of rainwater that enters the drainage system and decreases the strain on overburdened sewer systems .
- Evapotranspiration: Transpiration and evaporation from the soil and plant surfaces contribute to evapotranspiration. This process effectively reduces the overall amount of rainwater runoff by returning water to the atmosphere instead of overwhelming drainage systems .
- Reduced Peak Flows: Greenery-covered tall buildings slow down the rate of rainwater reaching the ground. The vegetation acts as a buffer, allowing rainwater to be absorbed, evaporated, or transpired before it enters drainage systems. This gradual release of water reduces peak flows during heavy rainfall events .
- Filtration and Purification: As rainwater moves through vegetation and soil, it undergoes natural filtration. Plant roots and soil particles capture pollutants and sediment, improving the quality of water that eventually reaches groundwater sources, rivers, and streams.
- Integration of Rainwater Management: Greenery-covered tall buildings can be designed with rainwater collection systems, such as rain gardens, green roofs, and vertical gardens. These systems capture rainwater for reuse in irrigation, reducing the demand for potable water for landscaping purposes .
5.1.9. Enhancing Aesthetics
- Visual Integration: Lush vegetation on building façades, rooftops, and balconies softens tall buildings’ harsh lines and rigid structures. This integration of greenery with architecture creates a harmonious and visually pleasing contrast .
- Natural Beauty: The vibrant colors, textures, and shapes of plants and flowers add a touch of nature’s beauty to the otherwise concrete-dominated urban environment. Greenery-covered buildings create a sense of serenity and tranquility, offering a respite from the urban hustle and bustle .
- Seasonal Changes: The changing colors and blooms of plants throughout the seasons bring variety and dynamism to the cityscape. Residents and passersby can experience the joy of watching the transformation of greenery-covered tall buildings from spring blossoms to fall foliage .
- Enhanced Public Spaces: Greenery-covered tall buildings often integrate public spaces such as rooftop gardens, terraces, and plazas. These areas allow people to enjoy outdoor spaces with a natural backdrop, encouraging social interactions and relaxation .
- Event Venues: Similarly, rooftop gardens and terraces in greenery-covered tall buildings can serve as unique event venues. Hosting gatherings, parties, or corporate events in these spaces creates memorable experiences, reinforcing the building’s image .
- Visual Identity: Greenery-covered buildings can become iconic landmarks that define the character of a city. They create memorable images and distinctive architectural features that residents and visitors associate with the urban landscape .
- Cultural Expression: Greenery-covered buildings can also incorporate elements of local culture and traditions, such as native plants and landscaping techniques. This adds a cultural layer to the aesthetics and reinforces the sense of place .
- Aesthetic Unity: Integrating greenery across a cluster of tall buildings creates a cohesive and harmonious urban environment. A skyline dotted with lush, verdant structures adds a unique and appealing character to the city .
5.1.10. Branding and Marketing
- Distinctive Identity: Greenery-covered tall buildings create a unique visual identity that differentiates them from traditional structures. This distinctiveness can become a recognizable brand element, making the building and its surroundings stand out in promotional materials and urban imagery .
- Innovative Image: Incorporating greenery into building design showcases innovation and forward thinking. Developers and businesses associated with such projects can position themselves as pioneers in sustainable and eco-friendly urban development. Businesses that occupy or develop such spaces can align their brand messaging with eco-conscious initiatives, attracting environmentally conscious consumers and investors .
- Civic Pride: Cities that embrace greenery-covered tall buildings communicate a commitment to improving the urban environment. Municipal authorities can use these projects to promote the city’s livability, attracting residents, businesses, and tourists .
- Social Media Buzz: Greenery-covered buildings often become popular subjects on social media platforms. Their unique aesthetic draws attention, and users frequently share photos and experiences. This organic exposure can amplify the building’s branding efforts .
- Storytelling: The process of designing and implementing greenery-covered tall buildings is an engaging story in itself. Brands can leverage this narrative to connect with audiences who appreciate the effort and creativity invested in the project .
