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Buildings, Volume 13, Issue 6 (June 2023) – 213 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Research shows design applications prevent suicides in homes by using social, spatial and biophilic design methods that improve human comfort and safety. Spatial design and environmental psychology are key factors when it comes to mental health well-being, with the phenomenon of suicide being influenced by the domestic environment. This systematic review outlines design methods using spatial arrangement and material choices to improve human wellness in homes. The findings led to us to believe that suicides can be prevented by considering both means and access restriction as well as biochemical impacts when it comes to home design. View this paper
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19 pages, 7438 KiB  
Article
Hygrothermal Performance of Thick PCM Mortar behind PV Panels in Energy-Activated ETICS Facades
by Martin Talvik, Simo Ilomets, Paul Klõšeiko, Targo Kalamees, Mattias Põldaru and Dariusz Heim
Buildings 2023, 13(6), 1572; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13061572 - 20 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1021
Abstract
The concept of integrating PV panels into traditional ETICS facades has been developing for several years. Problems concerning the options for passively controlling the temperatures of PV panels with PCM and directing excess moisture out of the wall via diffusion channels have been [...] Read more.
The concept of integrating PV panels into traditional ETICS facades has been developing for several years. Problems concerning the options for passively controlling the temperatures of PV panels with PCM and directing excess moisture out of the wall via diffusion channels have been previously studied theoretically. During this study, real wall-scale experiments were conducted to test the thermal and hygrothermal performance of the wall system in an extreme climatic environment, as well as in a real outdoor environment in Tallinn, Estonia. Finally, a simulation model was calibrated according to the measured data. It was found that in case of test walls with diffusion channels, it was possible to keep the moisture content of PCM mortar under 0.11 m3/m3. Excess water drained out via channels leading to the external environment. Without diffusion channels, the moisture content rose as high as 0.18 m3/m3. Both the experiments and hygrothermal modelling showed that the high moisture content of PCM mortar, caused by water leakage, dropped to 0.08 m3/m3 over 10 solar cycles as moisture escaped via the diffusion channels. PCM mortar with a moisture content of 0.08 m3/m3 endured extreme rain and freeze-thaw cycles without visual damage, and PV panels retained their electrical production capabilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Building Physics, Structural and Safety Engineering)
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15 pages, 8326 KiB  
Article
Anchor Behavior of One-Side Bolt with Flip-Top Collapsible Washer
by Lin Li, Dejun Mu, Yong Liu, Zhaowei Li, Qixiang Yin and Hongfei Chang
Buildings 2023, 13(6), 1571; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13061571 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1200
Abstract
With the development of blind bolts that can be installed from the outer side of a section, the application of steel pipe hollow sections in prefabricated structures has become possible. The novel one-side bolt with a flip-top collapsible washer (FTW-OSB) is proposed, which [...] Read more.
With the development of blind bolts that can be installed from the outer side of a section, the application of steel pipe hollow sections in prefabricated structures has become possible. The novel one-side bolt with a flip-top collapsible washer (FTW-OSB) is proposed, which can fold the washer at the end of the bolt to achieve a simple and efficient installation. Firstly, the components and installation process of the FTW-OSB are introduced. Additionally, axial tensile tests were carried out on three types of new bolts, and the failure mode, load–displacement curve, and ultimate capacity were analyzed. Based on this, the finite element model was verified, and through a series of finite element parameter analyses, the influence of washer size and construction, the friction coefficient, and the contact surface size on the new bolt were analyzed and optimized. The results show that the L-shaped washer can prevent washer rotation and has better anchoring performance than the I-shaped washer. The washer thickness, height, and upper contact surface size are the key factors affecting the anchoring performance of the FTW-OSB bolt. Among these factors, when the washer thickness increases from 0.1 d0 to 0.3 d0, the ultimate capacity and initial stiffness of the FTW-OSB bolt increase by 136.5% and 100.3%, respectively. The lower contact surface size and friction coefficient can be ignored. The failure model of the FTW-OSB is mainly washer shear failure and bolt tension failure. By effectively adjusting the washer thickness, side wall height, and upper contact surface size, shear failure of the washer can be avoided and an anchoring performance can be achieved that is the same as that of the same type of 10.9-grade ordinary high-strength bolt. Full article
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20 pages, 2904 KiB  
Article
CO2 Emission Allocation for Urban Public Buildings Considering Efficiency and Equity: An Application at the Provincial Level in China
by Zhidong Zhang, Yisheng Liu and Zhuoqun Du
Buildings 2023, 13(6), 1570; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13061570 - 20 Jun 2023
Viewed by 837
Abstract
China is currently recognized as the leading global energy consumer and CO2 emitter. A significant amount of carbon emissions can be attributed to urban public buildings. Establishing an equitable and efficient carbon emission allocation mechanism is a crucial step to meeting the [...] Read more.
China is currently recognized as the leading global energy consumer and CO2 emitter. A significant amount of carbon emissions can be attributed to urban public buildings. Establishing an equitable and efficient carbon emission allocation mechanism is a crucial step to meeting the ambitious targets in China’s 2030 carbon peak plan. In this study, we estimate the total amount of CO2 emissions from urban public buildings by 2030 and propose a preliminary scheme of carbon quota assignment for each province. By means of applying the zero-sum gains data envelopment analysis (ZSG-DEA) model, the carbon emission quotas allocation of urban public buildings in China’s 30 provinces is proposed, and the corresponding pressure to reduce provincial carbon emissions is analyzed. The results indicate that Qinghai has the lowest carbon emission rate (0.01%) for urban public buildings, while Guangdong has the highest (9.06%). Among the provinces, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, and Tianjin face the least pressure in reducing carbon emissions from urban public buildings. On the other hand, Hebei, Beijing, and Anhui are under great pressure to decrease carbon emissions. Notably, Hebei is predicted to have the highest emission reduction requirement of 95.66 million tons. In terms of pressures on carbon emissions reduction for urban public buildings, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, and Tianjin exhibit the least pressure. Hebei, Beijing, and Anhui are facing intense pressure to decrease carbon emissions. These findings offer policymakers valuable insights into developing a fair and efficient carbon allowance allocation strategy, while also contributing to China’s efforts to mitigate carbon emissions and combat climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficiency and Carbon Neutrality in Buildings)
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22 pages, 1784 KiB  
Article
Energy Consumption and Carbon Emission Analysis of Typical Regeneration Methods for Asphalt Pavements
by Jie Mao, Yongqiang Zhu, Qiwei Chen and Huayang Yu
Buildings 2023, 13(6), 1569; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13061569 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1621
Abstract
A quantitative evaluation was conducted on the energy consumption and carbon emissions during the asphalt pavement regeneration process, and the energy consumption and emission ratios during the construction and raw material production stages of the cold and hot regeneration process were obtained. This [...] Read more.
