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Buildings, Volume 13, Issue 5 (May 2023) – 252 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Failure of joints can lead to structural collapse. It is vital to monitor joint stiffness during operation to prevent such failures. A new method is proposed for the quality assessment of structural joints using coaxial correlation in 6D space. The root mean square (RMS) value obtained from the convolution of the signal is proposed as a measure of similarity between two signals for monitoring joint degradation. The method’s effectiveness was tested on steel beam splice connection. The paper concludes that 6D measurements provide higher reliability in interpreting the results, especially for complex joints, as the nature of RMS may change in different axes. View this paper
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28 pages, 5708 KiB  
Review
Experimental, Theoretical and Numerical Research Progress on Dynamic Behaviors of RC Structural Members
by Rouhan Li, Mao Gao, Hongnan Li, Chao Li and Debin Wang
Buildings 2023, 13(5), 1359; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13051359 - 22 May 2023
Viewed by 1235
Abstract
In this paper, research on dynamic behaviors of RC structural members was reviewed using experimental, theoretical and numerical perspectives. First, in a basic overview, measurement methods, main conclusions and current limitations of available dynamic loading tests were presented. Then, theoretical studies on the [...] Read more.
In this paper, research on dynamic behaviors of RC structural members was reviewed using experimental, theoretical and numerical perspectives. First, in a basic overview, measurement methods, main conclusions and current limitations of available dynamic loading tests were presented. Then, theoretical studies on the dynamic constitutive models of RC materials, the dynamic increase factor (DIF) model for concrete and reinforced steel and proposed modified models of dynamic behavior parameters at the structural member level were summarized. Finally, the available modeling approach and method for incorporating dynamic effects in numerical simulations of RC structures were reviewed. Moreover, the work involved a brief introduction to a dynamic hysteretic model established using experimental data, which was designed to provide an alternative approach to the commonly-used DIF method for considering these dynamic effects. This paper, therefore, aimed to provide a valuable reference for experimental studies and numerical simulations on the dynamic behaviors of RC structures—while also putting forward issues that need to be addressed by future work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seismic Risk Analysis and Management of Structure Systems)
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13 pages, 2426 KiB  
Article
Experiment on the Performance of Recycled Powder of Construction Waste on Adobe Materials
by Mei Zeng, Huanan Huang and Xianggang Zhang
Buildings 2023, 13(5), 1358; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13051358 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1250
Abstract
With the widespread use of adobe materials in buildings, their durability can deteriorate under harsh weather conditions such as long-term low temperatures and rainfall, which can easily lead to safety accidents. This article takes adobe material mixed with construction waste recycled powder as [...] Read more.
With the widespread use of adobe materials in buildings, their durability can deteriorate under harsh weather conditions such as long-term low temperatures and rainfall, which can easily lead to safety accidents. This article takes adobe material mixed with construction waste recycled powder as the research object and adds the prepared construction waste recycled concrete powder and recycled brick powder to the adobe material in different proportions to study the mechanical and durability properties of the adobe material. The results indicate that under normal temperature curing conditions, the compressive strength of the adobe sample significantly increases with the increase in the recycled powder content, and then decreases. Under high-temperature conditions, with the increase in the recycled powder content, the compressive strength of the adobe sample first significantly increases and then decreases. When the powder content is within the range of 6% to 10%, good moisture absorption and desorption performance can be achieved. When the content of recycled powder is between 2% and 10%, the effect on the dry–wet cycling performance of the adobe is weakest. When the content of grade I/II recycled brick powder is between 2% and 6%, and the content of grade I recycled concrete powder is between 2% and 6%, the negative impact on the freeze–thaw cycle performance is relatively weak. The research results provide theoretical data support for the mixed-use of recycled powder and adobe materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Innovation of Materials and Technologies in Civil Construction)
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31 pages, 13730 KiB  
Article
The Necessity for Multi-Spectral Simulations of the Indoor Non-Visual Luminous Environment: A Simplified Annual Approach
by Jaka Potočnik and Mitja Košir
Buildings 2023, 13(5), 1357; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13051357 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1043
Abstract
The difference between the functioning of the human non-visual and photopic systems has elicited the need for complex in situ measurements or time-consuming multi-spectral simulations to accurately predict the non-visual luminous content of the indoor environment. As such methodologies are time-consuming, the aim [...] Read more.
The difference between the functioning of the human non-visual and photopic systems has elicited the need for complex in situ measurements or time-consuming multi-spectral simulations to accurately predict the non-visual luminous content of the indoor environment. As such methodologies are time-consuming, the aim of the present study was to determine whether such complex methodologies are needed. The issue was studied through simulations of four cardinally oriented identical offices located in Ljubljana, Slovenia. Each was studied using orange, grey and blue walls. Diurnal luminous conditions were studied under clear, hazy and overcast skies on December, March and June 21st. The non-visual content was evaluated using novel metrics, the Autonomy of Circadian Potential and Circadian Autonomy, which assess temporal circadian luminous content. Diurnal results were used to construct climate-based spectral months to evaluate the monthly non-visual potential of the studied offices. Furthermore, simulations addressed the question of whether the requirements of the non-visual system might contradict the visual comfort of indoor environments. The results show that compliance with non-visual requirements for indoor spaces with spectrally neutral surfaces or those in shades of blue could be assessed using photopic methodologies. However, this is not true for spaces characterised by orange and red materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Energy, Physics, Environment, and Systems)
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21 pages, 2083 KiB  
Article
The Role of Renewable Energy as a ‘Green Growth’ Strategy for the Built Environment
by Ali A. Gorji and Igor Martek
Buildings 2023, 13(5), 1356; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13051356 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2155
Abstract
Green growth has emerged as a strategy for addressing environmental concerns while also promoting economic development. This study assesses the impact of renewable energy technologies and policies on green growth in the built environment. It investigates 20 developed and 20 developing countries from [...] Read more.