- Tourist Attraction: Iconic greenery-covered structures can become landmarks that attract tourists. They provide photo opportunities and enhance the city’s tourist appeal, contributing to positive reviews and word-of-mouth marketing .
- Investment Appeal: Greenery-covered buildings may attract interest from investors seeking projects aligned with sustainable and future-oriented urban development. This can enhance the financial viability of the project and attract capital .
- Differentiation: In competitive real estate markets, greenery-covered buildings differentiate themselves from standard offerings. This differentiation can lead to higher occupancy rates and premium rental or sales prices .
- Partnerships and Collaborations: The unique features of greenery-covered buildings can facilitate collaborations with complementary businesses, such as wellness centers, restaurants, or eco-friendly brands .
5.2.1. Construction Costs
- Materials and Infrastructure: Greenery-covered buildings require additional materials such as soil, containers, irrigation systems, and structural modifications to support the weight of the vegetation. These materials can contribute to increased construction costs. “In absolute terms, trees 100 cm in trunk diameter typically add 10 kg to 200 kg of aboveground dry mass each year (depending on species), averaging 103 kg annually. This is nearly three times the rate for trees of the same species at 50 cm in diameter and is the mass equivalent to adding an entirely new tree of 10–20 cm in diameter to the forest each year” , p. 15.
- Design and Engineering: Designing and engineering a building with greenery integration may involve specialized expertise and additional design iterations. Architects and engineers must collaborate to ensure the building can support the added weight and structural changes. Indeed, including trees within building structures demands meticulous structural planning, necessitating extra measures for reinforcement and strengthening. This is imperative to accommodate the trees’ added weight and potential movement over time [38,62].
- Technology and Infrastructure: Integrating irrigation systems and technology to monitor and maintain the vegetation could require additional investments in infrastructure and equipment .
- Time is Money: Time carries economic implications, and integrating “innovative” features in buildings can extend construction timelines. The intricacies introduced by innovative designs often lead to more extended construction periods. For instance, the Bosco Verticale project in Milan spanned five years for completion, while a similarly sized non-greenery-integrated project in the same city typically requires around three years . Consequently, the extension of construction duration translates to augmented expenses. To mitigate this, innovative approaches, specialized knowledge, and efficient techniques are crucial to streamline construction processes and reduce costs.
- Balcony Use: The effectiveness of large balconies, particularly in regions with harsh weather conditions, has raised concerns among researchers and urban planners. In areas prone to extremely cold or hot weather, the practicality of these balconies can be seriously compromised, leading to reduced usage and essentially wasted space. Moreover, even on a single day, temperature fluctuations can be substantial, further limiting the usability of these outdoor spaces. Additionally, the wind tends to be more assertive at higher altitudes, making balconies on upper floors less comfortable for occupants .
- Terrace Use: Similarly, research has examined Singapore’s Oasia Hotel, which has come under scrutiny for allocating 40% of its volume to green, open-air terraces. While these green spaces align with the hotel’s biophilic design approach and offer various environmental and social advantages, a critical tradeoff exists between the extent of greenery and the hotel’s revenue-generating capacity . The decision to dedicate a significant portion of the building’s volume to green terraces has implications for the total number of hotel rooms that can be accommodated. Consequently, the hotel’s capacity to generate revenue from room rentals may be diminished due to reduced available guest accommodations. This tradeoff prompts a delicate balance between the desire to incorporate extensive green elements and optimizing the hotel’s financial performance, particularly regarding return on investment (ROI).
- Sunlight: Incorporating expansive vegetated balconies and terraces adorned with abundant plants and substantial trees presents a potential challenge concerning obstructing sunlight and natural daylight from entering indoor spaces. This can result in a heightened reliance on artificial lighting, leading to increased electricity consumption and subsequent utility bills. The situation is further compounded by the interplay between shadows cast by vegetation and cantilevered architectural elements such as balconies and terraces.
- Building’s Façades and Vegetation: The amount of greenery in these buildings’ different façades seems equal regardless of their solar orientation. The southern, northern, western, and eastern façades have similar amounts of vegetation, where light and solar conditions differ. Green design teaches that each façade should receive different treatment to adequately address wind direction and solar orientation. Eastern and western façades may need vertical fins to protect from sunrays, southern façades may need light shelves, while northern façades (which do not receive sunrays) need none.