A quantitative evaluation was conducted on the energy consumption and carbon emissions during the asphalt pavement regeneration process, and the energy consumption and emission ratios during the construction and raw material production stages of the cold and hot regeneration process were obtained. This study applies the theory of life cycle assessment to propose an evaluation framework and calculation method suitable for quantitatively evaluating the environmental impact of the asphalt pavement regeneration process. Firstly, based on the life cycle evaluation theory, the evaluation framework and calculation method applicable to the quantitative study of the environmental impact of asphalt pavement regeneration processes are discussed, and the calculation formulae for the comprehensive energy consumption and comprehensive carbon emission of asphalt pavement regeneration are derived. It is found that the energy consumption and emission in the hot regeneration process account for 50~70% of the total process in the construction stage, and 50~65% of the total process in the cold regeneration process in the raw material production stage. Compared with the milling and resurfacing process, the energy consumption and carbon emission of the asphalt pavement regeneration process are reduced by about 16~66%, and the carbon emission is reduced by about 14~53%, so the energy saving and emission reduction benefits are more significant. The amount of RAP mixing, transportation distance of raw materials and pavement regeneration depth have a great influence on the energy consumption and emission of pavement regeneration. It can provide scientific guidance for the quantitative evaluation of the environmental impact of asphalt pavement regeneration, with a view to providing energy-saving and emission reduction level data support for technology improvement and engineering decisions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation in Pavement Materials)
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23 pages, 5491 KiB  
Article
Bayesian Model-Updating Implementation in a Five-Story Building
by Oscar D. Hurtado, Albert R. Ortiz, Daniel Gomez and Rodrigo Astroza
Buildings 2023, 13(6), 1568; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13061568 - 20 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1410
Abstract
Simplifications and theoretical assumptions are usually incorporated into the numerical modeling of structures. However, these assumptions may reduce the accuracy of the simulation results. This problem has led to the development of model-updating techniques to minimize the error between the experimental response and [...] Read more.
Simplifications and theoretical assumptions are usually incorporated into the numerical modeling of structures. However, these assumptions may reduce the accuracy of the simulation results. This problem has led to the development of model-updating techniques to minimize the error between the experimental response and the modeled structure by updating its parameters based on the observed data. Structural numerical models are typically constructed using a deterministic approach, whereby a single best-estimated value of each structural parameter is obtained. However, structural models are often complex and involve many uncertain variables, where a unique solution that captures all the variability is not possible. Updating techniques using Bayesian Inference (BI) have been developed to quantify parametric uncertainty in analytical models. This paper presents the implementation of the BI in the parametric updating of a five-story building model and the quantification of its associated uncertainty. The Bayesian framework is implemented to update the model parameters and calculate the covariance matrix of the output parameters based on the experimental information provided by modal frequencies and mode shapes. The main advantage of this approach is that the uncertainty in the experimental data is considered by defining the likelihood function as a multivariate normal distribution, leading to a better representation of the actual building behavior. The results showed that this Bayesian model-updating approach effectively allows a statistically rigorous update of the model parameters, characterizing the uncertainty and increasing confidence in the model’s predictions, which is particularly useful in engineering applications where model accuracy is critical. Full article
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15 pages, 4172 KiB  
Article
A Study on the Applicability and Accuracy of the Discrete Element Method for Plates Based on Parameter Sensitivity Analysis
by Fei Guo and Jihong Ye
Buildings 2023, 13(6), 1567; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13061567 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 769
Abstract
In order to verify the accuracy and applicability of the discrete element method (DEM) in dealing with geometrically large deformations of continuous plate structures, both a single-parameter analysis and an orthogonal design method were adopted to analyze the displacement responses of the plate [...] Read more.
In order to verify the accuracy and applicability of the discrete element method (DEM) in dealing with geometrically large deformations of continuous plate structures, both a single-parameter analysis and an orthogonal design method were adopted to analyze the displacement responses of the plate structures and were compared with those calculated using the finite element method (FEM). The single-parameter change condition involved the thickness-to-width ratio, elastic modulus, or Poisson’s ratio, while the multi-parameter change included boundary conditions, dimensions, load forms, thickness-to-width ratio, elastic modulus, and Poisson’s ratio. The results showed that displacements of the target locations were basically identical to those obtained according to FEM, with a maximum error of less than 5% under the single-parameter change condition. The maximum displacement error of the plate structures calculated using the DEM and FEM, respectively, was 4.212%, and the mean error and extreme difference of error parameters were 2.633% and 2.184%, respectively. These results indicate that the displacements of the plate structures calculated using the DEM were highly consistent with those obtained according to the FEM. Additionally, single-parameter changes and multi-parameter changes barely influenced the accuracy and suitability of the DEM in solving displacement response problems of plate structures. Therefore, the DEM is applicable in terms of dealing with displacement response problems of plate structures. Full article
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23 pages, 8460 KiB  
Article
Experimental Simulation of Deformation Effect Propagation Due to Explosion on the Surface of a Small-Scale Model
by Daniel Papán, Emma Brozová and Zuzana Papánová
Buildings 2023, 13(6), 1566; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13061566 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 871
Abstract
The use of small-scale models is an important area of research today. An investigation is conducted on the response of a small-scale model’s vibrating surface. For this model, a small-scale surface explosion is used for loading. According to the article, the methodology includes [...] Read more.