Green growth has emerged as a strategy for addressing environmental concerns while also promoting economic development. This study assesses the impact of renewable energy technologies and policies on green growth in the built environment. It investigates 20 developed and 20 developing countries from 2010 to 2021. Panel data estimators such as generalized least squares and generalized method of moments are employed. The results reveal that the contribution of renewable energy sectors to green growth varies between developed and developing countries. In developed countries, solar, wind, and biomass capacities have facilitated green growth, while hydroelectric capacities have not. By contrast, in developing countries, wind capacity has not been effective, while other sectors show a positive contribution. The study also confirms the criticality of judicious renewable energy policies in stimulating investment and technological innovation required for a sustainable built environment. Full article
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23 pages, 5832 KiB  
Review
Sustainability and Digital Transformation within the Project Management Area: A Science Mapping Approach
by Lihong Zhang, Saeed Reza Mohandes, Yizhuo Tong, Clara Cheung, Saeed Banihashemi and Miyuan Shan
Buildings 2023, 13(5), 1355; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13051355 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2278
Abstract
Although many studies have focused on digital transformation and sustainability within the realm of project management, there has been a lack of research that comprehensively reviews the current state of the art of the aforementioned subject using a holistic approach. This oversight hampers [...] Read more.
Although many studies have focused on digital transformation and sustainability within the realm of project management, there has been a lack of research that comprehensively reviews the current state of the art of the aforementioned subject using a holistic approach. This oversight hampers the amalgamation of DT and sustainability in project management, waning the steps to be taken for the realisation of a smart and sustainable built environment. To fill the identified knowledge gap, this study presents a science mapping approach to meticulously examine the literature published on DT and sustainability within the realm of project management. In doing so, a bibliometric review together with a comprehensive Scientometric mapping analysis was carried out on the literature published from 2011 to 2022. The findings obtained in this study provide insightful accounts for both project managers and academics. Project managers are not only enlightened on revamping their business models but are also given insights into utilising digital strategies for bringing the maximum level of sustainability into their projects. Meanwhile, researchers are given insight into the emerging trends, timelines, and emerging streams that will be explored in future endeavours. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Project Management in Construction)
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15 pages, 1684 KiB  
Review
The Effects of Nano-Based Bio-Carbonates in Superhydrophobic Concrete—A Review
by Lavanya Muthugoundenpalayam Rajendran, Johnpaul Vincent, Balasundaram Natarajan and Venkatesan Govindan
Buildings 2023, 13(5), 1354; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13051354 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1407
Abstract
Concrete must be a hydrophilic compound that is easily fabricated by nature. At the nanoscale, mechanical and chemical reactions alter the quality of cement-based substances. Continuous sprinkling of nano-silica solution synthesised with minimal surface solvents has been used to create a superhydrophobic (SH) [...] Read more.
Concrete must be a hydrophilic compound that is easily fabricated by nature. At the nanoscale, mechanical and chemical reactions alter the quality of cement-based substances. Continuous sprinkling of nano-silica solution synthesised with minimal surface solvents has been used to create a superhydrophobic (SH) concrete surface while similarly modifying the surface’s chemical composition and dynamical intrinsic structure. In this study, we examine the impacts of admixtures in SH concrete including nano-based bio-carbonate. The fundamental characteristics and dispersal techniques of nanoparticles often employed in cement-based compounds are reviewed initially in this paper. Investigations of the large contact angle, small slide angle, and carbonated thickness have been employed to analyze the impacts of admixtures. Additionally, the industry and uses of nanoparticles for concrete substances are addressed, and the expense is inventively represented by a survey questionnaire. Finally, this article identifies the obstacles that now occur in the field of research and offers appropriate future viewpoints. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Cement-Based Materials)
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15 pages, 4653 KiB  
Article
Experimental Research on the Creep Behavior of the Interface of Compacted Loess and High-Density Polyethylene Geogrid
by Yi-Li Yuan, Chang-Ming Hu, Jian Xu, Yuan Mei, Fang-Fang Wang and Ge Wang
Buildings 2023, 13(5), 1353; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13051353 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 792
Abstract
The stability of geogrid-reinforced soil structure is closely related to the interface characteristics between geogrid and soil. However, the creep behavior of the soil–geogrid interface is still unrevealed. In this study, using a modified stress-controlled pullout device, influence of the normal pressure, dry [...] Read more.
The stability of geogrid-reinforced soil structure is closely related to the interface characteristics between geogrid and soil. However, the creep behavior of the soil–geogrid interface is still unrevealed. In this study, using a modified stress-controlled pullout device, influence of the normal pressure, dry density, and water content on creep behavior of interface of compacted loess and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geogrid is investigated. A three-parameter empirical model and a Merchant element model were established through fitting analysis. Analysis results show that the normal pressure, dry density, and water content have significant effects on the creep shear displacement of the reinforced soil interface. Under the same pullout level, creep displacement of the interface increases with the increase of water content and decreases with the increase of dry density and normal pressure. Both the three-parameter empirical model and Merchant element model can describe the creep characteristics of the reinforced soil interface. The Merchant model is more accurate in the early stage, while the three-parameter empirical model is more suitable for predicting the long-term creep deformation of the interface of compacted loess and geogrid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Innovation of Materials and Technologies in Civil Construction)
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21 pages, 11984 KiB  
Article
A Knowledge Graph-Based Approach to Recommending Low-Carbon Construction Schemes of Bridges
by Zhonggang Ma, Siteng Zhang, He Jia, Kuan Liu, Xiaofei Xie and Yuanchuang Qu
Buildings 2023, 13(5), 1352; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13051352 - 22 May 2023
Viewed by 1550
Abstract
With the development of the engineering construction industry, knowledge became an important strategic resource for construction enterprises, and knowledge graphs are an effective method for knowledge management. In the context of peak carbon dioxide emissions and carbon neutrality, low carbon emission became one [...] Read more.
With the development of the engineering construction industry, knowledge became an important strategic resource for construction enterprises, and knowledge graphs are an effective method for knowledge management. In the context of peak carbon dioxide emissions and carbon neutrality, low carbon emission became one of the important indicators for the selection of construction schemes, and knowledge management research related to low carbon construction must be performed. This study investigated a method of incorporating low-carbon construction knowledge into the bridge construction scheme knowledge graph construction process and proposed a bridge construction scheme recommendation method that considers carbon emission constraints based on the knowledge graph and similarity calculation. First, to solve the problem of the poor fitting effect of model parameters caused by less annotation of the corpus in the bridge construction field, an improved entity recognition model was proposed for low-resource conditions with limited data. A knowledge graph of low carbon construction schemes for bridges was constructed using a small sample dataset. Then, based on the construction of this knowledge graph, the entities and relationships related to construction schemes were obtained, and the comprehensive similarity of bridge construction schemes was calculated by combining the similarity calculation principle to realize the recommendation of bridge construction schemes under different constraints. Experiments on the constructed bridge low carbon construction scheme dataset showed that the proposed model achieved good accuracy with named entity recognition tasks. The comparative analysis with the construction scheme of the project verified the validity of the proposed construction scheme considering carbon emission constraints, which can provide support for the decision of the low-carbon construction scheme of bridges. Full article
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27 pages, 2189 KiB  
Article
Pythagorean Fuzzy AHP Based Dynamic Subcontractor Management Framework
by Yunus Başaran, Hande Aladağ and Zeynep Işık
Buildings 2023, 13(5), 1351; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13051351 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1357
Abstract
In construction projects, a significant part of construction work is done by subcontractors (SCs). Therefore, their management by main contractors (MCs) becomes an important issue as the density of SCs is created at the construction sites. In recent years, more focus on SC [...] Read more.