- A similar problem prevails in Oasia Downtown in Singapore. The building’s four façades receive the same architectural and planting treatment, violating sustainable design principles. By providing the same treatment on all four façades, Oasia Hotel Downtown may miss out on opportunities to maximize the benefits of greenery integration. Different orientations and environmental conditions on each side of the building could be better addressed through tailored planting schemes and design strategies. For example, particular façades may require more shade-providing vegetation to reduce heat gain, while others could benefit from plant species that enhance wind protection and ventilation [45,98].
- Carbon Emissions: Incorporating trees and vegetation into high-rise buildings introduces a range of factors that must be weighed, including their potential environmental costs. One key concern is the carbon emissions associated with the production of materials used in construction, particularly steel and concrete. These emissions contribute to the broader carbon footprint issue, which significantly impacts sustainable urban development.
5.2.4. Building Codes
- Hurdles: Innovative projects face passing building code requirements. Design justification is needed since they have not been built before, and developers and architects need the authorities’ backing. For example, some claim Bosco Verticale received the government’s support because it was built before the Milan Expo . Therefore, the local authorities supported the project as a showcase project for the city, which does not always happen. It is another game for cities with strict building codes, such as New York City or a historic district that advocates preserving the historic fabric and prohibits “outlier” buildings, such as buildings with very different perceptual characteristics .
- Incentives: Singapore is an excellent case illustrating the government’s support for integrating greenery in buildings, including tall ones. The Skyrise Greenery Incentive Scheme (SGIS) provides funding of up to fifty percent of installation costs for rooftop and vertical greenery initiatives on existing buildings, with a cap of USD 200 per square meter for rooftop greenery and USD 500 per square meter for vertical greenery. NParks instituted the SGIS in 2009 to increase Singapore’s greenery provision . Projects supported by the SGIS include edible community rooftop gardens, recreational and therapeutic rooftop gardens, extensive green roofs, and luxuriant verdant green walls on more than 200 buildings. Some project examples include Oasia Hotel Downtown, Khoo Teck Puat Hospital, the National Parks Board (NParks) headquarters, and the School of the Arts. With these various initiatives and support from developers, building professionals, and owners, Singapore is well into achieving a target of 200 hectares of sky greenery by 2030 and towards a greener biophilic Singapore [99,100].
- Integrity and Aesthetic Concerns: Living and perpetually growing vegetation can challenge the façade’s integrity and aesthetics. Without proper maintenance, plants and trees may grow uncontrollably, covering windows and blocking natural light from entering indoor spaces. This growth can lead to a lack of visibility and create an unappealing visual appearance for the building .
- Pruning and Trimming: Regular pruning and trimming of vegetation are necessary to prevent overgrowth and maintain a desired appearance. Failure to trim trees and plants can lead to branches and leaves encroaching on windows and façades, hindering occupants’ views and impacting the overall aesthetics of the building .
- Impact on Indoor Spaces: Unchecked vegetation growth can directly impact indoor spaces’ quality. Plants that cover windows prevent natural light from entering, leading to darker and less inviting interiors. This situation can necessitate increased reliance on artificial lighting, contributing to higher energy consumption .
- Risk of Pests and Invasive Species: Neglected vegetation can become a breeding ground for pests and potentially invasive species. Lack of maintenance and pruning can create hiding spots for pests and insects, leading to infestations that can quickly spread throughout the building. This poses health risks to occupants and undermines the overall appeal of the building .
- Specialized Expertise: Maintaining greenery-covered tall buildings requires specialized horticulture and landscape management expertise. Gardeners must possess knowledge of the specific plant species used, their growth patterns, irrigation requirements, and pest control strategies. Richard Hassell explained that this building typology involves a team of flying gardeners who are both “Spidermen” and experts on local vegetation. He referred to the Vertical Forest example, where they fly around the building every four months. They hang by rope from the roof’s edge, descend, and jump between balconies . As mentioned earlier, the Vertical Forest has exploded with wildlife since its construction, providing a habitat for over 1600 birds and butterfly species. However, that in itself creates a maintenance issue. The plants may become unhealthy without proper care, affecting the building’s overall appearance .