The use of small-scale models is an important area of research today. An investigation is conducted on the response of a small-scale model’s vibrating surface. For this model, a small-scale surface explosion is used for loading. According to the article, the methodology includes procedures, model development, the explosive materials used, measurement and evaluation methods, software, and the technique used. Signal processing and response evaluation rely on a scientific method—the backward Fourier-transform principle—for frequency filtering. In this study, the simulation results are used to confirm the basic physical properties of the viscoelastic system. It is primarily investigated whether wave processes are confirmed on the new material. In terms of single wave propagation, the results summarize the characteristics of these waves (attenuation, velocity of propagation, etc.). Conclusions are targeted at the possibility of correlating three types of results: small-scale simulations, numerical simulations, and a real full-scale experiment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Ambient Vibration on Evaluating Existing Buildings)
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18 pages, 7809 KiB  
Article
Experimental and Numerical Characterization of Non-Proprietary UHPFRC Beam—Parametric Analyses of Mechanical Properties
by Younes Baghaei Osgouei, Shahriar Tavousi Tafreshi and Masoud Pourbaba
Buildings 2023, 13(6), 1565; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13061565 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 882
Abstract
Fabrication of ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC) is costly, especially when commercial materials are used. Additionally, in contrast to conventional concrete, numerical procedures to simulate the behaviour of ultra-high-performance fibre-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) are very limited. To contribute to the foregoing issues in this field, local [...] Read more.
Fabrication of ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC) is costly, especially when commercial materials are used. Additionally, in contrast to conventional concrete, numerical procedures to simulate the behaviour of ultra-high-performance fibre-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) are very limited. To contribute to the foregoing issues in this field, local materials were used in the fabrication process, while accounting for environmental issues and costs. Micro steel fibres (L: 13 mm, d: 0.16 mm, and ft: 2600 MPa; L: length, d: diameter, ft: tensile strength) were used in 2% volumetric ratios. Compression and indirect tests were carried out on cylindrical and prismatic beams according to international standards. To further enrich the research and contribute to the limited simulation data on UHPFRC, and better comprehension of the parameters, numerical analyses were performed using the ATENA software. Finally, nonlinear regression analyses were employed to capture the deflection-flexural response of the beams. The results were promising, indicating cost-effective fabrication using local materials that met the minimum requirements of UHFRC in terms of compressive strength. Furthermore, inverse analysis proved to be an easy and efficient method for capturing the flexural response of UHPFRC beams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Sustainable and Green Construction Materials)
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23 pages, 6498 KiB  
Article
Uncovering the Efficiency and Performance of Ground-Source Heat Pumps in Cold Regions: A Case Study of a Public Building in Northern China
by Pengxuan Wang, Yixi Wang, Weijun Gao, Tongyu Xu, Xindong Wei, Chunyan Shi, Zishu Qi and Li Bai
Buildings 2023, 13(6), 1564; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13061564 - 19 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1070
Abstract
In cold regions, due o the impact of climatic conditions, the heat load in winter and the cooling load in summer are unbalanced. In the long-term operation of the ground-source heat pump (GSHP), the soil heat imbalance phenomenon has still not been successfully [...] Read more.
In cold regions, due o the impact of climatic conditions, the heat load in winter and the cooling load in summer are unbalanced. In the long-term operation of the ground-source heat pump (GSHP), the soil heat imbalance phenomenon has still not been successfully solved. Therefore, this study took the GSHP of a public building in the cold area of northern China as the research object. Based on the unit performance data of the system over 8 years and the measured data of the soil temperature field, the long-term operation efficiency of the GSHP in the cold region and the variation law of the soil temperature field were explored. In order to further study the problem of soil heat imbalance, the effect of heat exchange hole groups at different intervals on the underground soil thermal environment after 30 years of operation in the system was simulated, and the optimization scheme of heat exchange hole spacing was proposed. The research results support the improvement and optimization of GSHP design and construction, and have important practical significance for the popularization of GSHPs in cold regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Energy, Physics, Environment, and Systems)
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17 pages, 936 KiB  
Review
State of the Art on Seismic Design of Steel Buildings in Europe
by Silvia Costanzo
Buildings 2023, 13(6), 1563; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13061563 - 19 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1438
Abstract
The seismic design of steel systems recently experienced profound changes and progress; in Europe, the research on this topic is very prolific in terms of importance and number of results achieved, even pushed by the recent process of the updating of Eurocode 8. [...] Read more.
The seismic design of steel systems recently experienced profound changes and progress; in Europe, the research on this topic is very prolific in terms of importance and number of results achieved, even pushed by the recent process of the updating of Eurocode 8. The paper analyzes and discusses the scientific literature on the subject produced approximately over the last twenty years, focusing on both recent research and findings on traditional steel systems and innovative structural types and solutions. The review of the state of the art suggested that most of the authors are now concerned about the numerous criticisms widely encountered in the design of traditional systems according to current Eurocode 8, as well as the difficulty of the application of the relevant detailing rules. The scientific community is also aware of the need to include specific codified design procedures for innovative and promising structural types. Further investigations are needed to deepen the design of moderate-ductile systems and to extend the seismic European prequalification of beam-to-column joints to further typologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seismic Design of Building Structures)
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25 pages, 9353 KiB  
Article
Research on the Conservation Methods of Qu Street’s Living Heritage from the Perspective of Life Continuity
by Shaojie Wang, Qian Guo, Jingjing Yuan, Huaqi Li and Bohuai Fu
Buildings 2023, 13(6), 1562; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13061562 - 19 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1257
Abstract
In the current context of urban development transformation and the gradual decline of historic and cultural districts, new demands have been raised for the preservation of such districts. The question of how to effectively safeguard historically and culturally significant districts, imbued with the [...] Read more.
In the current context of urban development transformation and the gradual decline of historic and cultural districts, new demands have been raised for the preservation of such districts. The question of how to effectively safeguard historically and culturally significant districts, imbued with the vibrant essence of indigenous life, has become a topic worthy of contemplation. This paper takes the historical and cultural district of Leizhou Qu Street as a case study, using the concept of continuity of life as its focal point. Employing methods such as on-site observation, questionnaire surveys, and case studies, this paper investigates and evaluates the core community through identification and collaboration, and proposes corresponding preservation strategies and subsequent maintenance approaches. In doing so, the paper aims to achieve community identity, cultural heritage transmission, and the continuity of life. The findings reveal that the method of protecting the living heritage through continuity of life is applicable to historically and culturally significant districts that still thrive with the vibrancy of daily life, and this method can be effectively implemented. This research deepens our understanding of the concept of living heritage preservation in historic and cultural districts, further substantiating and implementing the principle of continuity of life in their preservation. The study also aims to provide valuable insights and references for the preservation of similar heritage sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation in Pavement Materials)
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27 pages, 1607 KiB  
Article
Barriers to Social Responsibility Implementation in Belt and Road Mega Infrastructure Projects: A Hybrid Fuzzy DEMATEL-ISM-MICMAC Approach
by Mohammed Taha Alqershy and Qian Shi
Buildings 2023, 13(6), 1561; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13061561 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1390
Abstract
Social responsibility strategies are indispensable for the sustainable development of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). Nonetheless, the application of social responsibility (SR) policies in such mega infrastructure projects remains a pressing concern since a number of barriers impede the effective integration of [...] Read more.