In construction projects, a significant part of construction work is done by subcontractors (SCs). Therefore, their management by main contractors (MCs) becomes an important issue as the density of SCs is created at the construction sites. In recent years, more focus on SC evaluation and selection in bidding process has been on the agenda whereas the subject of SC performance appraisal on-site during the project execution phase has been untended in the literature. Thus, this study aims to focus on the measurement and evaluation of the performance of SCs in the project execution phase, and to provide a tentative performance-based dynamic management framework that MCs will use in the management of SCs in order to take proactive measures. In line with the aim, a total number of 23 performance measurement criteria (PMC) under 7 main groups were determined as a result of a comprehensive literature review and expert evaluations. Knowing that not every criterion will have the same effect in performance measurement, pairwise comparisons of the criteria were made using the Pythagorean Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (PFAHP) method and their importance weights were determined. The PFAHP method was obtained by integrating the Pythagorean fuzzy set into the AHP method and chosen with the aim of improving the fuzzy AHP method and obtaining more consistent results by eliminating the uncertainty since Pythagorean fuzzy sets is more capable than fuzzy sets at expressing and handling uncertainty in uncertain environments. Lastly, a framework for SC performance measurement and evaluation on project execution phase is presented. It is believed that the presented framework will allow for a proactive management style that will enable effective decisions to be made while the project is ongoing, and a dynamic way of working instead of static and conventional work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction Management, and Computers & Digitization)
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17 pages, 4735 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Viability of Recycling Rice Husk Ash and Plastic Bag Waste to Enhance Durability of Lightweight Concrete
by Mohamed M. El-Attar, Hatem H. A. Ibrahim and Shereen F. A. Darwish
Buildings 2023, 13(5), 1350; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13051350 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1975
Abstract
The disposal of waste plastic bags (WPB) represents an environmental challenge. Recycling (WPB) in the concrete industry would represent a huge environmental advantage if proven effective and economic. This study aims to investigate the viability of recycling rice husk ash and plastic bag [...] Read more.
The disposal of waste plastic bags (WPB) represents an environmental challenge. Recycling (WPB) in the concrete industry would represent a huge environmental advantage if proven effective and economic. This study aims to investigate the viability of recycling rice husk ash and plastic bag waste to enhance the durability of lightweight concrete (LWC). Rice husk ash (RHA) is used as a cement replacement to reduce the health and environmental hazards originating from the cement industry. The mutual influence of using WPB and RHA on the mechanical properties and durability of LWC is investigated in this study. The effect of various WPB contents (10, 20 and 30%) as natural sand substitution with RHA of (5, 10 and 15%) as partial cement replacement on the flow-ability, self- weight, compressive and tensile strengths, water permeability, chloride resistance, and fire resistance was examined and reported. The results of this study consolidated the idea of recycling WPB in the construction field. In summary, the optimal content of WPB is 10% by volume of fine aggregate and 10% of RHA by weight of cement. Full article
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19 pages, 5958 KiB  
Article
Full-Scale Experimental Study on Flexural Performance of the New Precast UHPC Diaphragm Slab in Utility Tunnels
by Quan Cheng, Zhengwei Li, Shaowei Deng, Haibo Jiang, Yueqiang Tian and Jiayue Geng
Buildings 2023, 13(5), 1349; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13051349 - 22 May 2023
Viewed by 1119
Abstract
In this paper, a bending test of a precast ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC) diaphragm slab was carried out. The test revealed that the flexural failure process of specimens under the action of a positive bending moment can be divided into three stages: the elastic, [...] Read more.
In this paper, a bending test of a precast ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC) diaphragm slab was carried out. The test revealed that the flexural failure process of specimens under the action of a positive bending moment can be divided into three stages: the elastic, crack-propagation, and yield stages. The first stiffness reduction of the structure was caused by cracks at the bottom of the diaphragm slab, while the second stiffness drop resulted from the yielding of the bottom longitudinal rebars. During the loading process, the ultimate bearing capacity was 3.75 times higher than the design load value (150 kN vs. 40 kN). Additionally, a nonlinear finite element model was established using Abaqus software validated by the test and exploiting parameter analysis. Based on this model, the initial crack stress of the actual slab was determined to be 5.12 MPa. Parameter analysis indicated that the shear strength of the diaphragm slab was stronger than the flexural strength, and the diaphragm slab’s bearing capacity could be improved by increasing the ratio of bottom longitudinal reinforcement. This research confirmed that the new UHPC diaphragm slab used in Guangzhou Smart City is safe, and it also helped the design of similar UHPC slabs for utility tunnels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low Carbon and Green Materials in Construction)
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24 pages, 4453 KiB  
Article
Research on Carbon Emission of Prefabricated Structure in China
by Yuan Huang and Anqi Wang
Buildings 2023, 13(5), 1348; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13051348 - 21 May 2023
Viewed by 1244
Abstract
The comparison of carbon emissions between prefabricated and traditional cast-in-place construction methods in actual example buildings has yielded inconsistent results due to the difficulty in accounting for design parameter uncertainty. Additionally, the carbon-reduction capacity of prefabricated structures remains a topic of debate. This [...] Read more.