- Watering and Irrigation: Regular watering and irrigation are essential to keep plants and trees healthy. However, inadequate watering can lead to plant stress and wilting, while overwatering can result in water pooling, leaks, and potential damage to the building structure. Careful monitoring of irrigation systems is necessary to maintain a balance .
- Structural Considerations: As greenery-covered buildings age, structural wear and tear may occur. Maintenance should include regular inspections to identify water leaks, cracks, and building structure weaknesses. Notably, most of the completed towers of the plant- and tree-covered prototypes are young and have not passed the test of time. The wear and tear effect may create problems in the irrigation system, such as water leaks, which could be a serious problem in high-rise buildings since water leaks affect multiple floors below. Water can seep into walls, ceilings, and floors, causing damage to the building’s structure and interior finishes. It can also lead to the growth of mold and mildew, posing health risks to occupants and further compromising the building’s integrity .
- Root Growth and Structural Damage: Similarly, the roots of trees and plants may go out of control over time and cause cracks in the building’s structure and façades. Tree roots have the potential to exert considerable force as they grow, seeking out moisture and nutrients from the soil. If tree roots encounter weaknesses in a building’s foundation or cracks in the walls or façades, they can exploit these vulnerabilities and exacerbate the damage. As the roots grow and expand, they can push against the building’s structure, leading to cracks and potential instability. To address this challenge, architects, engineers, and landscape designers must carefully plan and implement greenery-covered building projects. Proper selection of tree and plant species with non-invasive root systems can help mitigate the risk of damage. Additionally, using specially designed root barriers and structural systems can help guide root growth away from critical areas of the building .
- Environmental Considerations: To create a healthy indoor environment, addressing potential mold growth requires proper ventilation and humidity control. The building should prevent harmful mold. Under some circumstances, certain types of molds, such as Stachybotrys and Aspergillus, can produce poisons known as mycotoxins . Severe sickness could occur because of mycotoxin exposure. Therefore, the building’s façade should be permanently sealed to prevent undesirable molds and insects from crawling into interior spaces. Any maintenance carried out at higher elevations will be more expensive and complicated. Adequate ventilation is crucial to control indoor humidity levels. High humidity can create a conducive environment for mold growth. Proper ventilation helps to expel excess moisture and maintain a dry indoor environment [87,93].
5.2.6. Watering Costs
5.2.7. Plants’ Health
- Illness: Disease can affect any plant, whether wild or cultivated. When infected by a disease, plants can become ill, just like humans. Plant disease is described as the state of improper local or systemic physiological functioning of a plant resulting from the continuous, sustained “irritation” generated by phytopathogenic organisms. There is a wide range of plant-infecting bacteria, fungi, viruses, and nematodes. Some infections infest the roots from below ground, while others thrive in the air and attack the plant’s leaves . Pathogens affecting plants, and the variants of those pathogens that have arisen over time, are a constant source of discoveries for plant pathologists. Plant healthcare gives plants the essential nutrients to flourish while safeguarding them from insects and illness . The treatments incorporate fertilization, insect control, and disease prevention. It is necessary to treat destructive plant pests when they are active each year to contribute to population reduction and maintain the health of plants. If we do not take this precaution, there is a good chance that the plant’s existence will be cut short by illnesses or pests that are harmful to it. As such, sustaining the health of plants entails added burden and cost .
- Meteorological Conditions: Indeed, the health and well-being of trees and plants in tall structures clothed in greenery can be significantly impacted by weather conditions at higher altitudes. The particular difficulties that higher locations provide can have various effects on vegetation.