Social responsibility strategies are indispensable for the sustainable development of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). Nonetheless, the application of social responsibility (SR) policies in such mega infrastructure projects remains a pressing concern since a number of barriers impede the effective integration of SR practices. Therefore, this paper seeks to identify these barriers and determine the interrelationships among them. A list of barriers was first identified from a literature review and expert consultation. Subsequently, a survey was designed to collect experts’ views on the interrelations among these barriers. The Fuzzy DEMATEL method was employed to analyze these barriers’ causal relationships and interdependencies. Subsequently, the ISM approach was used to develop a hierarchical structure and establish the driving and dependence relationships among them. The classification of barriers, based on driving power and dependence power, was accomplished using the MICMAC analysis. The results reveal that barriers such as “The diverse institutions, cultures, and social conditions among BRI countries”, “Lack of robust social responsibility laws and regulations in the host countries”, “Lack of stringent and legally binding BRI policies and guidelines governing social responsibility”, “The diverse environmental and social frameworks and standards among BRI countries”, “The diverse international, national, and private funds for BRI projects”, and “Lack of customer awareness and knowledge of CSR” are the most critical barriers and have the greatest influence on social responsibility implementation. Identifying these key barriers and their interrelationships will assist decision-makers, policymakers, and other stakeholders involved in BRI mega infrastructure projects in minimizing or overcoming them, hence increasing the chances of successfully integrating social responsibility practices within these projects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Project Management in Construction)
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25 pages, 6700 KiB  
Article
Factors Influencing Stakeholders’ Decision to Invest in Residential Properties: A Perceptual Analysis of Flood-Risk Areas
by Abiodun Kolawole Oyetunji, Chiemela Victor Amaechi, Emmanuel Chigozie Dike, Adeyosoye Babatunde Ayoola and Michael Ayodele Olukolajo
Buildings 2023, 13(6), 1560; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13061560 - 19 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1513
Abstract
The ground can become saturated during prolonged downpours. If sewers and drains are unable to cope, overflows will be inevitable. This situation could affect properties that are not designed to cope with flood hazards. It is pertinent that property investors should consider flooding [...] Read more.
The ground can become saturated during prolonged downpours. If sewers and drains are unable to cope, overflows will be inevitable. This situation could affect properties that are not designed to cope with flood hazards. It is pertinent that property investors should consider flooding and the likelihood of its occurrence when making investment decisions. The question is, “do they?” This study investigates the factors that influence residential property investment decisions in flood-risk areas of the Lagos metropolis. This is achieved by evaluating a range of locational, neighbourhood, structural, market/economic, behavioural, and risk characteristics in the determination of residential property investment choices in areas that are susceptible to flood risk. The data were sourced from private investors and registered real estate agents in the risk areas of Lagos State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were used for data collection purposes, and only valid responses were used for the data analysis. The results show that the availability of infrastructural supply, the crime rate in the neighbourhood, and the property location could significantly motivate investors’ decisions with respect to property investment in flood-risk areas. The perception plot shows that behavioural factors have the highest bearing on the investment decisions for private investors, at 4.4, followed by economic factors at 4.0 and locational factors at 3.6. The plot also shows that neighbourhood factors have the highest bearing on the investment decisions for estate agents, at 4.6, followed by economic factors at 4.0 and locational factors at 3.6. This implies that there are various degrees of correlation between the factors examined in this study. It is important to highlight the relevance of the findings for the field and pave the way for future scientific development in flood-risk management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Architectural Design, Urban Science, and Real Estate)
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30 pages, 3858 KiB  
Article
Immersive Technologies-Driven Building Information Modeling (BIM) in the Context of Metaverse
by Zhen Liu, Shiqi Gong, Zhiya Tan and Peter Demian
Buildings 2023, 13(6), 1559; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13061559 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3327
Abstract
At present, considering the novelty of Immersive Technologies (ImTs) associated with Digital Twin (DT), Virtual Reality (VR), Augmented Reality (AR), and Mixed Reality (MR) in the context of the metaverse and its rapid and ongoing development in Building Information Modeling (BIM), knowledge of [...] Read more.
At present, considering the novelty of Immersive Technologies (ImTs) associated with Digital Twin (DT), Virtual Reality (VR), Augmented Reality (AR), and Mixed Reality (MR) in the context of the metaverse and its rapid and ongoing development in Building Information Modeling (BIM), knowledge of specific possibilities and methods for integrating ImTs into building process workflows remains fragmented and scarce. Therefore, this paper aims to explore the research progress and trends of immersive technology-driven BIM applications, providing a helpful reference for understanding the current knowledge system and stimulating future research. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first attempt to use macro-quantitative bibliometric analysis and micro-qualitative analysis methods to explore the research topic of ImTs-driven BIM. This study obtains 758 related studies in the past decade, year 2013 to 2022, through a series of keywords from the Web of Science Core Collection database and uses VOSviewer software to conduct keywords co-occurrence analysis and overlay visualisation to visualise the relationship between ImTs and BIM, which contains six clusters, namely VR, Internet of Things (IoT), DT, 3D model, design, and AR. The macro-quantitative analysis on ImTs-driven BIM applications throughout all the stages of the building lifecycle reveals the themes, content, and characteristics of the applications across the stages, which tend to be integrated with emerging advanced technology and tools, such as Artificial Intelligence (AI), blockchain, and deep learning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction Management, and Computers & Digitization)
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14 pages, 4649 KiB  
Article
A Study on the Aesthetic Preference of Bamboo Weaving Patterns Based on Eye Movement Experiments
by Chunjin Wu, Yuchen Min, Benhua Fei and Shasha Song
Buildings 2023, 13(6), 1558; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13061558 - 19 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1420
Abstract
Bamboo weaving is an intangible cultural heritage in China. Exploring people’s aesthetic preferences for bamboo weaving patterns to better serve the design of bamboo architectural decoration can help promote the upgrading of traditional crafts. This study explored the differences between genders in the [...] Read more.