The comparison of carbon emissions between prefabricated and traditional cast-in-place construction methods in actual example buildings has yielded inconsistent results due to the difficulty in accounting for design parameter uncertainty. Additionally, the carbon-reduction capacity of prefabricated structures remains a topic of debate. This paper investigates the carbon emission reduction capacity of prefabricated concrete frame structures compared to traditional cast-in-place structures, with a focus on addressing design parameter uncertainty. A quantitative model of carbon emissions is established using the subproject quota method and PKPM-PC software. The study evaluates the impact of design parameters, such as slab span and seismic requirements, and calculation parameters, such as carbon emission factor and transport distance, on carbon emissions. The results indicate that prefabricated structures with a higher assembly rate exhibit a stronger emission reduction capacity, mainly due to lower demands for labor and mechanical energy consumption. The study also highlights that prefabricated structures with smaller slab spans and higher seismic requirements have lower carbon emission reduction capacities and can produce greater carbon emissions than cast-in-place structures. Furthermore, the appropriate carbon emission factor for the material used in prefabricated structures is crucial for achieving reliable carbon reduction rates. Finally, the study emphasizes the importance of considering transport as a small but significant factor in structural comparison, as changes in transport distance can significantly impact results. Full article
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17 pages, 6152 KiB  
Article
Experimental Investigation of Compound Effect of Flexural and Torsion on Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Beams
by Nabeel H. Al-Salim, Muna H. Jaber, Rafea F. Hassan, Nisreen S. Mohammed and Husam H. Hussein
Buildings 2023, 13(5), 1347; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13051347 - 21 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1440
Abstract
Fiber-reinforced concrete is widely acknowledged for its ability to resist cracking effectively and limit its propagation. By preventing cracks from spreading, the addition of fiber composites to concrete can enhance its extensibility and tensile strength, not only at the initial point of cracking [...] Read more.
Fiber-reinforced concrete is widely acknowledged for its ability to resist cracking effectively and limit its propagation. By preventing cracks from spreading, the addition of fiber composites to concrete can enhance its extensibility and tensile strength, not only at the initial point of cracking but also at its maximum capacity. Additionally, the fibers in fiber-reinforced concrete are capable of binding the matrix, even when exposed to significant cracking. However, there is limited information available about the behavior of fiber-reinforced concrete under a bending moment combined with torsion. This study aims to investigate the structural behavior of fiber-reinforced concrete members subjected to a bending moment with a torsion to moment ratio equal to 1. Synthetic and steel fibers of 1.0% content with different lengths (19, 35, and 55 mm for synthetic fiber and 13 mm for straight and hook steel fibers) were mixed with concrete mixtures to examine the effects of fiber lengths and types on the concrete beam performance. Test results indicated that the fiber-reinforced concrete beams showed higher cracking moments than the normal-strength concrete beam. The steel fiber with a hooked configuration reinforced beam showed increased moment capacity and total torsional toughness higher than that of the straight steel fiber-reinforced beam. The synthetic fiber of a 55 mm length reinforced beam exhibited the highest first-crack and ultimate moment values among other tested beams. The test results were compared with past research models for the moment capacity of beams under the compound effect of bending and torsion and we modified these values with another factor that represented the fiber length influence on beam capacity, as suggested in past research. The comparison between the ultimate moment of the test results and the moment predicted from the modified past research model presented a good correlation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Health Monitoring of Buildings, Bridges and Dams)
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26 pages, 8006 KiB  
Article
Research on Formulating Energy Benchmarks for Various Types of Existing Residential Buildings from the Perspective of Typology: A Case Study of Chongqing, China
by Haijing Huang, Kedi Zhu and Xi Lin
Buildings 2023, 13(5), 1346; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13051346 - 21 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1485
Abstract
The full exploration of the energy-saving potential during the operation of buildings is an essential aspect of energy-efficiency retrofitting for existing residential buildings. Setting reasonable energy consumption quotas can promote the improvement of energy efficiency. The energy benchmark is one of the energy [...] Read more.
The full exploration of the energy-saving potential during the operation of buildings is an essential aspect of energy-efficiency retrofitting for existing residential buildings. Setting reasonable energy consumption quotas can promote the improvement of energy efficiency. The energy benchmark is one of the energy consumption quotas, which represents the general energy consumption level of similar buildings and serves as the energy-saving goal for high-energy-consuming buildings. This study aims to classify existing residential buildings based on their forms and actual energy consumption data and to set energy benchmarks for each building type. Taking typical existing residential buildings built before 2000 in Chongqing, a city in southwestern China, as an example, from the perspective of building typology, the study classified residential buildings into four types and determined the energy benchmarks. Then, energy-efficiency retrofitting measure evaluation and potential analysis were carried out for each type. The study shows that energy for cooling and heating accounts for a high proportion of energy use in existing residential buildings. The energy consumption of residential buildings is greatly affected by orientation and floor area. Point-like buildings with smaller areas facing west have higher energy benchmarks, while slab-like buildings with larger south-facing areas have lower energy benchmarks. The results and methods of the study can provide a basis for the formulation of energy benchmarks for residential buildings, as well as regional energy analysis, energy-saving potential prediction, and energy-saving measure evaluation. Full article
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15 pages, 4914 KiB  
Article
Quantitative Estimation of the Internal Spatio–Temporal Characteristics of Ancient Temple Heritage Space with Space Syntax Models: A Case Study of Daming Temple
by Kai Zhou, Wenting Wu, Xiaoling Dai and Tianjie Li
Buildings 2023, 13(5), 1345; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13051345 - 21 May 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1415
Abstract
Ancient temple heritage space is a subcategory of integrated spaces with profound religious architecture, culture, and landscape. The temporal and spatial characteristics, spatial layouts, and functionalities of ancient temples are gradually transformed during different periods in their development. However, quantitative topological estimation tools, [...] Read more.