- Roots’ Growth. The lack of space for root growth could impact the health of large trees. The limited available space for root growth is a critical factor that can significantly impact the health and growth of large trees in urban environments, including within greenery-covered tall buildings. Tree roots play a vital role in providing stability, absorbing water and nutrients, and supporting the overall health of trees . When trees are planted in environments with restricted root space, several challenges can arise:
- Increased Risk of Diseases and Pests: Crowded root systems and stressed trees are more susceptible to diseases and pest infestations. When roots are confined to a small area, they are more likely to compete for resources and become vulnerable to pathogens and pests that thrive in compromised environments .
- Light/Shade Balance: Establishing light/shade balance becomes an issue of concern. Overall, selecting the right plants for each façade and elevation is important. The French botanist Patrick Blanc made a great effort in choosing the plants for Sydney’s One Central Park tower so that they would thrive in the city’s unique environment and seasonal changes. Vegetation is successfully adapted to its location and growth conditions by employing acacias (wattles) and Poa (grasses) on higher levels and Goodenia (hop bush) and Viola (native violet) on lower levels. Over 1100 square meters of wall space are home to a wide variety of plants, most local to Sydney [38,106]. So far, these plants have shown resilience in withstanding hot, dry, and windy Australian summers.
5.2.8. Experiencing Nature
- “Compromised” Experience: Innovative methods to bring nature into sky living are appreciated. However, they may not offer tenants the whole experience of interacting with nature. For example, planting in greenery-covered high-rises relies on artificial watering systems, depriving residents of the natural experience of watering plants, checking on their needs for water, and observing the effects of watering them on their growth and well-being. Watering plants activates interest in weather conditions (sunny, cloudy, rainy, etc.) and awareness of solar orientation and sun path .
- Acrophobia: Some people have acrophobia, the fear of heights that can cause significant distress and impairment. People with acrophobia may experience panic attacks, nausea, dizziness, sweating, trembling, and difficulty breathing when exposed to high places or situations involving height. Consequently, they may not feel comfortable interacting with nature in vegetated balconies and terraces on the upper floors. Interacting with nature involves engaging all our senses, being present in the moment, and feeling awe and gratitude for the natural world . As such, this solution has some limitations and challenges to achieving biophilic design by not offering a fully immersive experience with nature .
5.2.9. Exclusivity and Gentrification
- Affordability and Socioeconomic Diversity: The issue of cost-effectiveness is a crucial consideration when it comes to implementing expansive architectural designs that include substantial vegetal components. The elevated construction and maintenance costs associated with these innovative structures are often transferred to property owners or renters, which can result in reduced accessibility for a significant segment of the population. Incorporating extensive greenery, vertical gardens, and sustainable features can escalate upfront expenses during construction and ongoing maintenance .
- Gentrification: Furthermore, the “luxury” nature of some of these developments, which often emphasize unique design features and premium amenities, can contribute to gentrification in the surrounding area. As these greenery-covered tall buildings become sought-after symbols of high-end living, they may attract wealthier residents and investors. The influx of affluent individuals can increase demand for nearby properties, potentially driving up property prices and rents in the neighborhood. Some critics have pointed out that the luxury nature of One Central Park in Sydney and Le Nouvel KLCC in Kuala Lumpur could contribute to gentrification in the surrounding area, potentially leading to increased property prices and displacement of lower-income residents [73,75]. Likewise, others have argued that Bosco Verticale’s iconic design might have influenced nearby property values, potentially leading to gentrification and displacement of lower-income residents.
5.2.10. Urban Wildlife and Pest Control
- Greenery Choices: To counteract potential pest problems, developers might opt for landscaping and greenery choices less prone to attracting pests. This can reduce the risk of unwelcome infestations. Implementing an integrated pest management (IPM) strategy involving a combination of pest control techniques can be helpful. These techniques may include biological controls, physical barriers, and targeted use of pesticides only as a last resort .
- Inspections: Regular inspections and maintenance of the greenery are essential for early detection and resolution of pest issues. Taking prompt action can prevent infestations from spreading. Non-harmful deterrents, such as reflective surfaces, noise-emitting devices, or netting, can discourage birds and other wildlife from nesting in undesirable areas .
- Waste Disposal: Proper waste disposal and minimizing potential food sources for pests, such as rodents and insects, are essential preventive measures. By considering these aspects, building owners and developers can balance the benefits of greenery and the need to manage potential pest challenges, ensuring that these high-rise structures remain appealing and habitable for their human occupants .