Bamboo weaving is an intangible cultural heritage in China. Exploring people’s aesthetic preferences for bamboo weaving patterns to better serve the design of bamboo architectural decoration can help promote the upgrading of traditional crafts. This study explored the differences between genders in the oculomotor indicators in different bamboo weaving patterns through an eye-movement experimental study combined with a subjective questionnaire to explore whether different genders have aesthetic preferences for people’s pictures of bamboo weaving patterns. The results showed that both males and females preferred less visually striking and softer corrugated patterns, with males paying more attention to the more ‘angular’ hexagonal and triangular patterns, while females were more interested in the more regular and uniform brickwork and diagonal patterns. Full article
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16 pages, 1728 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Carbon Emission Reduction Paths for the Production of Prefabricated Building Components Based on Evolutionary Game Theory
by Qun Wang, Wei Guo, Xizhen Xu, Ronghui Deng, Xiaoxin Ding and Tiebing Chen
Buildings 2023, 13(6), 1557; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13061557 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1066
Abstract
Prefabricated buildings are gradually being promoted from pilot demonstration to scale, to combat climate change and improve energy conservation and emission reduction in the building sector. Despite the carbon emission of assembled structures being substantially lower than that of cast-in-place buildings due to [...] Read more.
Prefabricated buildings are gradually being promoted from pilot demonstration to scale, to combat climate change and improve energy conservation and emission reduction in the building sector. Despite the carbon emission of assembled structures being substantially lower than that of cast-in-place buildings due to the significant reduction in energy demand during the materialization process, there is still a lot of room for improvement. This study looks at the strategy choices made by manufacturers of prefabricated building components in relation to lowering carbon emissions from the standpoint of manufacturing prefabricated building components. By building a dynamic evolutionary game model between two parties, we investigate the evolutionary process of the strategy chosen by prefabricated building component manufacturers and the government, analyzing the evolutionary stability of each side’s strategy choice, and finally using Matlab tools to simulate the effectiveness of the evolutionary stability. The study findings indicate that (1) low-carbon production costs, local government incentives and sanctions, and corporate low-carbon production benefits are the main influencing factors for manufacturers of prefabricated building components to adopt low-carbon production techniques; and that (2) the cost of regulation under low-carbon production methods and the local government performance assessment system are the key elements affecting regulations by the local government. Based on this finding, we suggest corresponding countermeasures in three areas, including investigating new low-carbon technology options for businesses, developing a new carbon emission accounting subsidy mechanism, and improving the regulatory framework of the government, to provide an efficient pathway for the growth of a low-carbon economy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Energy, Physics, Environment, and Systems)
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14 pages, 3350 KiB  
Article
Application of Bayesian Update Method in the Construction Control of Continuous Rigid Frame Bridge Girders with High Piers and Large Spans
by Xiaolong Zhou, Taoxin Deng, Li Chen, Jie Chen, Ao Li, Qijie Yuan, Wei Fang and Jianfeng Gu
Buildings 2023, 13(6), 1556; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13061556 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 861
Abstract
In the construction process of large-scale bridges, there are uncertainties and time-varying factors in the environment and construction loads. It is difficult to make accurate estimates of the theoretical calculation models of construction control in advance. In view of this situation, Bayesian dynamic [...] Read more.
In the construction process of large-scale bridges, there are uncertainties and time-varying factors in the environment and construction loads. It is difficult to make accurate estimates of the theoretical calculation models of construction control in advance. In view of this situation, Bayesian dynamic updating method is introduced to re-estimate the predicted results of the theoretical model. When applying this method, first, the finite element calculation model is determined based on the response surface method, and its calculation results are used as prior information. Then, combined with the actual detection data during the construction process, the Bayesian update formula is derived based on the conjugate prior distribution to correct the theoretical prediction results of bridge construction monitoring. Finally, the actual stress detection data of the control section of high-pier and large-span continuous rigid frame bridges during the construction process illustrate the application process of Bayesian updating in improving the theoretical prediction model. Results indicate that the internal force of the bridge control section obtained by re-evaluating by Bayesian theory not only incorporates the priori information models but also actual monitors sample information during the construction process. The predicted results reflect the true deformation and stress state of the bridge during the bridge construction process and improve the precision of construction monitoring. Full article
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21 pages, 1089 KiB  
Article
From “Division” to “Integration”: Evolution and Reform of China’s Spatial Planning System
by Yongjiao Zhang, Xiaowu Man and Yongnian Zhang
Buildings 2023, 13(6), 1555; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13061555 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2056
Abstract
Spatial planning is a public policy arrangement for land use allocation and spatial structure regulation. As a method used by the public sector to influence the spatial distribution of future activities, spatial planning has become an important method and basis for the Chinese [...] Read more.
Spatial planning is a public policy arrangement for land use allocation and spatial structure regulation. As a method used by the public sector to influence the spatial distribution of future activities, spatial planning has become an important method and basis for the Chinese government to perform its duties. In the process of its long-term development, China has formed a unique spatial planning system. Based on the perspective of evolution and comparison, this paper systematically reviews the evolution of China’s spatial planning system from “multi-plan division” to “multi-plan integration” under the inheritance of departments. The findings are as follows. ① China’s spatial planning has long presented a pattern of separate management by multiple departments, such as development and reform, construction, land, and environmental protection. The emergence and development of various types of planning is a necessary spatial governance tool for specific national conditions and major issues of land space development and protection in China. ② In the evolution process of more than half a century, the planning of various departments has gradually established, inherited, and continuously changed their own planning systems and control content; thus, China’s spatial planning has undergone a process of “planning absence–planning division–planning integration”. ③ The brand-new territorial spatial plan inherits the “three types” of control space, including land utilization master planning, urban and rural master planning, and ecological environment planning, and forms a set of binding index systems, which have become the decision-making basis for the current territorial space resource allocation. ④ In the future, China’s spatial planning system should be further optimized and improved in aspects such as the coordination mechanism of “soft” and “hard” spatial planning, the spatial resource allocation system that places equal emphasis on legality and efficiency, and the spatial layout system from “major function-oriented zoning” to “space use zoning”. Insight into the evolution of China’s spatial planning system can provide historical and logical support for the improvement of China’s spatial governance thinking and the continuous improvement of the efficiency of land space resource allocation in the future and provide a certain reference value for the comparative study of the planning systems of different countries in the world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Architectural Design, Urban Science, and Real Estate)
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14 pages, 6780 KiB  
Article
Numerical and Experimental Study on Loading Behavior of Facade Sandwich Panels
by Gorjana Stanisavljević, Darinka Golubović Matić, Milorad Komnenović, Ivana Vasović Maksimović and Željko Flajs
Buildings 2023, 13(6), 1554; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13061554 - 18 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1235
Abstract
This paper focuses on the study of the strength of facade sandwich panels used in building construction. The paper describes the results of experimental and numerical research on the behavior of sandwich panels made of polyisocyanurate core (PIR) and their structural connections when [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on the study of the strength of facade sandwich panels used in building construction. The paper describes the results of experimental and numerical research on the behavior of sandwich panels made of polyisocyanurate core (PIR) and their structural connections when exposed to tensile and compressive loads. In the initial phase of this study, laboratory tests were performed to determine the physical and mechanical characteristics of the material from which the sandwich panels are made. Laboratory tensile and compression tests were performed on small samples of sandwich facade panels. In order to verify the obtained results, they were compared with the numerical analysis performed in the ANSYS software. The numerical model was found to accurately predict the results of the laboratory tests, suggesting that the model can be used to predict the behavior of these panels under different loads in service. The study showed that the foam core sandwich panel exhibits excellent mechanical properties. The results indicate the suitability of foam-based composite structures in the construction industry for various applications, such as roof and wall structures. The findings of this study may help in the development of lightweight and durable construction materials for the industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experiment and Analysis of Building Structures)
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11 pages, 6553 KiB  
Article
Research on Fatigue Performance of Shape-Memory Alloy Bars under Low Cyclic Loading
by Lei Li, Xianxian Zhao and Junwei Cheng
Buildings 2023, 13(6), 1553; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13061553 - 18 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 902
Abstract
In recent years, shape memory alloys (SMAs) have been applied in the vibration control of engineering structures due to their special properties such as super elasticity and high damping, and the study of the performance of SMA wires has been relatively comprehensive, while [...] Read more.