Ancient temple heritage space is a subcategory of integrated spaces with profound religious architecture, culture, and landscape. The temporal and spatial characteristics, spatial layouts, and functionalities of ancient temples are gradually transformed during different periods in their development. However, quantitative topological estimation tools, e.g., space syntax and detailed digital spatial models, have seldom been adopted in related studies on ancient temples. Daming Temple is a typical representative of the revitalization of Buddhism monastic building heritage in China. This research studies the spaces of Daming Temple, Yangzhou City, in three different periods and explores its spatio–temporal characteristics based on two space syntax models, i.e., the angle segment analysis (ASA) model and the visibility map analysis (VGA) model. By multi-step quantitative estimation, changes in the mean depth (MD), mean connectivity, and intelligibility of the temple have been observed. The global spatial structure is thoroughly revealed, which indicates the changes in the ‘temple-residence-garden’ inter-relationship. It is indicated that dynamic spatio–temporal characteristics of the temple have been undergoing changes chronically. Some phenomena are found to be effective in offering reasonable explanations for these changes, i.e., the changes in relationships among spaces, visitors’ pathfinding difficulties, and spatial design techniques. It also found that there are certain correlations between temporal–spatial changes and spatial conservation strategies for building heritages. The case study can provide some valuable references for the conservation, reactivation, and redesign of related historical and cultural building heritage in East Asia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainability in Heritage and Urban Planning)
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19 pages, 6864 KiB  
Article
A 3D Spatial Diagnostic Framework of Sustainable Historic and Cultural District Preservation: A Case Study in Henan, China
by Man Zhang, Yaoxin Zhang, Xue Fang and Xiaoqi Wang
Buildings 2023, 13(5), 1344; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13051344 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1326
Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) information technology has become an important technical support in digital heritage preservation practice. However, due to the lack of systematic quantitative research, it is difficult to form a comprehensive understanding of the historic and cultural districts, from macro to micro. Our [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional (3D) information technology has become an important technical support in digital heritage preservation practice. However, due to the lack of systematic quantitative research, it is difficult to form a comprehensive understanding of the historic and cultural districts, from macro to micro. Our study aimed to establish a systematic 3D spatial diagnostic framework combining 3D scanning and SPSS data descriptive analysis and regression analysis for historic and cultural districts to promote sustainable historic and cultural area preservation. Taking Zhongshan Street in Qi County as an example, data statistical analysis was carried out on morphological feature data from the macro level of the district, the meso level of architecture, and the micro level of elements. The research conclusion shows that at the macro level the street form continues the main features of a traditional alley spatial skyline, height–width ratio, and sectional symbol language. At the meso level, the architecture reveals various periods of style in terms of the facade width and mathematical relationship between traditional architectural facades. At the micro level, architectural detailing explains the main reasons for the recent new construction being inconsistent with the historic and cultural district appearance. This quantitative diagnostic method can accurately analyze the current characteristics of historic and cultural districts and easily provide effective suggestions for follow-up preservation methods. Full article
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23 pages, 19838 KiB  
Article
A Finite Element Method Integrated with Terzaghi’s Principle to Estimate Settlement of a Building Due to Tunnel Construction
by César A. Rodríguez, Ángel M. Rodríguez-Pérez, Raúl López, José Antonio Hernández-Torres and Julio J. Caparrós-Mancera
Buildings 2023, 13(5), 1343; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13051343 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1485
Abstract
This study presents the application of the finite element method integrated with Terzaghi’s principle. The definition of a model in oedometric or confinement conditions for settlement estimation of a building after the construction of a tunnel, including the effect of Terzaghi’s principle, is [...] Read more.
This study presents the application of the finite element method integrated with Terzaghi’s principle. The definition of a model in oedometric or confinement conditions for settlement estimation of a building after the construction of a tunnel, including the effect of Terzaghi’s principle, is an unresolved problem. The objectives of this work include the demonstration of the need for a minimum of three methodological states to estimate said settlement. For this, a specific methodology is applied to a case study, with eight load steps and four types of coarse-grained soils. In the studied case, two layers of 50 m and 5 m with different degrees of saturation are overlaying an assumed impermeable rock layer. The excavation of a tunnel of 15 m in diameter at a depth of 30 m with drainage lining inside the tunnel is assumed. The minimum distance from the tunnel’s outline to the mat foundation is 15.8 m. It is determined that the settlement, according to Terzaghi’s principle, is around 11% of the total settlement for the most compacted soil types, reaching 35% for the loose soil type, from the tunnel’s outline. In the mat foundation, it implies an increase in the differential settlement of up to 12%. It shows a nonlinear relationship between some of the variables in the analysis. To detect the collapse due to uplifting the tunnel invert, it was determined that it was not appropriate to model in oedometric conditions. The novelty of the investigation relies on identifying and determining the need for a minimum of three states for methodological purposes for a proper quantification of the total settlement: (i) before the construction of the tunnel, (ii) immediately after the excavation of the tunnel, but without groundwater inflow into the tunnel, and (iii) after the tunnelling, with stabilised groundwater inflow into the tunnel. Full article
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19 pages, 1651 KiB  
Article
Application and Analysis of a Heat Pump System for Building Heating and Cooling Using Extracting Heat Energy from Untreated Sewage
by Zhaoyi Zhuang, Jin Zhao, Fengfeng Mi, Teng Zhang, Yuguo Hao and Shangyue Li
Buildings 2023, 13(5), 1342; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13051342 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1252
Abstract
Heat pump technology can extract low-level heat energy from urban sewage to heat or cool buildings, which can alleviate the two major problems of energy shortage and environmental pollution to a certain extent. This paper introduces the principle of wastewater source heat pump [...] Read more.
Heat pump technology can extract low-level heat energy from urban sewage to heat or cool buildings, which can alleviate the two major problems of energy shortage and environmental pollution to a certain extent. This paper introduces the principle of wastewater source heat pump technology and summarizes the current common system forms and their key core technologies. The proposed special heat transfer technology for sewage can effectively solve the problem of blockage and corrosion in the process of sewage heat transfer. Taking the system of an office building in Qingdao as an example, the system design parameter is introduced in detail. The operation monitoring of the heating and air conditioning seasons of this project was completed through a data collection system, and various performance parameters of the system were studied and analyzed. The data was obtained using measured data from one year of system operation. The testing results show that the sewage temperature of the heat pump system in winter is approx. 13.5 °C, the hot water supply temperature is approx. 50 °C, the average COP of the unit is 3.95, and the average COP of the system is 2.96. The calculation results show that the heating energy consumption of the heat pump unit is only 50.81% of that of a traditional heating mode coal-fired boiler and 57.57% of that of an air source heat pump system. In summer, the sewage temperature is approx. 22 °C, the cold-water supply temperature is approx. 5.5 °C, the average COP of the unit is 4.45, and the average COP of the system is 3.25. The cooling energy consumption of the heat pump system is 79.39% of the energy consumption of the traditional chiller and 61.56% of the cooling energy consumption of the air source heat pump system. This shows that the sewage source heat pump system has a remarkable energy-saving effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heat Recovery for Residential Buildings)
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17 pages, 24303 KiB  
Article
Development of Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECCs) Incorporating Iron Ore Tailings as Eco-Friendly Aggregates
by Kangning Liu, Sheliang Wang, Xiaoyi Quan, Jing Wu, Jin Xu, Nan Zhao and Bo Liu
Buildings 2023, 13(5), 1341; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13051341 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 829
Abstract
In this study, iron ore tailings (IOTs) are used as aggregates to prepare iron-ore-tailing-engineered cementitious composites (IOT-ECCs) to achieve clean production. Some mechanical indexes, such as compressive strength (fcu), four-point flexural strength (ff), axial compressive strength ( [...] Read more.