- Introduction and Awareness: The paper raises awareness about this innovative approach to urban development by offering an overall introduction to greenery-covered tall buildings. Integrating greenery into tall buildings presents a promising solution to enhance the urban environment while addressing pressing environmental concerns. This design direction could be the future of dense areas with limited “horizontal” land.
- Innovative Design Concepts: Mapping novel projects has provided valuable insights into innovative ideas and design concepts. Distinguishing the novel projects from “afterthought” greenery additions would allow identifying successful implementations and showcasing their potential as sustainable and transformative architectural solutions. In these projects, integrating greeneries into structures is not a cosmetic treatment to enhance the appearance of the building. It is integral to the design process. The visual expression in this model stems from genuine “green” design objectives to improve environmental and human health. These projects differ from those that sprinkle plants and trees on buildings to make them look cool!
- Social, Environmental, and Economic Benefits: The paper highlighted the multiple advantages of this architectural typology. The examined projects have been shown to positively impact well-being by providing urban residents access to green spaces promoting physical and mental health. Additionally, greenery-covered tall buildings contribute to urban sustainability by improving air quality, reducing the urban heat island effect, and supporting biodiversity. Access to green spaces within tall buildings allows city dwellers to reconnect with nature, relieving the stresses of urban life. Studies have shown that exposure to green environments can enhance mental health, reduce stress levels, and promote relaxation and cognitive restoration. The presence of greenery within tall buildings creates unique urban sanctuaries, fostering a sense of serenity and tranquility amid the bustling cityscape.
- Challenges and Solutions: Lastly, exploring the challenges of integrating trees and plants into tall buildings has underscored the importance of careful planning and design and collaboration among architects, engineers, and developers. Construction costs, maintenance considerations, and adherence to building and fire codes are crucial factors that require thorough evaluation to ensure greenery-covered tall buildings’ long-term success and sustainability. “Vertical planting” is far more expensive than “horizontal planting”. Integrating plants in towers requires complex engineering solutions to support the plants’ weight and movement and incorporate irrigation systems. Plant maintenance involves regular pruning, fertilizing, pest control, and replacement. Integrating greeneries and associated irrigation systems in tall buildings requires unique expertise and technical knowledge. Repairing and upgrading these systems and maintaining plants demand operational and maintenance costs. Water costs could also be considerable. We also need to reduce the carbon footprint in constructing these buildings.
7. Future Research
- Economic Analysis: A limited amount of financial research and analysis are available on this topic. The return on investment (ROI) for greenery-covered tall buildings is an important aspect that requires more in-depth analysis. Conducting longitudinal studies on existing greenery-covered tall buildings can provide valuable data on these projects’ long-term performance and sustainability. Assessing the ecological impact, energy efficiency, and occupant satisfaction over extended periods will help validate the benefits of this building typology.
- Biophilic Design and Human–Environment Interaction: Investigating the psychological and physiological effects of greenery-covered towers on occupants will contribute to our understanding of biophilic design principles and the impact of nature on human well-being. Future research could delve into the cognitive benefits, stress reduction, and productivity improvements associated with proximity to green spaces within tall buildings.
- Design Optimization and Adaptation: Exploring design strategies that optimize the integration of greenery into tall buildings can enhance the effectiveness and practicality of such projects. Research into innovative materials, irrigation systems, and plant selection may lead to more sustainable and resilient greenery-covered towers.
- Comparative Studies: Comparative analyses between greenery-covered towers and conventional tall buildings can help to better understand this architectural typology’s relative advantages and challenges. Evaluating performance metrics, construction costs, and maintenance requirements will help stakeholders make informed decisions regarding greenery integration in future urban projects.