In recent years, shape memory alloys (SMAs) have been applied in the vibration control of engineering structures due to their special properties such as super elasticity and high damping, and the study of the performance of SMA wires has been relatively comprehensive, while research on the fatigue performance of SMA bars via cyclic tensile tests has been pretty rare, and low-cycle fatigue test has not been reported. However, the damage to building structures caused by earthquakes is of high-strain, low-cycle fatigue; therefore, in order for SMA bars to be used in seismic design, low-cycle fatigue tests were conducted on SMA bars with a diameter of 14 mm in this paper. Firstly, specimens were heat treated at a constant temperature of 350 °C for 30 min; other specimens were heat treated at a constant temperature of 400 °C for 15 min, while the rests were heat treated under a constant temperature of 400 °C for 30 min. Secondly, the energy dissipation capacity and residual strain of the SMA bar specimens were determined using the low-cycle fatigue test, in which the strain amplitudes were 2.5%, 3.5% and 3.75%. Additionally, the stress–strain relationship for SMA bars under cyclic loading was given. Finally, low-cycle fatigue properties of SMA bars were numerically simulated in the comparison analysis with the experimental results to verify their feasibility. Thus, it is proved that SMA bars can be recommend for seismic design building structures. Full article
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18 pages, 3130 KiB  
Article
Automated Classification of the Phases Relevant to Work-Related Musculoskeletal Injury Risks in Residential Roof Shingle Installation Operations Using Machine Learning
by Amrita Dutta, Scott P. Breloff, Dilruba Mahmud, Fei Dai, Erik W. Sinsel, Christopher M. Warren and John Z. Wu
Buildings 2023, 13(6), 1552; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13061552 - 18 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1048
Abstract
Awkward kneeling in sloped shingle installation operations exposes roofers to knee musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) risks. To address the varying levels of risk associated with different phases of shingle installation, this research investigated utilizing machine learning to automatically classify seven distinct phases in a [...] Read more.
Awkward kneeling in sloped shingle installation operations exposes roofers to knee musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) risks. To address the varying levels of risk associated with different phases of shingle installation, this research investigated utilizing machine learning to automatically classify seven distinct phases in a typical shingle installation task. The classification process relied on analyzing knee kinematics data and roof slope information. Nine participants were recruited and performed simulated shingle installation tasks while kneeling on a sloped wooden platform. The knee kinematics data were collected using an optical motion capture system. Three supervised machine learning classification methods (i.e., k-nearest neighbors (KNNs), decision tree (DT), and random forest (RF)) were selected for evaluation. The KNN classifier provided the best performance for overall accuracy. The results substantiated the feasibility of applying machine learning in classifying shingle installation phases from workers’ knee joint rotation and roof slope angles, which may help facilitate method and tool development for automated knee MSD risk surveillance and assessment among roofers. Full article
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38 pages, 11371 KiB  
Article
Optimizing Truss Structures Using Composite Materials under Natural Frequency Constraints with a New Hybrid Algorithm Based on Cuckoo Search and Stochastic Paint Optimizer (CSSPO)
by Nima Khodadadi, Ehsan Harati, Francisco De Caso and Antonio Nanni
Buildings 2023, 13(6), 1551; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13061551 - 18 Jun 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1259
Abstract
This article highlights the absence of published paradigms hybridized by The Cuckoo Search (CS) and Stochastic Paint Optimizer (SPO) for optimizing truss structures using composite materials under natural frequency constraints. The article proposes a novel optimization algorithm called CSSPO for optimizing truss structures [...] Read more.
This article highlights the absence of published paradigms hybridized by The Cuckoo Search (CS) and Stochastic Paint Optimizer (SPO) for optimizing truss structures using composite materials under natural frequency constraints. The article proposes a novel optimization algorithm called CSSPO for optimizing truss structures made of composite materials, known as fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites, to address this gap. Optimization problems of truss structures under frequency constraints are recognized as challenging due to their non-linear and non-convex search spaces that contain numerous local optima. The proposed methodology produces high-quality optimal solutions with less computational effort than the original methods. The aim of this work is to compare the performance of carbon FRP (CFRP), glass FRP (GFRP), and steel using a novel hybrid algorithm to provide valuable insights and inform decision-making processes in material selection and design. Four benchmark structure trusses with natural frequency constraints were utilized to demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the CSSPO. The numerical analysis findings indicate that the CSSPO outperforms the classical SPO and exhibits comparable or superior performance when compared to the SPO. The study highlights that implementing CFRP and GFRP composites in truss construction leads to a notable reduction in weight compared to using steel. Full article
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21 pages, 9056 KiB  
Article
Seismic Performance of SFRC Shear Walls with Window Opening and the Substitution Effect for Steel Bars
by Hongmei Zhang, Zizhao Tang, Yuanfeng Duan and Zhiyuan Chen
Buildings 2023, 13(6), 1550; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13061550 - 18 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2154
Abstract
Shear walls are important vertical and lateral bearing element in structures. While shear walls with openings are fragile due to stress concentration and the quasi-brittle behavior of concrete in tension. Therefore, additional strengthening rebars are required for the shear walls with openings. However, [...] Read more.