In this study, iron ore tailings (IOTs) are used as aggregates to prepare iron-ore-tailing-engineered cementitious composites (IOT-ECCs) to achieve clean production. Some mechanical indexes, such as compressive strength (fcu), four-point flexural strength (ff), axial compressive strength (fc), deformation properties, flexural toughness, and stress–strain behavior, are studied. The mass loss, fcu loss, relative dynamic modulus elasticity (RDEM), and deterioration mechanism after the sulfate freeze–thaw (F-T) cycle are discussed in detail. In addition, pore structure analysis is performed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), while a scanning electron microscope (SEM) is utilized to study the micro-morphology. The results showed that under the 20–80% IOT replacement ratio, IOT-ECCs exhibited improvements in their mechanical properties, pore structure, and resistance to sulfate freeze–thaw (F-T). The most notable mechanical properties and sulfate F-T resistance were demonstrated by the IOT-ECC with 40% IOTs (namely, IOT40-P2.0). Meanwhile, IOT40-P2.0 exhibited good pore structure as well as the bonding interface of the PF and the matrix. The pore structure and compactness of the matrix of IOT-ECCs gradually deteriorated as the F-T cycle increased. The research results will promote the application of IOTs in ECCs. Full article
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21 pages, 3639 KiB  
Article
New Approach to Design and Assess Metaverse Environments for Improving Learning Processes in Higher Education: The Case of Architectural Construction and Rehabilitation
by Belén Onecha, Còssima Cornadó, Jordi Morros and Oriol Pons
Buildings 2023, 13(5), 1340; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13051340 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1833
Abstract
This research paper has defined and applied a new approach to develop and optimize augmented reality-based metaverse environments for learning construction and rehabilitation in architectural studies. This research paper is part of a broader project that aims to improve the learning process of [...] Read more.
This research paper has defined and applied a new approach to develop and optimize augmented reality-based metaverse environments for learning construction and rehabilitation in architectural studies. This research paper is part of a broader project that aims to improve the learning process of architectural students by approaching construction and rehabilitation realities to the classroom in a feasible and pedagogical way. The approach has been applied successfully to develop a new environment with augmented reality that allows teachers to carry out activities using computers, tablets, cellphones and smartphone headsets in classrooms. Students’ satisfaction regarding the new environment is high, though there is room for improvement. The assessment of this new environment has involved both questionnaires and a multicriteria decision-making method which have holistically evaluated the new proposal by achieving complementary results. The main advantages of this new environment are in terms of application and inclusion, while its weaknesses will be solved in future steps that will introduce both mixed reality, to enlarge students’ perception and comprehension, as well as neuroeducation, to diminish students’ potential annoyances and dissatisfaction. Full article
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15 pages, 985 KiB  
Review
Towards Digital Twin Maintenance Management of Health Facilities in Nigeria: The Need for Maintenance Documentation
by David Ojimaojo Ebiloma, Clinton Ohis Aigbavboa and Chimay Anumba
Buildings 2023, 13(5), 1339; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13051339 - 20 May 2023
Viewed by 1220
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic that recently broke forth revealed the waning state of a considerable number of healthcare facilities, especially in unindustrialized territories. This is of great concern, and it has become pertinent to identify determinants of efficient maintenance management in developing countries. There [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic that recently broke forth revealed the waning state of a considerable number of healthcare facilities, especially in unindustrialized territories. This is of great concern, and it has become pertinent to identify determinants of efficient maintenance management in developing countries. There is an inefficient maintenance management of hospital buildings due to a low level of maintenance documentation, which otherwise would have facilitated the adoption of digital twin (DT) technology. The existing maintenance management frameworks and models have not explored and evaluated maintenance documentation as an all-inclusive construct. Hence, this study was aimed at emphasizing the significance of maintenance documentation for its adoption as one of the main determinants of efficient maintenance management, with a view to attaining the DT maintenance management of hospital buildings in Nigeria. After a theoretical review on existing studies around documentation, the software documentation concept was used to conceptualise this observed gap in maintenance management models for public hospital buildings in developing countries. This critical review, which forms part of an ongoing study, asserts that maintenance documentation is a major construct for efficient maintenance management and a prerequisite for the adoption of DT in the management of healthcare constructed facilities in developing countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Building Asset Management Systems and Technologies)
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19 pages, 5168 KiB  
Article
Development of a Joint Penalty Signal for Building Energy Flexibility in Operation with Power Grids: Analysis and Case Study
by Tuğçin Kırant Mitić and Karsten Voss
Buildings 2023, 13(5), 1338; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13051338 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 919
Abstract
Electricity generation from renewable energy reduces greenhouse gas emissions and, in the long term, the cost of electricity in power grids. However, there is currently no strong positive correlation between greenhouse gas intensity and electricity spot prices in Germany, despite increasing renewable energy [...] Read more.
Electricity generation from renewable energy reduces greenhouse gas emissions and, in the long term, the cost of electricity in power grids. However, there is currently no strong positive correlation between greenhouse gas intensity and electricity spot prices in Germany, despite increasing renewable energy penetration. Therefore, energy flexibility programs that rely on demand response may not be fully effective in reducing carbon emissions unless the energy market aligns consistently with carbon emission factors. To address this issue, we propose a model for joint signals consisting of power grid climate gas intensity and price signals that can achieve both environmental and economic benefits for building energy flexibility applications. Next, to assess the maximum possible flexibility hours from the grid side, we explore penalty signal threshold limits with daily and biweekly aggregation. Using a case study, we analyze energy flexibility with joint signals to explore their effect on greenhouse gas emissions and building operation cost. Our results suggest that joint signals can be more effective than a single type of signal in promoting energy flexibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Energy, Physics, Environment, and Systems)
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33 pages, 7244 KiB  
Article
The Study of the Effects of Supplementary Cementitious Materials (SCMs) on Concrete Compressive Strength at High Temperatures Using Artificial Neural Network Model
by Sanaz Ramzi, Mohammad Javad Moradi and Hamzeh Hajiloo
Buildings 2023, 13(5), 1337; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13051337 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1174
Abstract
In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed to predict the compressive strength of concrete containing supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) at high temperatures. For this purpose, 500 experimental results were collected from the available literature. The effective parameters in the [...] Read more.