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|#||Building Name||Location||Architect||Num. of Floors||Function||Year of Compl.||Distinctive Vegetative Features||Thumbnail Image|
|1||Consorcio Building||Santiago, Chile||Enrique Browne and Borja Huidobro||17||Office||1993||-Vegetative skin on the outer side of the western façade, articulated in three recessed vegetative bands of 4 floor-heights for each |
|2||ACROS Fukuoka Prefectural International Hall||Fukuoka, Japan||Emilio Ambasz||17||Civic Center||1995||-Fifteen stepped, vegetated terraces with mature trees connected via stairs and spraying jets of water|
-Green roof 
|3||The Met||Bangkok, Thailand||WOHA||36||Residential and Hotel||2005||-Vegetated balconies -Sky gardens|
-Sky terraces 
|4||Council House 2 (CH2)||Melbourne, Australia||City of Melbourne||10||Office||2006||-Vegetated façades articulated via metal meshes that hold plants and connect balconies vertically |
|5||Newton Suites||Singapore||WOHA||36||Residential||2007||-Rooftop planting|
-Green walls 
|6||School of the Arts Singapore (SOTA)||Singapore||WOHA||10||Educational||2009||-Green walls|
-Vertical strips of plants along the building’s façades
-Green roofs 
|7||Khoo Teck Puat Hospital||Singapore||CPG Consultants in collaboration with RMJM||10||Hospital||2010||-Green terraces|
-Green roofs 
|8||One Central Park||Sydney, Australia||Jean Nouvel||34, 14||Residential||2013||-Façade-supported green walls |
|9||CDL’s Tree House||Singapore||CDL||24||Residential||2013||Green walls cover more than 2300 square meters of the building’s façades |
|10||Bosco Verticale, “Vertical Forest”||Milan, Italy||Stefano Boeri Architetti||27, 19||Residential||2014||-Balconies are placed in a staggered pattern, allowing trees to grow up multiple floors |
|11||CapitaGreen||Singapore||WOHA||16||Office||2014||-Vegetation wraps around the building’s perimeter|
-Considerable indoor plants 
|12||Santalaia||Bogotá, Columbia||Exacta Proyecto Total||11||Residential||2015||-Vertical garden of more than 115,000 plants of 10 different species, covering an area of 3117 square meters |
|13||East Village||Beirut, Lebanon||Jean Marc Bonfils and Associates||12||Residential||2015||-Vertical garden that covers the façade of one of the blocks |
|14||M6B2 Tower of Biodiversity||Paris, France||Maison Edouard François||18||Residential||2016||-The tower’s titanium cladding creates moiré patterns that give it a subtle and fluctuating appearance |
|15||Oasia Downtown||Singapore||WOHA||27||Office||2016||-Steel exoskeleton that holds plants along the entire height of the building|
-Vegetated sky courts 
|16||ParkRoyal on Pickering||Singapore||WOHA||16||Hotel and Office||2016||-Large terraces that contain extensive plants, tall trees, and water features|
-Plants along the building’s perimeter 
|17||Le Nouvel KLCC||Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia||Ateliers Jean Nouvel||49, 43||Residential||2016||-Vegetated façade|
-Green roof 
|18||Clearpoint Residencies||Colombo, Sri Lanka||Arosha Perera||47||Residential||2017||-Garden terraces for each apartment along the entire height of the tower |
|19||Huaku Sky Garden||Taipei, Taiwan||WOHA||38||Residential||2017||-Vegetative balconies|
-Plants that grow along vertical concrete screens 
|20||Kampung Admiralty||Singapore||WOHA||11||Residential/Mixed Use||2017||-Sky parks|
-Community plazas 
|21||The Tao Zhu Yin Yuan||Taipei, Taiwan||Vincent Callebaut||21||Residential||2017||-Vegetated balconies and terraces (trees, shrubs, and plants) are incorporated on each floor, wrapping the entire tower |
|22||Torre Rosewood||São Paulo, Brazil||Jean Nouvel||22||Hotel||2018||-Vertical garden|
-Terraces and rooftops
-Flowers, plants, and trees 
|23||Check Point||Tel Aviv, Israel||Itamar Lensky and Noa Zuckerman||12||Office||2019||-Living wall that covers more than 80% of its exterior surface|