Shear walls are important vertical and lateral bearing element in structures. While shear walls with openings are fragile due to stress concentration and the quasi-brittle behavior of concrete in tension. Therefore, additional strengthening rebars are required for the shear walls with openings. However, it aggravates the problem of dense reinforcement which increases the steel cage manufacturing and concrete compaction problem and still lacks countermeasures against concrete damage and cracking. To reduce the rebar demand and improve the damage tolerance of squat reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls with openings, an optimized steel-fiber-reinforced concrete (SFRC) was adopted to understand the seismic performance by cyclical loading test. The tested specimens included a plain RC shear wall without strengthening bar around the opening (for comparison), an SFRC shear wall, and an SFRC shear wall with a reduced distributed steel bar. This paper mainly studies the effect of using SFRC to improve the seismic performance of the open shear wall and to replace the reinforcement around the opening and the shear reinforcement. The hysteresis curves, skeleton curves, stiffness degradation, bearing capacity degradation and energy dissipation of the specimens were analyzed. The results show that the failure can be delayed and relieved, the deformation capacity and energy dissipation can considerably improve, and rebars can be partially replaced by using SFRC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Structures)
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17 pages, 8579 KiB  
Article
A BIM-Based Simulation Approach for Life-Cycle Quality Control in Post-Pandemic Hospitals
by Si Gao, Hu Xie, Mian Yang, Qiang Zhang, Ming Zhang, Xin Wang and Ze-Hao Jiang
Buildings 2023, 13(6), 1549; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13061549 - 17 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1517
Abstract
The outbreak of COVID-19 has engendered extensive challenges for conventional hospital operations. To adapt to this problematic issue, a mixed-use hospital functioning system for normal and epidemic situations is proposed. However, the inherent complexity of a hospital embedded with a function of epidemic [...] Read more.
The outbreak of COVID-19 has engendered extensive challenges for conventional hospital operations. To adapt to this problematic issue, a mixed-use hospital functioning system for normal and epidemic situations is proposed. However, the inherent complexity of a hospital embedded with a function of epidemic prevention and control renders a restrained construction process that may compromise quality. In this stance, we developed a BIM (building information modelling)-based simulation approach addressing life-cycle quality control in post-pandemic hospitals. An illustrative case study approach, which draws on the grey literature, was used to address the research question. BIM forward design was employed to integrate with such elements as functional streamline, emergency site, and ward conversion in the process of transformation from normal to epidemic-related operations. Computational fluid dynamics-based fluid simulation was conducted to obtain the most suitable air supply and exhaust solutions for negative pressure wards. BIM forward design method contributed to improving design efficiency and quality. The results of ventilation simulation and environmental analysis showed that the design scheme met all the functional requirements and technical specifications. Meanwhile, the best pipeline synthesis scheme was obtained, which reduced the rework and saved on construction time. The proposed method is beneficial to improve the efficiency of design information sharing and business collaboration. Implications generated from this study can be used as a significant reference for the future construction of various healthcare facilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Digital Trend for Achieving Sustainable Building and Construction)
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13 pages, 4376 KiB  
Editorial
Research Methods in Urban Design: A Framework for Researching the Performance and Resilience of Places
by Steffen Lehmann
Buildings 2023, 13(6), 1548; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13061548 - 17 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 5105
Abstract
Research is the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Trends in Urban Planning for Building Urban Resilience)
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12 pages, 1801 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study on the Bonding Performance between Fiber-Belt-Bar and Concrete
by Wenhu Gu, Jiarui Chen, Qirong Li, Rundong Ji and Jianzhong Ji
Buildings 2023, 13(6), 1547; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13061547 - 17 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 745
Abstract
Fiber materials have advantages such as light weight and high strength, corrosion resistance, fatigue resistance, and easy processing and production, and they are widely applied in the repair and renovation of concrete structures. To promote the construction convenience of fiber materials, fiber raw [...] Read more.
Fiber materials have advantages such as light weight and high strength, corrosion resistance, fatigue resistance, and easy processing and production, and they are widely applied in the repair and renovation of concrete structures. To promote the construction convenience of fiber materials, fiber raw yarn is continuously braided to form fiber-belt-bars. Based on the existing research, the performance of bonding between fiber-belt-bars and a concrete interface was investigated, and pull-out tests were performed to systematically investigate the effects of the fiber-belt-bar cross-sectional size, anchorage length, concrete strength, and fiber type on the bonding performance. The experimental results show that the bond strength reduces with an increase in the anchorage length, increase in cross-sectional size, and decrease in concrete strength, and the effect of fiber type on the bond strength is not obvious. On this basis, a formula for calculating the average bond strength of fiber-belt-bars is proposed. Experiments and calculations determined that the average bond strength between fiber-belt-bar and concrete with a cross-sectional size of 12 mm × 3 mm is 10–30% higher than that with a cross-sectional size of 20 mm × 3 mm for the same anchorage length. Finally, the minimum anchorage length of the fiber-belt-bar is proposed to provide a valuable reference for the use of fiber-belt-bar in concrete projects. Full article
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31 pages, 2133 KiB  
Review
Potential Use of Oyster Shell Waste in the Composition of Construction Composites: A Review
by Poliana Bellei, Isabel Torres, Runar Solstad and Inês Flores-Colen
Buildings 2023, 13(6), 1546; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13061546 - 17 Jun 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 6288
Abstract
The oyster shell is a residue rich in calcium carbonate, which can be reused as a raw material for creating building materials. For this reason, many researchers focused on the incorporation of oyster shell in the composition of composites, as it is a [...] Read more.