In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed to predict the compressive strength of concrete containing supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) at high temperatures. For this purpose, 500 experimental results were collected from the available literature. The effective parameters in the model are the volumes of coarse and fine aggregates, water, cement, coarse-aggregate type, percentage SCMs as the cement replacement, temperature levels, and test methods. The proposed ANN model was developed at a correlation coefficient of 0.966. A parametric study was conducted to evaluate the impact of the combined effects of input parameters (aggregate types and SCM content) on the relative compressive strength of concrete at high temperatures. It was shown that siliceous aggregate has a better performance by producing stronger bonds with cement paste than calcareous aggregates. The optimum SCM contents depend on the aggregate types. The optimum silica fume (SF) content for concrete with a water-to-binder ratio of 0.6 subjected to high temperatures is 8% and 3% for siliceous and calcareous concrete, respectively. The analysis of the ANN model has provided a conclusive understanding of the concrete behaviour at high temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Materials, and Repair & Renovation)
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19 pages, 3936 KiB  
Article
Factors and Areas of PgMO Supporting the Success of the Program Management in the Construction Sector
by Mateusz Trzeciak
Buildings 2023, 13(5), 1336; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13051336 - 20 May 2023
Viewed by 1162
Abstract
In recent years, the construction sector has been increasingly inclined toward using systematic program management approaches. Despite acknowledging the crucial impact of PgMO on program management success, the existing literature lacks sufficient research on the areas where this office can provide support for [...] Read more.
In recent years, the construction sector has been increasingly inclined toward using systematic program management approaches. Despite acknowledging the crucial impact of PgMO on program management success, the existing literature lacks sufficient research on the areas where this office can provide support for success in the construction sector. This article aims to identify the critical success factors and PgMO areas that contribute to program success in the construction sector. To address the research questions and goals, standardized interviews were conducted with 49 PgMO members from 14 organizations implementing construction programs. Based on the literature and statistical analysis, ten critical success factors (CSFs) for construction programs were identified. However, the significance of these CSFs may vary depending on the context of the construction sector. Furthermore, statistical analysis revealed five areas where PgMO can support program success: maintaining program governance, program initiation, program planning and budgeting, stakeholder and relationship management, and requirements and knowledge management resulting from program implementation. Managers are advised to take action in all the identified areas of PgMO to increase the likelihood of achieving program success. They should also pay attention to weaker areas and strengthen them as part of best practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction Management, and Computers & Digitization)
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24 pages, 5089 KiB  
Article
Construction Safety Risks of Metro Tunnels Constructed by the Mining Method in Wuhan City, China: A Structural Equation Model-Fuzzy Cognitive Map Hybrid Method
by Qiankun Wang, Zhihua Xiong, Ke Zhu and Peiwen Guo
Buildings 2023, 13(5), 1335; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13051335 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1253
Abstract
A hybrid method based on the structural equation model (SEM) and a fuzzy cognitive map (FCM) was developed to study the influences of the construction safety risks (CSR) of metro tunnels constructed by the mining method on the project risk (PR). An SEM [...] Read more.
A hybrid method based on the structural equation model (SEM) and a fuzzy cognitive map (FCM) was developed to study the influences of the construction safety risks (CSR) of metro tunnels constructed by the mining method on the project risk (PR). An SEM was used to identify and verify the correlations between the CSR and PR. An FCM was developed adopting the verified standardized causality and path coefficient in the SEM. On this basis, predictive reasoning and diagnostic reasoning were performed in the framework of an FCM to simulate the CSR and PR. The feasibility of the developed method was validated based on the construction project of a metro tunnel in Wuhan City, China. The results show that (1) the cause concept node C2 (tunnel excavation) shows the strongest positive correlation with the target concept node CT (PR). According to their risks, the construction stages are ranked in descending order as C2 (tunnel excavation), C1 (advanced support), C6 (auxiliary measures), C4 (structure waterproofing), C3 (primary support), and C5 (secondary lining). (2) The target concept node CT is most sensitive to changes in the cause concept nodes C2 and C1. (3) Close attention should be paid to key risks, such as X9 (over-excavation and under-excavation) and X8 (unreasonable determination of excavation footage and sequence) in stage C2. Originality and significance: (1) A hybrid method that can simulate the dynamic interaction between the CSR and PR is proposed. (2) A new perspective for the dynamic evaluation of a PR is provided. (3) The method can be used as a decision-making tool for controlling the PR. Full article
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23 pages, 14552 KiB  
Article
Satisfaction among the Elderly Living in the Ancient Town of Xiangxi
by Fupeng Zhang, Lei Shi, Simian Liu, Mengfei Cheng, Fanxuan Zeng and Jin Li
Buildings 2023, 13(5), 1334; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13051334 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1040
Abstract
This exploratory study combines the elderly-friendly post-use evaluation theory with the specific context of traditional residential buildings in typical Tujia ancient towns in the Western Hunan region, namely, Furong, Liexi, Xichehe, and Liye. A post-use low satisfaction evaluation model of traditional residential buildings [...] Read more.
This exploratory study combines the elderly-friendly post-use evaluation theory with the specific context of traditional residential buildings in typical Tujia ancient towns in the Western Hunan region, namely, Furong, Liexi, Xichehe, and Liye. A post-use low satisfaction evaluation model of traditional residential buildings in ancient towns was constructed, and the importance ranking of evaluation factors, along with the importance analysis of secondary indicators, was discussed using statistical methods. The subjective evaluations of elderly residents in different ancient towns toward the living environment and the importance ranking of factors for low satisfaction were examined. The findings of this study showed that we should focus on safety, convenience, health, privacy, belonging and cultural factors, and factors influencing sustainable livability for improving the quality of life of elderly residents in Tujia ancient towns in Western Hunan. Finally, the study proposes targeted improvement strategies to guide the construction of elderly-friendly environments in Tujia ancient towns and provide a reference for low satisfaction evaluations of ancient towns in similar economically underdeveloped areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Architectural Design, Urban Science, and Real Estate)
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18 pages, 7612 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Mould Risk in Low-Cost Residential Buildings in Urban Slum Districts of Surakarta City, Indonesia
by Solli Murtyas, Yuki Minami, Kusumaningdyah Nurul Handayani and Aya Hagishima
Buildings 2023, 13(5), 1333; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13051333 - 19 May 2023
Viewed by 1302
Abstract
Prolonged exposure to indoor dampness in dwellings triggers excessive mould, causing health problems for residents and damage to building structures. This study investigated dampness and mould growth in low-cost dwellings in the slum districts of Surakarta, Indonesia. A VTT mould growth model predicted [...] Read more.