-Green roof that collects rainwater 
|24||Qiyi City Forest Garden Tower 4||Chengdu, China||Chengdu Qiyi Real Estate Co., Ltd.||30||Residential||2019||-Balcony in every unit containing lush plants|
-The vegetation scheme consists of 20 types of plants that create a vertical forest effect 
|25||“1000 Trees”||Shanghai, China||Heatherwick Studio||10||Mixed Use||2019||-Vertical planters that contain trees and a mixture of plants also have the structural function of holding the building together |
|26||Sky Green Residential & Retail Tower||Taichung City, Taiwan||WOHA||26||Mixed Use||2019||-Protruding balconies with plants and trees|
-Trellises for green creeper plants 
|27||Eden||Singapore||Heatherwick Studio||26||Residential||2020||-Curved balconies overflow with trees, shrubs, and plants along the entire height of the tower |
|28||Trudo Vertical Forest||Eindhoven, Netherlands||Stefano Boeri Architetti||19||Residential||2021||-Protruding balconies that incorporate extensive plants, trees, and shrubs. They are placed in a staggered pattern, allowing tall trees to grow up multiple floors |
|29||Easyhome Huanggang Vertical Forest City Complex||Huanggang, Hubei Province, China||Stefano Boeri Architetti||28||Mixed Use||2022||-Protruding balconies that incorporate extensive plants, trees, and shrubs. They are placed in a staggered pattern, allowing tall trees to grow up multiple floors |
|30||Ravel Plaza||Amsterdam, Netherlands||MVRDV||29, 23, 19||Residential||2020||-Vegetation covers the residential units’ balconies, terraces, roofs, and façades |
|31||Nanjing Vertical Forest||Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China||Stefano Boeri Architetti||35,|
|Residential||2023||-Two towers that host a variety of plants on their balconies, creating a vertical forest that covers an area of 4500 square meters |
|Dominant Distinctive, Innovative Vegetative Features||Buildings|
|1||Vegetated balconies||Bosco Verticale|
|Qiyi City Forest Garden Tower 4|
|Huaku Sky Garden|
|The Tao Zhu Yin Yuan|
|Trudo Vertical Forest|
|Sky Green Residential & Retail Tower|
|Easyhome Huanggang Vertical Forest City Complex|
|Nanjing Vertical Forest|
|2||Terraces and rooftop gardens||ACROS Fukuoka Prefectural International Hall|
|Khoo Teck Puat Hospital|
|ParkRoyal on Pickering|
|3||Façade-supported green walls (wires, cables, netting, or lattice/mesh)||One Central Park|
|Council House 2 (CH2)|
|M6B2 Tower of Biodiversity|
|Le Nouvel KLCC|
|5||Façade-integrated green walls||CDL’s Tree House|
|School of the Arts Singapore (SOTA)|
|6||Vertical planters||“1000 Trees”|
|Buildings||Location||Year of Completion||Dominant Distinctive/Innovative Vegetative Features|
|1||Bosco Verticale||Milan, Italy||2014||Vegetated balconies|
|2||ACROS Fukuoka Prefectural International Hall||Fukuoka, Japan||1995||Terraces and rooftop gardens|
|3||One Central Park||Sydney, Australia||2013||Façade-supported green walls (wires, cables, netting, or lattice/mesh)|
|4||Le Nouvel KLCC||Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia||2016|
|6||CDL’s Tree House||Singapore||2013||Façade-integrated green walls|
|7||“1000 Trees”||Shanghai, China||2019||Vertical planters|
|1||Improved Air Quality|
|2||Urban Heat Island Mitigation|
|6||Protection of Building Structure|
|10||Branding and Marketing|
|9||Exclusivity and Gentrification|
|10||Urban Wildlife and Pest Control|
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Al-Kodmany, K. Greenery-Covered Tall Buildings: A Review. Buildings 2023, 13, 2362. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13092362
Al-Kodmany K. Greenery-Covered Tall Buildings: A Review. Buildings. 2023; 13(9):2362. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13092362Chicago/Turabian Style
Al-Kodmany, Kheir. 2023. "Greenery-Covered Tall Buildings: A Review" Buildings 13, no. 9: 2362. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13092362