The oyster shell is a residue rich in calcium carbonate, which can be reused as a raw material for creating building materials. For this reason, many researchers focused on the incorporation of oyster shell in the composition of composites, as it is a means of contributing to the economic sustainability by reducing the presence of pollution caused by aquaculture waste in the environment, thus increasing the value chain of the construction sector and reducing its carbon footprint. This paper intends to systematize the scientific production related to oyster shell-based composites in construction, carrying out a search using the Scopus tool and a systematic review based on the PRISMA statement. The results show that research on the incorporation of oyster shell into cementitious mortar mixtures, with a focus on its use in concrete, dominates existing scientific research. There is a lack of studies on the incorporation of the oyster shell that address its application as an aggregate or binder in the composition of coating and laying mortars. Most existing research is from Asia, and there is a lack of research in some parts of Europe. In the Americas, Africa and Oceania, no existing studies were found. Despite the growing understanding of the importance of sustainability and economic issues related to products used in the blue circular economy sector, there are still few studies that consider the incorporation of waste or by-products of aquaculture. Future investigations that cover these practical and contextual gaps can contribute to the better use of oyster shell waste and its insertion in the blue circular economy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sustainable Building Materials)
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20 pages, 7804 KiB  
Article
Nonlinear Dynamic Assessment of a Steel Frame Structure Subjected to Truck Collision
by Fatemeh Safari Honar, Vahid Broujerdian, Esmaeil Mohammadi Dehcheshmeh and Chiara Bedon
Buildings 2023, 13(6), 1545; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13061545 - 17 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1073
Abstract
The progressive collapse of structures subjected to a truck collision with ground floor columns is numerically investigated in this paper. For this purpose, a four-story steel building with a dual system (including an intermediate steel moment frame, with a special concentric steel bracing [...] Read more.
The progressive collapse of structures subjected to a truck collision with ground floor columns is numerically investigated in this paper. For this purpose, a four-story steel building with a dual system (including an intermediate steel moment frame, with a special concentric steel bracing system in the longitudinal (x) direction, and an intermediate steel moment frame in the transversal (y) direction) is considered. The structure, which was designed according to AISC, ASCE7 and 2800 Iranian seismic standard guidelines, is located in seismic-prone area and subjected to eight different truck collision scenarios. The nonlinear dynamic analyses carried out in ABAQUS on a three-dimensional finite element (FE) numerical model include variations in collision features (i.e., mass and speed of the truck, the height of collision point), and are used to support the analysis of expected damage. The presented results confirm that increasing the truck mass and speed increases damage entity for the column and structure. Several influencing parameters are involved in damage location and progressive evolution. The height of the collision point from the ground also significantly affects the magnitude of structural damage, especially in terms of stress peaks in the panel zones for the target column. Finally, the perimeter columns are more vulnerable to impact than corner columns, in structures with dual system as with the examined four-story building. The presence of a bracing system parallel to the impacting vehicle can in fact reduce the deformation—and thus the expected damage—of the adjacent target column. Most importantly, it is shown that the numerically reproduced collision scenarios (and the associated damage configurations) based on truck impact are significantly more severe than those artificially created based on the conventional column removal method (i.e., alternate path (AP) analysis approach), which confirms the importance of more sophisticated numerical calculation procedures to investigate and assess the progressive collapse of structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progressive Collapse of Structures)
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20 pages, 12220 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study on Mechanical Properties of Structured Clay under Different Unloading Rates and Unloading Stress Paths
by Lu Li, Meng Zang, Rongtang Zhang and Haijun Lu
Buildings 2023, 13(6), 1544; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13061544 - 17 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 876
Abstract
Consolidated undrained triaxial shear tests were performed on undisturbed saturated structured clay at three unloading rates (0.1, 0.25, and 2.5 kPa/min) using a GDS triaxial system to determine the effects of different unloading rates and unloading stress paths on the stress–strain relationship, pore [...] Read more.
Consolidated undrained triaxial shear tests were performed on undisturbed saturated structured clay at three unloading rates (0.1, 0.25, and 2.5 kPa/min) using a GDS triaxial system to determine the effects of different unloading rates and unloading stress paths on the stress–strain relationship, pore pressure variation, and failure strength characteristics of Zhanjiang structured clay. Microstructural changes in the clay were observed during shear tests at different unloading rates. Furthermore, the obtained stress–strain relationship indicates strain-softening under different unloading stress paths. Under the same axial strain, a larger unloading rate caused a larger deviatoric stress. Under the same conditions, the higher the confining pressure, the greater the peak pore pressure, the smaller the unloading rate, the greater the pore pressure development, and the greater the variation in the pore pressure. Moreover, the undrained shear strength increased with an increase in the unloading rate from 0.1 to 2.5 kPa/min. The change in the unloading rate had a greater effect on the undrained strength under the passive tensile path than that under the passive compression path. The microstructure of the Zhanjiang structured clay changed after shear tests at different unloading rates, exhibiting various degrees of adjustment in the particle arrangement, contact relations, pore sizes, and shapes. Full article
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15 pages, 22196 KiB  
Article
Further Explanation on the Excitation Mechanism of Stay Cable Vibration in Dry Conditions
by Duy Thao Nguyen and Duy Hung Vo
Buildings 2023, 13(6), 1543; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13061543 - 17 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 813
Abstract
The present article outlines a research investigation carried out in a wind tunnel setting aimed at augmenting comprehension of the excitation mechanism of stay cable vibration in arid conditions. A multitude of wind tunnel experiments were thoroughly scrutinized. The study commenced by conducting [...] Read more.
The present article outlines a research investigation carried out in a wind tunnel setting aimed at augmenting comprehension of the excitation mechanism of stay cable vibration in arid conditions. A multitude of wind tunnel experiments were thoroughly scrutinized. The study commenced by conducting measurements of the stay cable vibration in conditions of steady flow. The flow angle was set at 45 degrees, and the inclination was set at 25 degrees. The wind velocities varied during the experiment. Additionally, an investigation into the flow field surrounding the stay cable’s was conducted in both vertical and horizontal directions. By utilizing two hot wire anemometers in the cable wake, an extensive database of flow field measurements was obtained. The experimental results revealed that the vibration characteristics of the stay cable under the arid conditions considered in this study aligned with findings reported in existing literature. Notably, a deeper comprehension of the excitation mechanism of a stay cable in a dry state was attained. This mechanism is closely associated with the inhibition of Karman vortices and the development of low-frequency vortices. At low wind speeds, Karman vortices predominated, resulting in small-amplitude vibrations. However, as the wind speed increased, the influence of Karman vortices diminished progressively, while the low-frequency vortices grew stronger. These low-frequency vortices exhibited high energy and a significant correlation with shedding along the stay cable, thereby inducing cable vibration in a dry environment. Full article
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