Prolonged exposure to indoor dampness in dwellings triggers excessive mould, causing health problems for residents and damage to building structures. This study investigated dampness and mould growth in low-cost dwellings in the slum districts of Surakarta, Indonesia. A VTT mould growth model predicted mould risk in 17 dwellings by employing a set of time-series data of indoor air temperature and relative humidity (RH). Interviews were conducted with 11 houses to understand the residents’ perceptions and lifestyles related to mould risk. The daily average dampness (RH > 80%) ranged from 2.2 to 12.3 h. Low-cost dwellings with plywood board walls had a high risk of cumulative mould growth. Statistical correlation analysis revealed that volumetric heat capacity was significantly positively correlated with mould growth at higher percentiles (75th and 97.5th). Thus, dwellings with smaller volumes and plywood board walls were more susceptible to moulding. Moreover, the majority of the participants expressed dissatisfaction with indoor air quality owing to the presence of unpleasant odours from sewage and dampness, which coincided with their perception of inadequate air ventilation. This study provides a reference for developing standard guidelines for building and upgrading dwellings in Indonesia, focusing on assessing and mitigating mould risks and ensuring moisture safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Built Environment and Human Comfort)
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19 pages, 3515 KiB  
Article
Research on Campus Space Features and Visual Quality Based on Street View Images: A Case Study on the Chongshan Campus of Liaoning University
by Yumeng Meng, Qingyu Li, Xiang Ji, Yiqing Yu, Dong Yue, Mingqi Gan, Siyu Wang, Jianing Niu and Hiroatsu Fukuda
Buildings 2023, 13(5), 1332; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13051332 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1281
Abstract
As the university campus is a place for learning, conducting scientific research, and communication, campus street spatial quality has an impact on its users. Therefore, refinement evaluations of campus spatial quality are essential for constructing high-quality campuses. In this study, machine learning was [...] Read more.
As the university campus is a place for learning, conducting scientific research, and communication, campus street spatial quality has an impact on its users. Therefore, refinement evaluations of campus spatial quality are essential for constructing high-quality campuses. In this study, machine learning was used to conduct semantic segmentation and spatial perception prediction on street view images. The physical features and perception quality of the surrounding areas of the Chongshan campus of Liaoning University were obtained. The study found that the visual beautiful quality (VBQ) of the student living area was the highest, and the VBQ of the teacher living area was the lowest when compared to the research and study area, student living area, sports area, and surrounding area. Greenness and openness had positive influences on VBQ, while enclosure had a negative influence. This study analyzed the influence mechanism operating between spatial physical features and VBQ. The results provide theoretical and technical support for campus space spatial quality construction and improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Architectural Design, Urban Science, and Real Estate)
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34 pages, 6585 KiB  
Article
Durability Performance and Thermal Resistance of Structural Self-Compacting Concrete Improved with Waste Rubber and Silica Fume
by Robert Bušić, Ivana Miličević, Tihomir Dokšanović and Marin Grubišić
Buildings 2023, 13(5), 1331; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13051331 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1013
Abstract
Waste rubber takes many years to decompose, and thus the increasing number of tires in the world can be characterised as an important environmental issue, which generated the idea of implementing crumb rubber in structural self-compacting concrete (SCC). According to previous studies, up [...] Read more.
Waste rubber takes many years to decompose, and thus the increasing number of tires in the world can be characterised as an important environmental issue, which generated the idea of implementing crumb rubber in structural self-compacting concrete (SCC). According to previous studies, up to 15% recycled rubber and 5% silica fume can be used to achieve the required properties of SCC in reinforced structural members with congested reinforcement, both in the fresh and hardened state. Most studies have focused on investigating the mechanical properties of self-compacting rubberised concrete (SCRC), and only a small number of studies investigated the durability and thermal properties, with contradictory findings. This study aims to determine the influence of crumb rubber and silica fume on the durability and thermal properties of SCC, with an emphasis on the selection of environmental exposure classes, the safety of using such a material in reinforced concrete members, and additional serviceability and durability requirements. This was further advanced by investigating the micro-structure of hardened SCC with recycled rubber and silica fume using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Test results indicate that the combining effect of crumb rubber and silica fume has a positive impact on the thermal and durability properties of SCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cement and Concrete Research)
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15 pages, 2216 KiB  
Article
Simplified Estimation Method of Plastic Energy Dissipation for MDOF Systems Using Force Analogy Method
by Yingna Mu, Jiting Qu, Yu Shu and Yanbin Tan
Buildings 2023, 13(5), 1330; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13051330 - 19 May 2023
Viewed by 882
Abstract
Plastic energy dissipation is a key factor in the response of inelastic structures subjected to seismic input, and is often regarded as a primary source of structural damage due to the inelastic deformation of structural components. Accurately predicting a structure’s plastic energy dissipation [...] Read more.
Plastic energy dissipation is a key factor in the response of inelastic structures subjected to seismic input, and is often regarded as a primary source of structural damage due to the inelastic deformation of structural components. Accurately predicting a structure’s plastic energy dissipation is essential for efficient energy-based design and seismic assessment. While a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system provides a simple and effective method for estimating plastic energy dissipation, few studies have explored the use of nonlinear analysis methods or equivalent SDOF systems for this purpose. Based on the principle-of-force-analogy method, firstly, the formulas of plastic energy dissipation of a multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) system and its equivalent SDOF system were established. Secondly, two estimation methods of plastic energy dissipation of MDOF systems were proposed. Finally, numerical simulations were performed on several multi-story and high-rise structures with varying heights and spans to compare the plastic energy dissipation of MDOF systems and the equivalent SDOF systems of different modes. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed methods and formulas accurately estimate plastic energy dissipation in multi-story and high-rise structures, while also requiring fewer calculations and less storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Structures)
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